JOINTS OSTEOARTHRITIS RHEUMATOID (DEGENERATIVE ARTHRITIS (RA) ARTHRITIS)• A type of arthritis that • Rheumatoid Arthritis is caused by an autoimmune disease inflammation, breakdown that causes chronic and eventual loss of inflammation of the cartilage in the joints. joints.
LIGAMENTSo Attached bone to bone Knee Ankle Shoulder Elbow Thumb
types of ligament injury ACL injuries PCL injuriesLigamen t MCL injuries LCL injuries
CLASSIFICATION OF LIGAMENT INJURYGRADE I GRADE II GRADE IIIoSome pain oPain oExtremely painoMinimum loss of oModerate loss of oMajor loss of functionfunction functionoLittle or no swelling oSwelling oSevere instabilityoNo abnormal motion oModerate instability oSwellingwhen tested
CAUSES Repeated and heavy lifting Bending and twisting Repeated an action too often Working long have without break Using to much force Uncomfortable working position Pushing and pulling Adverse working condition/ environment
SIGNS & SYMPTOMS• Numbness or a burning sensation in the hand• Reduced grip strength in the hand.• Loss of muscle function or weakness.• Swelling or stiffness in the joints• Deformities.• Pain in wrists, forearms, elbows, neck or back followed by discomfort when making movements.• Reduced in the range of motion in the shoulder, neck or back• Experience extreme pain.
TREATMENTS• Increase flexible.• Exercise.• Avoid take excessive acid concentration.• Take calcium for bone density.• Modification of the work place.• Tools and equipment.
PREVENTION• Do strength-training and balance exercises at least 2-3 times per week to avoid sprains and strains.• Maintaining a healthy weight, wearing shoes that fit properly and avoiding exercise when tired or in pain.• Avoid overusing muscles to ward off muscle cramps and staying hydrated to prevent muscle cramps.• Avoid repetitive movements such as typing on a keyboard without a break to prevent tendinitis.
RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS (RA)• Rheumatoid Arthritis is an autoimmune disease that causes chronic inflammation of the joints.
RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS (RA) WHAT CAUSES OF RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS?• “Unknown”• The viruses, bacteria and fungi• Genetically inherited• Environmental factor (smoking tobacco)
WHAT ARE THE SYMTOMS OF RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS?- fatigue- loss of energy- lack of appetite- loss of weight- low grade fever- joint stiffness- muscle weak- anemia
WHAT ARE THE SIGNS OF RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS?• Edema• Swelling• Redness
HOW IS RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS TREATED?• Medications - fast-acting "first-line drugs" - slow-acting "second-line drugs"• Rest• Joint-strengthening exercises• Joint protection• Patient and family education• Reduce inflammation“There is no known cure for Rheumatoid Arthritis”
HOW TO PREVENT?• Not known the way to prevent, but………• Cigarette smoking is one environmental risk factor for RA that you can avoid.