Omega 3

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Omega 3

  1. 1. OMEGA 3 Fatty Acids Prepared by : Mohammed S. El-LuluMaster of Clinical Nutrition Palestine - Gaza
  2. 2. The differences between Omega 3, 6, 9 Main components Of Omega 3s Omega 3 Omega 6 Omega 9 Alpha-linolenic acid Linoleic acid (LA) Oleic acid (OA) (ALA) Eicosapentaenoic Gamma-linolenic acid acid (EPA) (GLA) Docosahexaenoic Dihomogamma-linolenic acid (DHA) acid (DLA) Arachidonic acid (AA)Miller L, (2009), Omega 3, 6, 9. www.mind1st.co.uk/omega-3-6-9.asp Access 15.5.2009 Chemical structures of Omega 3 fatty acids  Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)  Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)  Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) More Info. at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Omega-3_fatty_acid
  3. 3. Plant sources of ALA Sources g/100g Sources g/100g Nuts and Seeds Legumes Almonds 0.4 Beans, common (dry) 0.6 ‫ بذور الكتان‬Flaxseed 22.8 ‫الحمص‬Chickpeas (dry) 0.1 ‫جوز‬Hickory nuts (dried) 1.0 ‫اللوبيا‬Cowpeas (dry) 0.3 ‫ الفول السوداني‬Peanuts 0.003 ‫العدس‬Lentils (dry) 0.1 ‫جوز‬Walnuts, black 3.3 ‫البازالء‬Peas, (dry) 0.2 Walnuts, English 6.8 Soybeans (dry) 1.6 Vegetables Grains Beans, (cooked) 0.3 ‫الشعير‬Barley, bran 0.3 Broccoli (raw) 0.1 Corn, germ 0.3 ‫القرنبيط‬Cauliflower (raw) 0.1 Oats, germ 1.4 ‫اللفت‬Kale (raw) 0.2 Rice, bran 0.2 ‫الخس‬Lettuce 0.1 Wheat, bran 0.2 ‫الخردل‬Mustard 0.1 Wheat, germ 0.7 ‫الرجلة‬Purslane 0.4 Fruits Soybeans, green (raw) 3.2 Avocados, (raw) 0.1 Spinach (raw) 0.1 ‫ التوت‬Raspberries (raw) 0.1 Strawberries (raw) 0.1Kris-Etherton, P.M., et al. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in the food chain in the US .AJCN. 71: 179-188, 2000.DHA/EPA Omega-3 Institute, http://dhaomega3.org
  4. 4. Fish and Seafood Sources of DHA plus EPA Source (100 g portion) DHA + EPA (g) Fish ‫سمك الشبوط‬Carp, cooked, dry heat 0.451 Catfish, channel, farmed, cooked, dry heat 0.177 Cod, Atlantic , cooked, dry heat 0.158 ‫ثعبان البحر‬Eel, mixed species, cooked, dry heat 0.189 Flatfish (flounder and sole), cooked, dry heat 0.501 Halibut, cooked, dry heat 0.465 ‫البوري‬Mullet, striped, cooked, dry heat 0.328 Salmon, farmed, cooked, dry heat 2.147 Sardine, canned in oil, drained solids with bone 0.982 Shark, mixed species, raw 0.843 ‫ النهاش‬Snapper, mixed species, cooked, dry heat 0.321 ‫أبو سيف‬Swordfish, cooked, dry heat 0.819 ‫نوع من سمك السلمون‬Trout, mixed species, cooked, dry heat 0.936 Tuna, fresh, cooked, dry heat 0.328 Whiting, mixed species, cooked, dry heat 0.518 ‫القشريات‬Crustaceans ‫سلطعون‬Crab, cooked, moist heat 0.413 Shrimp, mixed species, cooked, moist heat 0.315 ‫جراد البحر‬Spiny lobster, mixed species, cooked 0.480 ‫الرخويات‬Mollusks ‫المحار‬Mussel, blue, cooked, moist heat 0.782 ‫األخطبوط‬Octopus, common, cooked, moist heat 0.314 ‫المحار‬Oyster, eastern, farmed, cooked, dry heat 0.440 Scallop, mixed species, cooked, breaded and fried 0.180Williams, C. M., and Burdge, G. Long-chain n-3 PUFA: plant v. marine sources.Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. 65:42-50, 2006.DHA/EPA Omega-3 Institute, http://dhaomega3.org
  5. 5. The differences between Plants and Seafood sources of Omega 3Omega-3 fatty acids are the least stable fats in ourdiet. Whole grains contain lots of vit-E to keep theomega 3 fresh and prevent them from turning rancid,but omega 3 fatty acids in fish are not protected byvit-E and therefore turn rancid much more quicklythan the omega 3 fatty acids in whole grains.Omega 3 found in fish oils are mostly long chainfatty acids. Omega 3 in plants, contain much shorterchains and are weaker than the omega 3 found infish. However, the shorter chain omega 3 (ALA),are converted to the long chain fatty acids in thehuman body. Long- chain fish omega 3 enter bloodand cells more rapidly and produce more rapideffects than short chainplant omega-3s.
  6. 6. The differences between Plants and Seafood sources of Omega 3 (Cont) The conversion of alpha-linolenic acid to EPA and DHA involves a series of chemical reactions. One of the first reactions in this series is catalyzed by the enzyme delta-6 desaturase. Further down the line is a reaction that is catalyzed by the enzyme delta-5 desaturase. To increase the activity of your desaturase enzymes, be sure that your diet includes a sufficient amount of vitamin B6, vitamin B3, vitamin C, magnesium and zinc.Simopoulos AP. Omega-3 fatty acids in wild plants, nuts and seeds. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition,2002, Vol 11, Suppl. 6, pp S163-S173.More Info. at: www.DrMirkin.com
  7. 7. Essential fatty acid metabolismdesaturation and elongation of w3Arternis P Simopoulos. Omega-3 fatty acids in health and disease and in growth anddevelopment American journal of clinical nutrition
  8. 8. How it Functions What are the functions of omega 3 fatty acids? Every cell in our body is surrounded by a cell membrane composed mainly of fatty acids. The cell membrane allows the proper amounts of necessary nutrients to enter the cell, and ensures that waste products are quickly removed from the cell.A- Promoting Healthy Cell MembranesTo perform these functions optimally, however,the cell membrane must maintain its integrity andfluidity. Cells without a healthy membrane losetheir ability to hold water and vital nutrients. Theyalso lose their ability to communicate with othercells. Researchers believe that loss of cell to cellcommunication is one of the physiological eventsthat leads to growth of cancerous tumors.(especially Breast cancer via severalmechanisms):
  9. 9. A- Promoting Healthy Cell Membranes (cont.)1- inhibiting a pro-inflammatory enzyme called cyclooxygenase 2 (COX 2), which promotes breast cancer.2- activating a type of receptor in cell membranes called peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-ã, which can shut down proliferative activity.3- increasing the expression of BRCA1 and BRCA2, tumor suppressor genes that, when functioning normally, help repair damage to DNA, thus helping to prevent cancer development. Bernard-Gallon DJ, Vissac-Sabatier C, Antoine-Vincent D et al. Differential effects of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids on BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene expression in breast cell lines. Br J Nutr 2002 Apr;87(4):281-9 2002. Source: International Journal of Cancer More Info. at: http://www.whfoods.com/genpage.php?tname=nutrient&dbid=84
  10. 10. B- Prostaglandin Production Omega 3 fats play an important role in the production of powerful hormone- like substances called prostaglandins. Prostaglandins help regulate many important physiological functions including blood pressure, blood clotting, nerve transmission, the inflammatory and allergic responses, the functions of the kidneys and gastrointestinal tract, and the production of other hormones. Source: The George Mateljan Foundation More Info. at: http://www.whfoods.com/genpage.php?tname=nutrient&dbid=84
  11. 11. Weber PC, Fischer 5, von Schacky C, Lorenz R, Strasser T. Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids andeicosanoid formation in man. In: Simopoulos AP, Kifer RR, Martin RE, eds. Health effects of polyunsaturated fattyacids in seafoods. Orlando, FL: Academic Press, 1986:49-60.
  12. 12. C- EPA Directly Anti-Inflammatory A recently identified lipid product, that our bodies make from EPA, called resolvins, helps explain how this omega-3 fat provides anti- inflammatory effects on our joints and improves blood flow. Resolvins, which have been shown to reduce inflammation in animal studies, are made from EPA by our cellular enzymes, and work by inhibiting the production and regulating the migration of inflammatory cells and chemicals to sites of inflammation. Unlike anti- inflammatory drugs, such as aspirin, ibuprofen and the COX-2 inhibitors, the resolvins our bodies produce from EPA do not have negative side effects on our gastrointestinal or cardiovascular systems.Arita M, Bianchini F, Aliberti J, Sher A, Chiang N, Hong S, Yang R, Petasis NA, Serhan CN. Stereochemicalassignment, antiinflammatory properties, and receptor for the omega-3 lipid mediator resolvin E1. J Exp Med.2005 Mar 7;201(5):713-22. 2005. PMID:15753205.Source: The George Mateljan FoundationMore Info. at: http://www.whfoods.com/genpage.php?tname=nutrient&dbid=84
  13. 13. Function of Omega 3 Reduce inflammation throughout your body Keep your blood from clotting excessively Maintain the fluidity of your cell membranes lower the amount of lipids (fats such as cholesterol, vLDL, and triglycerides) circulating in the bloodstream decrease platelet aggregation, preventing excessive blood clotting inhibit thickening of the arteries by decreasing endothelial cells production of a platelet- derived growth factor (the lining of the arteries is composed of endothelial cells)
  14. 14. Function of Omega 3 (cont.)  increase the activity of another chemical derived from endothelial cells (endothelium- derived nitric oxide), which causes arteries to relax and dilate  reduce the production of messenger chemicals called cytokines, which are involved in the inflammatory response associated with atherosclerosis  reduce the risk of becoming obese and improve the bodys ability to respond to insulin by stimulating the secretion of leptin, a hormone that helps regulate food intake, body weight and metabolism, and is expressed primarily by adipocytes (fat cells)  help prevent cancer cell growth1- Osmundsen H, Clouet P. Metabolic effects of omega-3 fatty acids. Biofactors 2000;13(1-4):5-8 2000. PMID:15800.2- Heller A, Koch T. [Immunonutrition with omega-3-fatty acids. Are new anti-inflammatory strategies in sight?]. Zentralbl Chir 2000;125(2):123-36 2000. PMID:15830.3- Popp-Snijders C, Schouten JA, Heine RJ, et al. Dietary supplementation of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids improves insulin sensitivity in non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Diabetes Res 1987 Mar;4(3):141-7 1987. PMID:8990.4- Severus WE, Littman AB, Stoll AL. Omega-3 fatty acids, homocysteine, and the increased risk of cardiovascular mortality in major depressive disorder. Harv Rev Psychiatry 2001 Nov-2001 Dec 31;9(6):280-93 2001. PMID:15780.Source: The George Mateljan FoundationMore Info. at: http://www.whfoods.com/genpage.php?tname=nutrient&dbid=84
  15. 15. Health Conditions Omega 3 fatty acids may play a role in the prevention and/or treatment of the following health conditions:  Alzheimers disease  Asthma  Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)  Bipolar disorder  Cancer  Cardiovascular disease  Depression  Diabetes  Eczema  High blood pressure  Migraine headaches  Multiple sclerosis  Obesity  Osteoarthritis  Osteoporosis  Psoriasis  Rheumatoid arthritis1- Osmundsen H, Clouet P. Metabolic effects of omega-3 fatty acids. Biofactors 2000;13(1-4):5-8 2000. PMID:15800.2- Heller A, Koch T. [Immunonutrition with omega-3-fatty acids. Are new anti-inflammatory strategies in sight?]. Zentralbl Chir 2000;125(2):123-36 2000. PMID:15830.Source: The George Mateljan FoundationMore Info. at: http://www.whfoods.com/genpage.php?tname=nutrient&dbid=84
  16. 16. Deficiency Symptoms What are deficiency symptoms for omega 3 fatty acids? Recent statistics indicate that nearly 99% of people in the United States do not eat enough omega 3 fatty acids. However, the symptoms of omega 3 fatty acid deficiency are very vague, and can often be attributed to some other health conditions or nutrient deficiencies. Consequently, few people (or their physicians, for that matter) realize that they are not consuming enough omega 3 fatty acids. The symptoms of omega 3 fatty acid deficiency include fatigue, dry and/or itchy skin, brittle hair and nails, constipation, frequent colds, depression, poor concentration, lack of physical endurance, and/or joint pain. Source: The George Mateljan Foundation More Info. at: http://www.whfoods.com/genpage.php?tname=nutrient&dbid=84
  17. 17. Drug-Nutrient InteractionsFish oil supplements containing high amounts ofomega 3 fatty acids have been shown to reduce highblood pressure in people taking cyclosporine, animmunosuppressive drug used to prevent rejectionof transplanted organs.In addition, a high dietary intake of omega 3 fats,especially from fish, may decrease blood pressureand thin the blood. People taking prescription bloodpressure medications and/or anticoagulants shouldconsult with their physician before taking fish oilsupplements. Nutrient InteractionsVitamin E, the primary fat-soluble antioxidant, protectsomega 3 fats from oxidation. Oxidation is a chemicalprocess that produces free radicals. Source: The George Mateljan Foundation More Info. at: http://www.whfoods.com/genpage.php?tname=nutrient&dbid=84
  18. 18. Omega 3 Side EffectsOmega 3 side effects & precautions depends on the source.The most popular omega 3 supplements come from either fish oil,flaxseed oil, & Cod liver oil. Fish Oil Side Effects and Precautions:1- Possible side effects such as belching, nausea, diarrhea, bloating, and intestinal gas.2- Very high doses may cause a fishy body odor and/or "fish breath".3- In some people, fish oil supplementation has been reported to increase cholesterol LDL levels. However, others have reported that taking garlic supplements can counteract this effect.4- Diabetes: taking large amounts of fish oil may make it more difficult to control blood sugar levels.5- Fish oil may have a blood-thinning effect, it is recommended that anyone taking anticoagulant medications (blood thinning medications) such as Coumadin or taking any over-the-counter blood thinners such as aspirin, consult with a physician before taking any supplements. Cod liver oil contains both vitamin A and D, and consuming excessive amounts of these two vitamins can cause toxicity and dangerous side effects. Flaxseed oil appears to be safe with very few omega 3 side effects. Flaxseed oil may cause mild gastrointestinal symptoms as diarrhea. More Info at: www.nutritional-supplement-educational-centre.com/omega-3-side-effects.html
  19. 19. The difference between Omega 3 and Fish oil (Pharmaceutical products)SupHerp: Omega 3(Fabricate in Israel) (www.supherb.ps) Fish oil ……………………………………………………………………………… 1000 mg (marine lipid concentrate) contains: EPA ……................................................................................................................... 180 mg DHA …….......................................................................................................…….... 120 mg Vit E ……………………………………………………………………………………..……….…… 3 IUTung-Hai: Fish Liver oil(Fabricate in Shanghai China) One capsule contains: Vit A: ………………………………………………………………………..……. 60,000 IU Vit D: ……………………………………………………………..………………. 6,000 IU
  20. 20. Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs) for Vitamin D Age Children Men Women Pregnancy Lactation Birth to 12 25 mcg months (1,000 IU) 50 mcg 1-13 years (2,000 IU) 50 mcg 50 mcg 50 mcg 50 mcg 14+ years (2,000 IU) (2,000 IU) (2,000 IU) (2,000 IU)Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes: Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium,Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1997.
  21. 21. Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for vitamin A Age Children Males Females Pregnancy Lactation (years) (mcg RAE) (mcg RAE) (mcg RAE) (mcg RAE) (mcg RAE) 300 1-3 (1,000 IU) 400 4-8 (1,320 IU) 600 9-13 (2,000 IU) 900 700 750 1,200 14-18 (3,000 IU) (2,310 IU) (2,500 IU) (4,000 IU) 900 700 770 1,300 19+ (3,000 IU) (2,310 IU) (2,565 IU) (4,300 IU) Adequate Intakes (AIs) for vitamin A for infants: Age (months) Males and females (mcg RAE) 0-6 400 (1,320 IU) 7-12 500 (1,650 IU)Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic,Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc.National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 2001.
  22. 22. Public Health Recommendations# In 2002, the Institute of Medicine at the National Academy of Sciences issued Adequate Intake (AI) levels for α-linolenic acid: Male teenagers and adult : 1.6 grams/day Female teenagers and adult : 1.1 grams/ day# Guidelines issued by the Workshop on the Essentiality of Recommended Dietary Intakes (RDI) for Omega-3 Fatty Acids in 1999 sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (NIH): People must consume at least: 2% of their total daily calories as omega-3 fats.# e.g: person consuming 2000 calories per day should eat sufficient omega-3-rich foods to provide at least 4 grams of omega-3 fatty acids. Source: The George Mateljan Foundation More Info. at: http://www.whfoods.com/genpage.php?tname=nutrient&dbid=84
  23. 23. Cholesterol content in Fishes and seafoods 1(100g) of shrimp, mixed species, containing approximately152mg of cholesterol. 2Mullet contains, 90 mg fish cholesterol per 100 gram. 3 CHOLESTEROL INTAKE The safe range of cholesterol intake is: 200-400 mg/day. 1 Sources: United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). 1- http://healthyeatingclub.com/info/books-phds/books/foodfacts/html/data/data2h.html 2- http://www.cholesterolcholestrol.com/shrimp-cholesterol-cholestrol.html 3- http://www.cholesterolcholestrol.com/fish-cholesterol-cholestrol.html
  24. 24. SalmonSpiny lobsterOysterMullet

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