Knowledge Components & Objects


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Knowledge Components & Objects

  2. 2. 1. Instructional design 2. Instructional design theory 3. Theoretical tool previous next
  3. 3. Instructional Design : An engineering activity to design instructional product to help learner acquire some knowledge or skill. M. David Merill (2001) Requires 2 major activities : What to teach? How to teach? ~determine what to teach~ ~strategy to be used~ knowledge analysis choice of delivery system select specific components presentation and sequence practice discussion with SME learner guidance back to terminology
  4. 4. Instructional Design Theory: A set of prescription for designing instructional product. M. David Merill (2001) back to terminology
  5. 5. Theoretical Tool: Words, vocabularies (in the instruction) that are used in identifying the knowledge and strategy components in those Instructional Design Theory. back to terminology
  6. 6. (a) Knowledge Components : i. knowledge objects. ii. knowledge components. ❀ example in knowledge base portrayals. INSTRUCTIONAL COMPONENTS (b) Strategy Components : i. presentation (demonstration phase). -tell -show ii. application (practice phase). -ask -do previous next
  7. 7. produce an instructional product (e-learning resource) 1 to guide GIAT MARA students to acquire some knowledge and skill. A set of prescriptions 2 (process) on how to design a LABU SAYONG in detail. Words (terminology), pictures are used in the prescriptions 3 to enable students comprehend better. back to terminology
  8. 8. EXIT Group’s Title : Knowledge Components Knowledge Objects Knowledge Base (Data Base) Strategy Components previous next
  9. 9. Knowledge Components (KC) Is a description of a mental structure or process the learner uses, either alone or in combination with other knowledge components to accomplish steps in a task or a problem. (a) “explicit” knowledge component. b a Example : “...vertical angles are congruent...” (sudut tegak adalah sepadan) c Information is clearly given and formulated. Unambiguous. (b) “implicit” knowledge component. Example : “...if angle A and angle B are vertical angles, and angle A is 90o, then B is ?...” A skill has been acquired and understood though it did not directly expressed. back to Group’s next
  10. 10. Example of a table known as “knowledge base potrayals” which consists of a collection of knowledge component for ‘The Object Sentence’. collection of knowledge component 1 Punctuation Sentence Subject Predicate Purpose The smell of The smell of makes me (. statement that curry that curry think of ) makes me think mom’s of mom’s cooking. cooking. we emotion (! What a What a ) horrible show horrible we saw! show __ saw! knowledge object : a framework (a container) 2 identifying necessary knowledge components. back to Group’s previous
  11. 11. Knowledge Objects (KO) (1) A precise way to describe the subject matter content or knowledge to be taught. (2) A framework for identifying necessary knowledge components. (3) A way to organize a data base (knowledge base) of content resources. (4) Such organized data can be used to teach a variety of different contents. (5) Consist of a set of fields (containers) for the component of knowledge required to implement. (6) A knowledge object can have 5 default major components : entity – device, person, creature, place, object, thing parts - properties activity process ❀ there may be several different classes of components as the description category maybe subdivided into several sub components. (5.1 ) Example 1 (5.2 ) Example 2 back to Group’s
  12. 12. Sets of field (containers) for the component of knowledge required for ‘The Topic Sentence’. Component Name Description Name Sentence ‘expresses a complete thought’ Part1 Subject ‘tells whom or what the sentence is about’ Part2 Predicate ‘tells something about the subject’ Legal Values Purpose makes a statement Property1 asks a question makes request express emotion Punctuation period ( . ) Property2 question mark ( ? ) exclamation point ( ! ) back to KO
  13. 13. (5.2a) Example 2 of KO Entities Properties Legal Values Portrayal Mark Mood Happy Sad Surprised Angry Boss Present Yes Taken from Knowledge Objects and Mental-Models, Fig. 3, pg10- back to KO continue 11 (2000)
  14. 14. (5.2b) Example 2 of KO (Processes and Activities-PEAnet) ...continue Action Process Consequences Condition Statement Make Mark triggers changes Mood : happy 1 “we have a new happy contract” Statement Make Mark triggers changes Mood : sad “but you don’t 2 sad get to direct the object” Make Mark Statement Mood : surprised triggers changes 3 surprised “Jean will direct this project” Statement changes Mood : surprised Make Mark trigger Boss present : “you get to 4 angry s YES work for Jean” Boss present : Mood : angry NO back to KO back to (5.2a)
  15. 15. Knowledge Base (1) Knowledge base is organized by knowledge object. (2) Knowledge base consists of text, audio, video and graphics. (3) Knowledge base is a set of multimedia resources that represent knowledge object by giving examples that have its own record. The fields in such record provide values for each of the parts and properties of the knowledge objects. 3.1 Example. back to Group’s
  16. 16. Knowledge Base Portrayals Use for Other Strategies (1) Able to write a computer program for different strategies Predicate Simple for teaching Subject Predicate such knowledge. (2) Any record can be used to The smell of makes me makes think compose strategies such Sentence the curry think of as presentation strategies, exploration strategies and mom’s The smell of practice strategies. cooking. the curry (3) Possible to build tutorial makes me think programs that allow of mom’s Purpose Number of complete thoughts students to request cooking. additional examples, A Complete Record one additional prectices or make a (1) Can itemize every statement instance in knowledge others. base with its respective components completely. (2) With all the component indicated, any record can Advantage 1 be used to illustrate (explain) any part, Advantage 2 property or kind of the knowledge object being taught. back to KB
  17. 17. (a) Knowledge Components : i. knowledge objects. ii. knowledge components. ❀ example in knowledge base portrayals. INSTRUCTIONAL COMPONENTS (b) Strategy Components : i. presentation (demonstration phase). -tell -show ii. application (practice phase). -ask -do back to Group’s
  18. 18. Two Levels of Information General Information : SHOW (1)Expository Generality (EG). (1) To demonstrate specific TELL (2)InformationTo present-generalentity, (1) about an information such as information todefinitions identifying categories ofofobjects, example a concept, student. procedure or a (2) To present a definition. steps in procedure, list of (3) To present steps in a of events in a process. visualization of a process. list procedure. (4) To present events in a TELL andSHOW (3)Two presentation components – . process. Specific Information : DO (1)Expository Instance (Eeg). (1) To let student able to use ASK (2)Consist An important practice non examples of a concept,knowledge or (1) of - examples and their demonstrate certain skill component for students to (visualization) how to perform a specific demonstration acquired. procedure. acquire a skill. (2) Requires student to (2) To obtain general analyze examples. ASK DO (3) Two practice componentsas information presented – and . (3) Requires student to mentioned in TELL. perfom a procedure. (4) Requires student to interpret a process. back to IC
  19. 19. References: Entwistle, N., Marton, F. (1994) Knowledge objects: understanding constituted through intensive academic study, British Journal of Education Psychology, 64(1), pp. 161-78 previous next