Chapter 10 structure construction


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Chapter 10 structure construction

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Chapter 10 structure construction

  3. 3. LEARNING OUTCOMES : Students should be able to:  List the procedures to construct structure  List earthwork activities.  Describe earthwork processes.  Explain the purpose of using foundation.  List the types of foundation.  Describe the types of foundation.  Plan a flowchart on the process of construction structure.  List superstructure construction and method available.  List structure covering methods.  Describe structure covering methods
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION Structure construction works are performed by the contractor and supervised by the project manager. In structure construction stage, various type of work are involved and facilitated by various construction machineries.
  5. 5. SITE PREPARATION • ACQUIRING PERMIT AND PERMISSION Application for acquiring permission to construct building is normally dependent on local regulation enforced by the local authority. Application for acquiring permission should be enclosed with the drawing, specification, site plan, primary stakeholders and land ownership letter of the project.
  6. 6. SITE PREPARATION •CONSTRUCTION SITE CLEARING a) Cutting and uprooting tree that obstructing construction work Trees on the construction site which obstruct construction works need to be chopped or uprooted to the dumping area b) Demolishing old structures Structures that are not required at the construction site should be demolished
  7. 7. Cutting and uprooting tree that obstructing construction work
  8. 8. Demolishing old structures
  9. 9. SITE PREPARATION •DETERMINING STRUCTURE LOCATION Pickets and stakes were used in setting out process to determined structure or building location. Accuracy in setting out process helps to determine the location, shape and size of building according to the drawing of the building plan. There are two methods to determine structure location; • Site line method • Center line method
  10. 10. SITE LINE METHOD A A d c e f 4 a 3 g b B A a’ b’
  11. 11. SITE LINE METHOD Steps : 1. Construct AB line as a site line. Border line can be used as site line too. Site line should be drawn clearly because it is used as a reference line when other sign are missing. 2. Measure and mark point a’ and point b’ on the site line according to building size. 3. Point a and b should be a building line parallel with the site line. 4. Mark point d where ad line is perpendicular to line ab. To get a perpendicular angle, pythagoras 4 method is used. 3
  12. 12. CENTRE LINE METHOD B d c y e z g A b
  13. 13. CENTRE LINE METHOD STEPS: 1. Construct line AB as a centre line. Generally, it is located in the middle of a building. This centre line should be drawn clearly because it is used as reference line. 2. Measure and mark point a and point b by taking into account the distance from line AB. Line AB is perpendicular to line ab. The method used to accquire perpendicular angle is similar to the site line method. 3. Measure and mark point c and point d by considering the distance from line AB. Line cd is perpendicular to line AB. 4. Measure and mark point e on line bc 5. Measure and mark point g on line ab 6. Measure and mark point f on line AB 7. For testing the accuracy of setting out work, measure the distance of ac and bd. If ac=bd, therefore all angles in abcd is accurate.
  14. 14. SITE PREPARATION •CONSTRUCTION SITE ARRANGEMENT After the location of the construction structure has been marked, temporary building and facilities has Construction site should have temporary access road to to be identified. ease workers movement and transport construction Access Road material Site Office Used as a place to manage the operation of all construction works. Normally near to the main entrance Accomodation Needs to be constructed for workers Utilities(electric, It is essential in construction area. Eg; electricity is the source of energy used to operate machines and construction equipment. water telephone) Safety Safety of workers, construction materials and equipment is very important. Stores should be built in order to keep materials and equipment
  15. 15. SITE PREPARATION An example of structure arrangement and temporary facilities on construction site
  16. 16. EARTHWORK ACTIVITY Earth loosing Cutting Earth filling Earthwork activities DESCRIPTION Before any excavation activities, soils which consist of sedimentation rock layer should be loosen. Bulldozer is used to execute soil. If there are huge rocks that cant be moved, explosive substance will be used. For higher or elevated area it should be excavated to the required formation level. Soil is also excavated in constructing system drainage and building site foundation Filling is necessary for areas lower than the construction level required. Filled soil should be compacted
  17. 17. EARTHWORK ACTIVITY Earth consolidating Earthwork activities DESCRIPTION There are types of soil which is soft and easy to settle such as peat soil. This type of soil should be excavated and changed with high compacted soil. Filled area should be compacted with appropriate roller machines for earth consolidating Earth dumping Excessive soil from construction area should be moved to other places. Scrapers and lorries are used to moved soil. Clearing Clearing soil work is executed after all filling works such as foot foundation and site building have been completed. Excess soils should be cleared and dumped to other location.
  18. 18. Example Of Cut And Fill Work Cutting soil from high ground will be used to fill low ground level
  19. 19. FOUNDATION CONSTRUCTION A building foundation is the lowest level of the building and known as substructure. Its function to sustain the entire building load and transfer it to the lower layer of ground. There are various types and shapes of foundation which are used in building construction. Selection criteria of foundation types are dependent on; •Type of soil •Building load •Design •Cost •technology
  20. 20. FOUNDATION CONSTRUCTION There are four types of foundation i. Pad foundation ii. Strip foundation iii. Slab/ Raft foundation iv. Pile foundation
  21. 21. FOUNDATION CONSTRUCTION Pad foundation •Used to support small and light load. (Eg; house or single storey building) •Appropriate type of soil is the hard soil which has high bearing capacity •Constructed in rectangular shape beneath each stump which support loads •The thickness and area is dependent upon imposed loads and its bearing capacity •The depth is normally up to one meter below ground level. •Common proportion of concrete mix used is 1:2:4 •Reinforcement steel bars are used to increase
  22. 22. FOUNDATION CONSTRUCTION Strip foundation •Used to support small and light loads •Width and thickness depend upon the imposed building load and its bearing capacity •There are two types of Strip foundation; i. Wide strip foundation ii. Deep strip foundation
  23. 23. FOUNDATION CONSTRUCTION Slab/ Raft foundation •Suitable for building which is constructed on soils that have low bearing capacity. (eg; soft soil, high shrinkage soil, formerly filled swamp soil) •Its purpose is to prevent from uneven settlement which may cause cracking to building •Constructed from reinforced concrete according to surface area of building floor or until it covers the sidewalk area •The thickness is normally between 200mm to 300mm. •The bottom part imposed to walls and columns load is made thicker
  24. 24. FOUNDATION CONSTRUCTION Pile foundation •Suitable or a big and high rise building also used in building bridges. •Depth of pile depends on the imposed load •It can prevent deep excavation, which reduces the cost of excavation and concrete pouring •Normally used with other foundation type. •There are two types of techniques which is; i. Friction method ii. End-bearing method