Manufacturing > Communication > Transportation and Power > Construction > Industrial Design
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LEARNING OUTCOMES :
Students should be able to:
List the procedures to construct structure
List earthwork activities.
Describe earthwork processes.
Explain the purpose of using foundation.
List the types of foundation.
Describe the types of foundation.
Plan a flowchart on the process of construction
List superstructure construction and method
List structure covering methods.
Describe structure covering methods
Structure construction works
are performed by the contractor
and supervised by the project
manager. In structure construction
stage, various type of work are
involved and facilitated by various
ACQUIRING PERMIT AND PERMISSION
Application for acquiring permission to
construct building is normally dependent
on local regulation enforced by the local
authority. Application for acquiring
permission should be enclosed with the
drawing, specification, site plan, primary
stakeholders and land ownership letter
of the project.
•CONSTRUCTION SITE CLEARING
a) Cutting and uprooting tree
that obstructing construction
Trees on the construction
site which obstruct
construction works need to
be chopped or uprooted to
the dumping area
b) Demolishing old
Structures that are not
required at the
construction site should
Cutting and uprooting tree that obstructing construction work
•DETERMINING STRUCTURE LOCATION
Pickets and stakes were used in
setting out process to determined
structure or building location.
Accuracy in setting out process helps
to determine the location, shape and
size of building according to the
drawing of the building plan. There
are two methods to determine
• Site line method
• Center line method
SITE LINE METHOD
SITE LINE METHOD
1. Construct AB line as a site line. Border line can
be used as site line too. Site line should be
drawn clearly because it is used as a reference
line when other sign are missing.
2. Measure and mark point a’ and point b’ on the
site line according to building size.
3. Point a and b should be a building line parallel
with the site line.
4. Mark point d where ad line is perpendicular to
line ab. To get a perpendicular angle, pythagoras
method is used.
CENTRE LINE METHOD
1. Construct line AB as a centre line. Generally, it is located in
the middle of a building. This centre line should be drawn
clearly because it is used as reference line.
2. Measure and mark point a and point b by taking into account
the distance from line AB. Line AB is perpendicular to line
ab. The method used to accquire perpendicular angle is
similar to the site line method.
3. Measure and mark point c and point d by considering the
distance from line AB. Line cd is perpendicular to line AB.
4. Measure and mark point e on line bc
5. Measure and mark point g on line ab
6. Measure and mark point f on line AB
7. For testing the accuracy of setting out work, measure the
distance of ac and bd. If ac=bd, therefore all angles in abcd
•CONSTRUCTION SITE ARRANGEMENT
After the location of the construction structure has
been marked, temporary building and facilities has
Construction site should have temporary access road to
to be identified.
ease workers movement and transport construction
Used as a place to manage the operation of all
construction works. Normally near to the main entrance
Needs to be constructed for workers
It is essential in construction area. Eg; electricity is the
source of energy used to operate machines and
Safety of workers, construction materials and equipment
is very important. Stores should be built in order to keep
materials and equipment
An example of structure
arrangement and temporary
facilities on construction site
Before any excavation activities, soils which
consist of sedimentation rock layer should be
loosen. Bulldozer is used to execute soil. If there
are huge rocks that cant be moved, explosive
substance will be used.
For higher or elevated area it should be
excavated to the required formation level. Soil is
also excavated in constructing system drainage
and building site foundation
Filling is necessary for areas lower than the
construction level required. Filled soil should be
There are types of soil which is soft and easy to
settle such as peat soil. This type of soil should be
excavated and changed with high compacted soil.
Filled area should be compacted with appropriate
roller machines for earth consolidating
Earth dumping Excessive soil from construction area should be
moved to other places. Scrapers and lorries are
used to moved soil.
Clearing soil work is executed after all filling works
such as foot foundation and site building have
Excess soils should be cleared and dumped to
Example Of Cut And Fill Work
Cutting soil from high ground will be used to fill
low ground level
A building foundation is the lowest level of the
building and known as substructure. Its function
to sustain the entire building load and transfer it
to the lower layer of ground. There are various
types and shapes of foundation which are used in
building construction. Selection criteria of
foundation types are dependent on;
•Type of soil
There are four types of foundation
i. Pad foundation
ii. Strip foundation
iii. Slab/ Raft foundation
iv. Pile foundation
•Used to support small and light load.
(Eg; house or
single storey building)
•Appropriate type of soil is the hard soil which
has high bearing capacity
•Constructed in rectangular shape beneath each
stump which support loads
•The thickness and area is dependent upon
imposed loads and its bearing capacity
•The depth is normally up to one meter below
•Common proportion of concrete mix used is 1:2:4
•Reinforcement steel bars are used to increase
•Used to support small and light loads
•Width and thickness depend upon the imposed building load
and its bearing capacity
•There are two types of Strip foundation;
i. Wide strip foundation
ii. Deep strip foundation
Slab/ Raft foundation
•Suitable for building which is constructed on soils that have
low bearing capacity. (eg; soft soil, high shrinkage soil,
formerly filled swamp soil)
•Its purpose is to prevent from uneven settlement which may
cause cracking to building
•Constructed from reinforced concrete according to surface
area of building floor or until it covers the sidewalk area
•The thickness is normally between 200mm to 300mm.
•The bottom part imposed to walls and columns load is made
•Suitable or a big and high rise building also used in building
•Depth of pile depends on the imposed load
•It can prevent deep excavation, which reduces the cost of
excavation and concrete pouring
•Normally used with other foundation type.
•There are two types of techniques which is;
i. Friction method
ii. End-bearing method