CHAPTER 8 :
HUMAN HEALTH
AND
DISEASES
• Health:
• Health is defined as a state of complete
physical, mental and social well-being.
• When people are healthy, th...
• The health is affected by –
1. Genetic disorders .
2. Infections.
3. Life style including Diet, rest and exercise. Drug
...
• COMMON DISEASES IN HUMANS:
• organisms belonging to
bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoans, helminths, etc., cou
ld cause ...
• Symptoms:
• High fever (390 to 400 C)
• Weakness, stomach pain, constipation, headache
and loss of appetite.
• Intestina...
• PNEUMONIA:
• Pathogen: Streptococcus pneumoniae and
Haemophilus influenzae.
• Organs affected: Alveoli of lungs, alveoli...
• Method of transmission: Inhaling the
droplets/aerosols released by infected person.
• Symptoms:
• Fever, chills, cough a...
• COMMON COLD:
• Pathogen: Rhino viruses.
• Organs affected: nose and
respiratory passage
• Method of transmission:
• Dire...
• Symptoms:
• Nasal congestion and discharge, sore
throat, hoarseness, cough. tiredness, etc.,
• It usually last for 3-7 d...
• MALARIA:
• Pathogen: Plasmodium. (P. vivax, P. malariae, P.
ovale, P. falciparum)
• Malignant malaria caused by P. falci...
• Symptoms: high fever and chill, fever occurs on
every alternate day, vomiting.
• life cycle of malaria parasite:
• The malarial parasite requires
two hosts – human and
Anopheles, to complete their
life...
• There is release of a toxic
substance called hemozoin
from the ruptured RBCs. It
is responsible for the chill
and high f...
• The female mosquito takes
up gametocytes with the
blood meal.
• Formation of gametes and
fertilization takes place in
th...
• AMOEBIASIS (Amoebic dysentery)
• Pathogen: Entamoeba histolytica a
protozoan parasite.
• Organs affected: large intestin...
• ASCARIASIS:
• Pathogen: Ascaris lumbricoids
(nematode)
• Organs affected: intestine of
man
• Method of transmission:
Con...
• FILARIASIS OR ELEPHANTIASIS:
• Pathogen: Wuchereria
(W.bancrofti and W. Malayi)
(nematode parasite)
• Organs affected: l...
• RING WORMS:
• Pathogen:
Microsporum, Trichophyton and
Epidermophyton (fungi)
• Organs affected: Skin, nails, folds
of sk...
• PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES:
• Maintenance of personal and public hygiene.
• Personal hygiene includes...
Immunity:
Immunity is the ability of an organism to resist infection or to
overcome infection.
• There are two types of im...
Physical barrier:
The important physical barrier are skin, hair and cilia of
nasal cavity, mucous lining and muscular acti...
• Mucus lining: The mucus lining found in respiratory
tract, digestive tract, urinary tract and reproductive
tract secrete...
Saliva:
• The saliva contains lysozyme that lyses the
bacteria.
• Gut secretion:
• The gastric juice contains dil HCl. It ...
Cellular and biochemical barrier:
It is the second line body defense. It includes
1. Phagocytes
2. Natural killer cells (N...
Process of phagocytosis
• Natural killer cells (NK
Cells):
• Natural killer cells are
non-phagocytic large
lymphocytes.
• It mainly recognizes
the...
• Interferon:
• Interferon are the antiviral glycoprotein
produced by viral infected animal cell. It
protects the neighbor...
Interferon:
• Inflammatory response: It is the localized response
to injury, infection or irritation. The symptoms are
getting redness...
• T – lymphocytes
• The undifferentiated
lymphocytes
originate from the
stem cells of bone
marrow,
• Some of them
migrate ...
• B– lymphocytes:
• The undifferentiated
lymphocytes originate from
the stem cells of bone
marrow.
• some migrate to Bursa...
• Antigen: Any foreign substance that enters our body
and stimulates immune response is called antigen.
Antigen has two pr...
Antibody or immunoglobin (Ig)
• The protein molecule that produced by Blymphocytes against a specific antigen is called
an...
Structure of Antibody.
• Antibody is mainly known
as immunoglobulin. It is a
Y shaped made up of four
polypeptide chains.
...
• Each chain contains
constant and variable
region.
• In constant region the
amino acid sequence are
constant and same in ...
Role of B – lymphocytes:
• The lymphocytes produced at bone marrow
differentiates in bursa equivalent in to B –
lymphocyte...
Cell mediated immunity ( CMI ): It is the
immunity mediated by T – lymphocytes.
Role of T – lymphocytes:
• The lymphocytes...
According to function of T – lymphocyte, these are
identified in to ,
• Killer T-cells: These T - cells recognizes specifi...
Human health and disease by mohan bio
Human health and disease by mohan bio
Human health and disease by mohan bio
Human health and disease by mohan bio
Human health and disease by mohan bio
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Transcript of "Human health and disease by mohan bio"

  1. 1. CHAPTER 8 : HUMAN HEALTH AND DISEASES
  2. 2. • Health: • Health is defined as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being. • When people are healthy, they are more efficient at work. This increases productivity and brings economic prosperity. • Health also increases long life and reduces infant and maternal mortality. • The good health is maintained by balanced diet, personal hygiene and regular exercise.
  3. 3. • The health is affected by – 1. Genetic disorders . 2. Infections. 3. Life style including Diet, rest and exercise. Drug and alcohol abuse also affect our health adversely. • Diseases are grouped into infectious and noninfectious. • Diseases which are easily transmitted from one person to another are called infectious diseases. • Diseases which are not transmitted from one person to another are called non infectious diseases.. • Cancer is the non-infectious that cause death.
  4. 4. • COMMON DISEASES IN HUMANS: • organisms belonging to bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoans, helminths, etc., cou ld cause diseases in man. Such disease causing organisms are called pathogens. • TYPHOID: • Pathogen: Salmonella typhi (bacterium) • Organs affected: small intestine, migrate to other organs through blood. • Method of transmission: contamination of food and water.
  5. 5. • Symptoms: • High fever (390 to 400 C) • Weakness, stomach pain, constipation, headache and loss of appetite. • Intestinal perforation may leads to death. • Test: Typhoid fever could be confirmed by Widal test.
  6. 6. • PNEUMONIA: • Pathogen: Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. • Organs affected: Alveoli of lungs, alveoli get filled with fluid.
  7. 7. • Method of transmission: Inhaling the droplets/aerosols released by infected person. • Symptoms: • Fever, chills, cough and headache. • In severe cases the lips and finger nails turn gray to bluish colour.
  8. 8. • COMMON COLD: • Pathogen: Rhino viruses. • Organs affected: nose and respiratory passage • Method of transmission: • Direct inhalation of droplets from infected person. • Through contaminated objects like pen, books, cups, computer key board.
  9. 9. • Symptoms: • Nasal congestion and discharge, sore throat, hoarseness, cough. tiredness, etc., • It usually last for 3-7 days.
  10. 10. • MALARIA: • Pathogen: Plasmodium. (P. vivax, P. malariae, P. ovale, P. falciparum) • Malignant malaria caused by P. falciparum is fatal. • Organs affected: liver, RBC. • Method of transmission: By biting of female anopheles mosquito (vector)
  11. 11. • Symptoms: high fever and chill, fever occurs on every alternate day, vomiting.
  12. 12. • life cycle of malaria parasite: • The malarial parasite requires two hosts – human and Anopheles, to complete their life cycle. • Life cycle of plasmodium starts with injecting sporozoites through the bite of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes. • The parasite initially multiplied within the liver cells and then attack the red blood cells (RBCs) resulting in their rupture.
  13. 13. • There is release of a toxic substance called hemozoin from the ruptured RBCs. It is responsible for the chill and high fever. • From the infected human the parasite enters into the body of Anopheles mosquito during biting and sucking blood. • Further development takes place in the body of Anopheles mosquitoes.
  14. 14. • The female mosquito takes up gametocytes with the blood meal. • Formation of gametes and fertilization takes place in the intestine of mosquito. • The zygote develops further and forms thousands of sporozoites. • These sporozoites migrated into the salivary gland of mosquito. • When the mosquito bite another human sporozoites are injected.
  15. 15. • AMOEBIASIS (Amoebic dysentery) • Pathogen: Entamoeba histolytica a protozoan parasite. • Organs affected: large intestine of man • Method of transmission: • House fly acts as mechanical carrier. • Contamination water and food with faecal matter. • Symptoms: • Loose motion and abdominal pain. • Stools with excess mucous and blood clots.
  16. 16. • ASCARIASIS: • Pathogen: Ascaris lumbricoids (nematode) • Organs affected: intestine of man • Method of transmission: Contaminated water, vegetables, fruits. • Symptoms: • Internal bleeding, muscular pain, fever, anemia. • Blockage of the intestinal passage.
  17. 17. • FILARIASIS OR ELEPHANTIASIS: • Pathogen: Wuchereria (W.bancrofti and W. Malayi) (nematode parasite) • Organs affected: lymphatic vessels of the lower limbs, genital organs. • Methods of transmission: biting of infected female culex mosquito. • Symptoms: • Chronic inflammation of the organs. • Abnormal swelling of lower limb, scrotum, penis. • Hence the disease named as elephantiasis or Filariasis.
  18. 18. • RING WORMS: • Pathogen: Microsporum, Trichophyton and Epidermophyton (fungi) • Organs affected: Skin, nails, folds of skin, groin. • Method of transmission: • Acquired from the soil. • Using towel, clothes or even comb of infected individuals. • Symptoms: • Appearance of dry, scaly lesions in skin nails and scalp. • Lesion accompanied with intense itching.
  19. 19. • PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES: • Maintenance of personal and public hygiene. • Personal hygiene includes Consumption of clean drinking water, food vegetable fruits. Keeping the body clean. • Public hygiene includes Proper disposal of waste and excreta • Periodic cleaning water reservoirs, pools. • Avoiding close contact with the infected persons. • For vector borne diseases controlling vectors and the breeding places. • Avoiding stagnation of water in and around residential areas. • Use of mosquito nets. • Window and doors must be fitted with wire mesh. • All these precautions are use full for vector borne disease like dengue and Chickungunya, malaria and filarial etc.
  20. 20. Immunity: Immunity is the ability of an organism to resist infection or to overcome infection. • There are two types of immunity: 1. Innate (non-specific) Immunity. 2. Acquired (specific) Immunity. • Innate or Non-specific Immunity: It is the inborn or natural immunity. It is of two types, 1. Surface barrier. 2. Cellular and Biochemical barrier. • Surface barrier: It is the first line body defense. It includes the external barriers that checks the entry of pathogens into body. • It is identified as physical barrier and Physiological (chemical) barrier.
  21. 21. Physical barrier: The important physical barrier are skin, hair and cilia of nasal cavity, mucous lining and muscular action. Skin: • The skin prevents entry of pathogens. • The sweat produced by sweat gland and oil produced by sebaceous gland are bactericidal and fungicidal properties.
  22. 22. • Mucus lining: The mucus lining found in respiratory tract, digestive tract, urinary tract and reproductive tract secretes mucus. The mucus traps the microbes and makes them immobilize. Physiological barriers: Chemical secretion like lysozymes, skin secretion, saliva and ear wax forms physiological barriers. Lysozyme: • It is an antibacterial enzyme present in tears, nasal secretion, saliva, and most of the body fluids. It lyses the bacterial cell. Skin secretion : • The sweat and sebum has antibacterial and antifungal properties. It avoids the growth of bacteria and fungus on skin.
  23. 23. Saliva: • The saliva contains lysozyme that lyses the bacteria. • Gut secretion: • The gastric juice contains dil HCl. It kills the microbes enters through food. • Ear wax : • The ear wax secreted in external auditory canal is bactericidal in nature. It repels the insects. It traps the dust.
  24. 24. Cellular and biochemical barrier: It is the second line body defense. It includes 1. Phagocytes 2. Natural killer cells (NK cells) 3. Interferons. 4. Inflammatory response. • Phagocytes: The process of engulfing and destroying the microbe by some cells is called phagocytosis. • The cells that involves in phagocytosis are called phagocytes. • The neutrophils and monocytes (macrophages) types of WBC are the important phagocytic cells.
  25. 25. Process of phagocytosis
  26. 26. • Natural killer cells (NK Cells): • Natural killer cells are non-phagocytic large lymphocytes. • It mainly recognizes the viral infected cells and tumor cells. • It destroys them by secreting cytolysin. Hence these are called killer cells.
  27. 27. • Interferon: • Interferon are the antiviral glycoprotein produced by viral infected animal cell. It protects the neighboring cells from viral infection. • It mainly stimulates neighboring cells to synthesis a protein that interfere with viral replication. It also activates macrophages and NK cells to recognize infected cells.
  28. 28. Interferon:
  29. 29. • Inflammatory response: It is the localized response to injury, infection or irritation. The symptoms are getting redness, swelling, pain, increasing body temp etc. • Acquired (specific) immunity: • It is the defense mechanism acquired by healthy person against specific pathogens and infection. It forms the third line body defense. • Lymphocytes are the important components activating specific body defense. • The two types of lymphocytes are T- lymphocyte and B – lymphocyte.
  30. 30. • T – lymphocytes • The undifferentiated lymphocytes originate from the stem cells of bone marrow, • Some of them migrate to thymus gland and differentiated into Tlymphocyte. .
  31. 31. • B– lymphocytes: • The undifferentiated lymphocytes originate from the stem cells of bone marrow. • some migrate to Bursa equivalent and differentiated into B-lymphocyte. • Bursa equivalent is a hypothesized lymphoid tissue in bone marrow. • (Bursa equivalent is found in mammals, Bursa fabricius is found in birds.)
  32. 32. • Antigen: Any foreign substance that enters our body and stimulates immune response is called antigen. Antigen has two properties: • Antigenicity: It is the ability of an antigen to generate specific immune response to produce antibody. • Immunogenicity. • It is the ability of an antigen to react with specific antibody. • Biochemically antigens are proteins, large polysaccharides, lipids, fatty acids or nucleic acids. Sometimes entire pathogen acts as antigen.
  33. 33. Antibody or immunoglobin (Ig) • The protein molecule that produced by Blymphocytes against a specific antigen is called antibody. • These are mainly classified in to 5 types. They are, IgM, IgA, IgD,IgE, IgG. ( MADE-G) • IgM is a pentamer and is a mega globulin. It is the first reaches the injured site. • IgA is the secretory antibody. • IgD it binds to B - Lymphocytes and acts as a surface receptor. • IgE play imp role in allergy. • IgG crosses placenta and protects foetus.
  34. 34. Structure of Antibody. • Antibody is mainly known as immunoglobulin. It is a Y shaped made up of four polypeptide chains. • Among four chains two are longer chains called heavy chains. • Two are smaller called light chain. • The four polypeptide chains are held together by di-sulphide bond.
  35. 35. • Each chain contains constant and variable region. • In constant region the amino acid sequence are constant and same in all antibodies. • In variable region the amino acid sequence varies with different antibodies. • The variable region is present at the tip of Y arm forms antigen binding site.
  36. 36. Role of B – lymphocytes: • The lymphocytes produced at bone marrow differentiates in bursa equivalent in to B – lymphocyte. • When the antigen enters in to the body number of B – lymphocytes stimulated to produce antibody. • Once the antigen specific antibody producing B – lymphocyte activated, it multiplies rapidly to produce number of cloned cells. • The cloned B – lymphocytes differentiates in to plasma cells. These cells produces specific antibody against antigen in large quantity. • The cloned B – lymphocyte that undifferentiated remains as memory B cells. When the same antigen enters again in future, memory cells response rapidly to destroy them.
  37. 37. Cell mediated immunity ( CMI ): It is the immunity mediated by T – lymphocytes. Role of T – lymphocytes: • The lymphocytes produced at bone marrow differentiates in thymus in to T – lymphocyte. It does not produce any antibody. It directly acts on antigen. • When the antigen enters in to the body, the antigen specific T – lymphocyte stimulated and becomes active. • The activated T – lymphocyte multiplies rapidly to produce number of cloned cells.
  38. 38. According to function of T – lymphocyte, these are identified in to , • Killer T-cells: These T - cells recognizes specific pathogen and destroys by lyses. • Helper T – cells: These T – cells helps in stimulating antigen specific B – cells to produce antibody. • Suppressor T – cells: These T – cells suppress the immune response of both B and T cells, when infection is controlled. • Memory T – cells: These T – cells are programmed to recognize and response to the specific antigen that enters in future.
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