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  • 1. Eukaryotic Pathogens: Helminthes What types of eukaryotic organisms are pathogenic, and how do they differ from bacteria? Helminthes (The Worms) • Specializations of Animal Parasites • Flatworms (Platyhelminthes) • Flukes and tapeworms • Roundworms (Aschelminthes/Nemtodes) • Egg infective: pinworm, ascaris • Larvae infective: hookworm, trichinella Eukaryotic pathogens are mostly parasitic and are difficult to target selectively with drugs since their cells are so similar to human cells.
  • 2. The Helminths Table 12.1
  • 3. Pathogenic Helminths (Worms) • Pathogenic helminthes belong to: • Flatworms (Phylum Platyhelminthes) • Roundworms (Phylum Nematoda/Aschelminthes)
  • 4. Pathogenic Helminths (Worms) • Pathogenic helminthes belong to: • Flatworms (Phylum Platyhelminthes) • Roundworms (Phylum Nematoda/Aschelminthes) •As parasites, they have: •Little or no digestive system •A very simple nervous system •Little or no means of locomotion •A complex reproductive system, sometimes with multiple hosts (definitive and intermediate)
  • 5. Pathogenic Helminths (Worms) • Pathogenic helminthes belong to: • Flatworms (Phylum Platyhelminthes) • Paragonimus westermanii - paragonimiasis (lung fluke) • Shistosoma - shistosomiasis (blood fluke) • Taenia sp. - beef/pork tapeworm • Roundworms (Phylum Nematoda/Aschelminthes) • Enterobium vermicularis -pinworm/threadworm infection • Ascaris- ascariasis • Necator americanus - hookworm infection
  • 6. Flatworm Characteristics General Characteristics • Flattened shape • Incomplete gut • Same individual makes both sperm and eggs (monoecious) Divided into two groups: Flukes (Trematoda) • Suckers on ventral surface Tapeworms (Cestodes) • Barbed scolex “head” • Proglottid segments
  • 7. Lung fluke (Paragonimus westermanii) Intermediate hosts: snail, then crayfish or crab Definitive host: human Fluke (Trematode) Flatworm
  • 8. Humans as Definitive Host: Lung Fluke (A Trematode) Intermediate hosts: snail, then crayfish or crab Definitive host: human Lung fluke: Paragonimus westermanii Figure 12.26
  • 9. Shistosomiasis or Blood Fluke (Shistosoma) Blood fluke Flatworm (Platyhelminthes) Intermediate host: snail Definitive host: human
  • 10. Beef/Pork Tapeworms (Cestode in Platyhelminthes) Intermediate host: pig or cow Definitive host: human Figure 12.27
  • 11. Humans as Intermediate Host: Tapeworm Figure 12.28
  • 12. Pathogenic Helminths (Worms) • Pathogenic helminthes belong to: • Flatworms (Phylum Platyhelminthes) • Paragonimus westermanii - paragonimiasis (lung fluke) • Shistosoma - shistosomiasis (blood fluke) • Taenia sp. - beef/pork tapeworm • Roundworms (Phylum Nematoda/Aschelminthes) • Enterobium vermicularis -pinworm/threadworm infection • Ascaris- ascariasis • Necator americanus - hookworm infection
  • 13. Roundworm Characteristics General characteristics • Cylindrical shape • Tapered ends • Complete gut • Different individuals for difft genders (dioecious) Divided into two groups: Egg infective roundworms Larva infective roundworms
  • 14. Aschelminthes (Nematodes): Roundworms Nematodes: Eggs Infective for Humans Figure 12.29
  • 15. Pinworm/Threadworm (Enterobius vermicularis) Egg infective roundworm
  • 16. Ascaris worm (Ascaris sp.) egg infective roundworm
  • 17. Hookworm (Necator americanus) larva infective roundworm
  • 18. Trichinosis (Trichinella spiralis) larva infective roundworm
  • 19. Nematodes: Larvae Infective for Humans Figure 25.26
  • 20. Making a Table to Study and Associate Characteristics Species Helminth Group and Subgroup Disease Name Disease description Reproduction Hosts Sketch
  • 21. Arthropods as Vectors • Kingdom: Animalia • Phylum: Arthropoda (exoskeleton, jointed legs) • Class: Insecta (6 legs) • Lice, fleas, mosquitoes • Class: Arachnida (8 legs) • Mites and ticks • May transmit diseases (vectors) Figure 12.31, 32
  • 22. Arthropods as Vectors Figure 12.33