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Its architecture

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  • 1. ITS Architecture Supervisor name: Riza Atiq Abdullah O.K. Rahmat Done by: Mohanad Jaafar Talib – P71085
  • 2. Inroduction  Kajang is a connect point between kulal lumpur and seremban and putrajaya . kajang surrounded by a lot of highways and expressway that make traveling to and from kajang easy.
  • 3. Overview  Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) is the application of computer, electronics, and communication technologies and management strategies in an integrated manner to provide traveler information to increase the safety and efficiency of the road transportation systems. The various user services offered by ITS have been divided in eight groups have been briefly described. The ITS architecture which provides a common framework for planning, defining, and integrating intelligent transportation systems is briefly described emphasizing logical and physical architecture.  ITS improves transportation safety and mobility and enhances global connectivity by means of productivity improvements achieved through the integration of advanced communications technologies into the transportation infrastructure and in vehicles. Intelligent transportation systems encompass a broad range of wireless and wire line communication based information and electronics technologies to better manage traffic and maximize the utilization of the existing transportation infrastructure. It improves driving experience, safety and capacity of road systems, reduces risks in transportation, relieves traffic congestion, improves transportation efficiency and reduces pollution.
  • 4. ITS user services  In order to deploy ITS, a framework is developed highlighting various services the ITS can offer to the users. A list of 33 user services has been provided in the National ITS Program Plan. The number of user services, keep changing over time when a new service is added. All the above services are divided in eight groups. The division of these services is based on the perspective of the organization and sharing of common technical functions. The eight groups are described as follows: 1- Travel and traffic management 2- Public transportation operations 3- Electronic payment 4- Commercial vehicle operations 5- Advance vehicle control and safety systems 6- Emergency management 7- Information management 8- Maintenance and construction management
  • 5. ITS Architecture  The ITS Architecture provides a common framework for planning, defining, and integrating intelligent transportation systems. It specifies how the different ITS components would interact with each other to help solving transportation problems. It provides the transportation professionals to address their needs with wide variety of options. It identifies and describes various functions and assigns responsibilities to various stake-holders of ITS. The ITS architecture should be common and of specified standards throughout the state or region so that it can address solution to several problems while interacting with various agencies.  Interoperability - The ITS architecture should be such that the information collected, function implemented or any equipment installed be interoperable by various agencies in different state and regions.  Capable of sharing and exchanging information - The information by traffic operations may be useful to the emergency services.  Resource sharing - regional communication towers constructed by various private agencies are required to be shared by ITS operations.
  • 6. Logical architecture To accomplish user service requirements many functions or processes are needed. The logical architecture defines a set of functions (or processes) and information flows (or data flows) that respond to the user service requirements. It describes the lower end interaction of different components of ITS. Processes and data flows are grouped to form a particular functions. These are represented graphically by data flow diagrams (DFDs). Each process is broken down into more sub processes. The sub process is further broken into sub process which are called process specifications (P-specs) lowest level. These p specs are required to be performed to fulfill user services requirements.
  • 7. Physical architecture  The functions from logical architecture that serve the same need are grouped into sub systems. With these subsystems a physical entity is developed to deliver functions. The data flow of logical architecture are also combined to define interface between subsystems. The picture shows the functions A and B of logical architecture assigned to subsystem A in physical architecture. Both the architecture forms the core of ITS.
  • 8. The physical architecture of ITS defines the physical subsystems and architectural flows based on the logical architecture. The 22 subsystems are broadly classified in four groups as centers, field, vehicle, and travelers. The picture shows the subsystems and communications that comprise the national physical architecture. The subsystem represent aggregation of functions that serve the same transportation need and closely correspond to physical elements of transportation management system. Vehicle group consists of five different types of vehicles. The traveler group represents different ways a traveler can access information on the status of the transportation system. There are four different types of communication systems.  Fixed point to fixed point  Wide area wireless  Vehicle - vehicle communication  Field - vehicle communication
  • 9. Through the communication systems all the subsystems are interconnected and transfer the required data. The picture shows the communication between traffic management subsystem and the roadway subsystem. Traffic management subsystem is connected to communications which gets real time information of the transportation system through roadway subsystem which comprise of signal control, detectors, camera, VMS etc.
  • 10. traffic light system  ODERN traffic signal controls use highly capable Microprocessor based algorithms to control vehicle movements through intersections. However, the infrastructure that provides the interface between the controller cabinet, which houses the traffic controller, and the signals and sensors continues to use technologies developed as early as 1912. These dated technologies limit intersection communication capabilities, thus resulting in construction practices that are costly to install, maintain and upgrade. The goal of this research is to investigate the suitability and advantages for safety and access of applying modern distributed control practices to controlling signal lights for not only vehicles, but also pedestrians who are often overlooked in the design of intersection control. Additionally, research on enabling technologies will improve service for vehicles and pedestrians. Current practices treat all vehicles the same regardl ess of stopping and acceleration capabilities. Pedestrians too are treated as if they have equal mobility, agility, and cognitive abilities. With current traffic controls there is little opportunity to tune traffic controller operations based upon individual user needs.
  • 11. Traffic Light System Architecture  For our tests, only the pedestrian signal and call buttons were implemented with smart signal design leaving the traffic lights under conventional traffic control operations. Fig. is a block diagram of the distributed traffic system architecture that was built and tested for this investigation. It consists of two independent Ethernet networks:one to provide communications with the traffic controller and one network f or the real-time control of the distributed smart signals. The bridge node that interfaces with the traffic controller uses the National Transportation Communications ITS Protocol (NTCIP).[2] Also attached to the NTCIP network are two Windows based computers for simulation and configuration. The Traffic Operations computer generates messages to alter traffic signal timing representative of control from a traffic operations center. This computer was also used to implement preemption and setup the timing plans in the Traffic controller
  • 12. Video Detection System For Traffic Light Sensor  The point based inductive loop is widely used in conventional traffic light sensors. The sensor is used either to detect the presence of vehicles or : to measure the gap or headway of the arriving vehicle in the vehicle-actuated system or to count the traffic volume and to determine the queue length in a coordinated adaptive system. In a more sophisticated system, the sensor is also used to detect any traffic incident. However, the rising cost of installing the loops and disruption of traffic flows during installation or maintenance has resulted in the video detection system becoming more attractive. In addition, the cost of equipment for the video detection system has reduced substantially in the past l0 years. This paper describes the utilization of a video camera and image processing to detect the presence of vehicles, to count the volume of approaching traffic, to measure queue length and to detect traffic incidents at the approach road of a signalized intersection.Neural networks were used to detect the presence of the vehicles, to detect the traffic incident and to measure the queue length by identifying whether the road surface was occupied by vehicles and whether these vehicles were moving or stationary for specified duration of time. The number of arriving vehicles was counted by observing the fluctuation of the selected pixels values in the middle of the traffic lane. A single camera which was developed in this study is able to capture the above mentioned parameters simultaneously from a multi-lane road approach.
  • 13. Smart Surveillance System  Introduction CCTV camera refers to Closed Circuit Television camera which is video camera used to transmit the signal from a particular place to another. The images can be displayed on monitors and recorded for Ce system to reference as well. It is widely employed as a surveillance monitor and keep track of happenings at places requiring monitoring Smart Video Surveillance is the use of computer vision and traffic. pattern recognition technologies to analyze information from situ ated sensors. Smart Cameras are becoming more popular in Intelligent Surveillance Systems area. Smart cameras are cameras that can perform tasks far beyond simply taking photos and recording videos. Thanks to the purposely built-in intelligent image processing and pattern recognition algorithms, smart cameras can detect motion, measure objects, read vehicle number plates, and even recognize human behaviors. Currently, the majority of CCTV systems use analogue techniques for image distribution and storage. Conventional CCTV cameras generally use a digital charge coupled device (CCD) to capture images. The digital images then converted into an analogue composite video signal, which is connected to the CCTV matrix, monitors and recording equipment, generally via coaxial cables.
  • 14. Architecture of the Smart Camera For traffic surveillance the entire smart camera is packed into a single cabinet which is typically mounted in tunnels and aside highways. The electrical power is either supplied by a power socket or by solar panels.
  • 15. For traffic surveillance the entire smart camera is packed into a single cabinet which is typically mounted in tunnels and aside highways. The electrical power is either supplied by a power socket or by solar panels. Thus, our smart camera is exposed to harsh environmental influences such as rapid changes in temperature and humidity as well as wind and rain. It must be implemented as an embedded system with tight operating constraints such as size, power consumption and temperature range. The smart camera is divided into three major parts:  (i) the video sensor,  (ii) the processing unit,  (iii) the communication unit.
  • 16. Video Sensor  The video sensor represents the first stage in the smart camera's overall data flow. The sensor captures incoming light and transforms it into electrical signals that can be transferred to the processing unit. A CMOS sensor best fulfills the requirements for video sensor. These sensors feature a high dynamics due to their logarithmic characteristics and provide on-chip ADCs and amplifiers.
  • 17. Processing Unit  The second stage in the overall data flow is the processing unit. Due to the high-performance on board image and video processing the requirements on the computing performance are very high. A rough estimation results in 10 GIPS computing performance. These performance requirements together with the various c onstraints of the embedded system solution are fulfilled with digital signal processors(DSP).
  • 18. Communication Unit  The final stage of the overall data flow in our smart camera represents the communication unit. The processing unit transfers the data to the processing unit via a generic interface. This interface eases the implementation of the different network connections such as Ethernet, wireless LAN and GSM/GPRS.
  • 19. The Single Stopped Vehicle (SSV) algorithm:  The core of the IDS is the Single Stopped Vehicle (SSV) algorithm. Its primary objective is to detect stopped vehicles in high-speed, free- flowing traffic - a situation in which accidents tend to be most serious. When the first outstation detects a vehicle, it sends a message containing relevant vehicle data to the next downstream outstation. This next outstation will expect the vehicle to arrive within a certain time window. If it does, the outstation will inform the following one and so on. If it does not, it is likely that the vehicle has stopped between the two outstations and an alarm is raised. This is a simplification of the actual processing, which needs to keep a virtual map of all vehicles tran siting each outstation pair. The IDS is able to detect and track vehicles straddling lanes and changing lanes between outstations.
  • 20. Single Stopped Vehicle (SSV) This alarm is raised when a vehicle which was detected by an upstream outstation fails to be detected by the current one. The implication is that the vehicle has stopped somewhere between the two sites, either on the running lanes or the shoulder. Extra Vehicle This alarm is raised when an unrecognized vehicle is detected at a site,the vehicle was not detected by the previous outstation. This would normally be a previously stopped vehicle rejoining the traffic. Slow Vehicle This alarm indicates a vehicle was detected at a speed significantly below the current average speed of other vehicles on the highway. This is in itself a dangerous condition and may frequently indicate the vehicle is about to stop. Reverse Vehicle Any vehicle moving in the wrong direction on a highway is a hazard and an alarm is generated immediately.
  • 21.  Slow Traffic This indicates the average speed of the vehicles has fallen below a pre-defined threshold at the site. The cause will usually be congestion. This will also happen upstream from an incident, which case it will probably be followed shortly by a Queued Traffic alarm.  Queued Traffic A Queued Traffic alarm is raised to indicate traffic on that lane is showing shock-wave or start/stop behavior. This is usually due either to excessive congestion or a downstream incident. Traffic information: Traffic information messages provide data collected over configurable time periods:  Traffic flow in vehicles per hour (on this lane) over the last time period.  Average vehicle speed over the last time period.  Presence of vehicles on the shoulder or in an ERA  Currently active alarms. This includes the number of active SSVs for that lane, Slow Traffic and Queued Traffic indications.  Traffic count, in vehicles, over the last time period. For added flexibility, two data collection intervals are defined - one for the traffic count information and one for the flow, speed and alarm status information.
  • 22. Vehicle records: Every time a vehicle crosses a loop site, a record is generated including such information as:  Carriageway, lane and direction  Vehicle length and speed  Date and time of the occurrence and site occupancy time Other data may easily be obtained from this information, such as the headway between consecutive vehicles. Traffic information message processing: This provides a real-time picture of the highway conditions such as average speed and vehicle count. This can be used to warn of congestion, and support decisions, for example, to open a shoulder to traffic.
  • 23.  Vehicle processing: Although the vehicle records are strictly a by-product of the incident detection processing, they provide significant opportunities in longer- term traffic management. These include:  Reconstitution of the highway scenario immediately prior to an accident, for legal support (Idris is accurate enough for speed enforcement)  Monitoring of traffic volumes and speeds at any level of detail(seasonal, weekly, daily, hourly, etc.) for future highway expansion planning.  Monitoring of traffic patterns (lane changes, speed variations) to support traffic management strategies both for day-to-day congestion management and scheduling of maintenance procedures.  Analysis of motorists' behavior in diverse situations (free flow, moderate congestion, congestion and as a shock-wave of an incident propagates back along the highway).  Vehicle records can be used real-time, when maximum information is needed at the Control Centre, or, once stored in a database, can be analyzed at leisure by even the most time-consuming algorithms.
  • 24. VMS  A variable electronic or dynamic message sign, often abbreviated VMS,CMS, or DMS, and in the UK known as a matrix sign,[2] is an electronic traffic sign often used on roadways to give travelers information about special events. Such signs warn of traffic congestion, accidents, incidents, roadwork zones, or speed limits on a specific highway segment. In urban areas, VMS are used within parking guidance and information systems to guide drivers to available car parking spaces. They may also ask vehicles to take alternative routes, limit travel speed, warn of duration and location of the incidents or just inform of the traffic conditions.  A complete message on a panel generally includes a problem statement indicating incident, roadwork, stalled vehicle etc.; a location statement indicating where the incident is located; an effect statement indicating lane closure, delay, etc. and an action statement giving suggestion what to do traffic conditions ahead. These signs are also used for AMBER Alert and Silver Alert messages.  On the interchange of I-5 and SR 120 in San Joaquin County, California, an automated visibility and speed warning system was installed in 1996to warn traffic of reduced visibility due to fog (where Tule fog is a common problem in the winter), and of slow or stopped traffic. VMS es were deployed at least as early as the 1960s. The current VMS systems are largely deployed on freeways or trunk highways.
  • 25. Typical messages provide the following information:  Crashes, including vehicle spin-out or rollover  Stalls affecting normal flow in a lane or on shoulders  Non-recurring congestion, often a residual effect of cleared crash  Closures of an entire road , e.g. over a mountain pass in winter.  Downstream exit ramp closures  Debris on roadway  Vehicle fires  Short-term maintenance or construction lasting less than three days  Pavement failure alerts  AMBER Alerts and weather warnings via the warninginfrastructure of NOAA Weather Radio's SAME system  Travel times  Variable speed limitsThe The information comes from a variety of traffic monitoring and surveillance systems. It is expected that by providing real- timeinformation on special events on the oncoming road, VMS can improvevehicles' route selection, reduce travel time, mitigate the severity and duration of incidents and improve the performance of the transportation
  • 26. APPLICATIONS OF CMSs Permanently mounted CMSs are used primarily for the following applications:•  Non-recurrent problems – Caused by random, unpredictable incidents such as crashes, stalled vehicles , spilled loads; or caused by temporary, preplanned activities such as construction , maintenance, or ut ility operations.  Environmental problems – Caused by acts of nature such as fog, floods, ice, snow, etc.  Special event traffic problems – Problems associated with special events (e.g., ballgames, parades, etc.)  Special operational problems – Operational features such as high occupancy, reversible, exclusive or contra flow lanes and certain design features such as drawbridges, tunnels, Ferry services. A limited number of agencies are also using CMSs for:•  Recurrent problems – Caused by daily peak period traffic demand exceeding freeway capacities. In some cases, limits-of- congestion messages are displayed; in other cases  time messages are displayed. Our suggestion is including adding one of variable electronic sign (VMS) on sungai besi highway because the driver high speed in this road and there is more accident in this area the VMS make helpless to reduce the speed especially motorcyclist.
  • 27. Features:  Wireless or wired network connectivity  Power over Ethernet driven  Enterprise-grade security support  2D image support  Wireless 802.11i support  Simple design, faster time-to-market Applications:  Freeway signs and traffic control  Outdoor displays  Stadium & arenas  Displays outside malls/restaruants
  • 28. COMMUNICATION A good communication system is very crucial in an urban traffic control for the following purposes:  Synchronization of controller timer at each intersection for offset implementation.  Exchange of traffic data between controllers.  Malfunction reporting from each controller to the control room.  Incident reporting to the control room.  Use of the smart camera for surveillance purpose.  Data compilation at the control room would be used for the benefit of road users and research purposes. Laying copper or fiber optic cable for this purpose is relatively very expensive and involves road digging. Renting existing commercial telecommunication cable also involves high operating cost. A wireless communication system is an alternative option to avoid high initial and running cost. Another alternatives using power cable plug Ethernet This is actually a simple device that enables electricity cable to become LAN cable at the same time. This option will reduce communication cost tremendously as it will use existing power supply cable as the communication line with reasonable bandwidth.
  • 29. Communications System Countdown timing and walk/wait state information are polled from the traffic controller by the bridge SNMP controller and are translated and rebroadcast to the PnP network controller that distributes this information to the smart signals and detectors. The service request information from the smart pedestrian call button uses the same route, but transmits minimal information which is translated by the SNMP bridge controller before reaching the traffic controller. In this implementation, the bri dge node consists of two microprocessors, a SNMP translator and a PnP processor, operating in a master-slave configuration bridging the two Ethernet networks. Network communications with the traffic controller use SNMP employing a point-to-point User Datagram Protocol (UDP)transport layer. All other devices use standard network Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and UDP broadcast communications where each network node uses dynamic host configuration protocol (DHCP) for a unique local internet protocol (IP) address allocation. The two networks can be replaced with a common network hub or switch. However, they are shown as two independent networks in Fig. 2 to give emphasis to the use of Ethernet over power line (EoP). Every smart signal and detector as well as the translator and bridge processors operate as a network node.
  • 30. Estimated cost *Cost Solution Low cost solutions are the second output of this study, ranging from setting the optimum timing manually to an intelligent system with communication system. The intelligent system is based on distributed control system using microprocessors whereas the communication systemic based on wireless system or system using power cable as the communication medium to minimize cost. Installation Installation is a very important part as it directly affects the cost and also the durability of the items installed. For every intersection, many items are needed to be installed. They comprise of four video cameras, an industrial PC, an image grabbing card, a multiplexer and support equipment such as video recorder and uninterrupted power supply which were placed beside the traffic light controller.
  • 31. THANK YOU

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