Supervisor name: Riza Atiq Abdullah O.K. Rahmat
Done by: Mohanad Jaafar Talib – P71085
Kajang is a connect point between kulal lumpur and
seremban and putrajaya . kajang surrounded by a lot of
highways and expressway that make traveling to and from
Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) is the application of
computer, electronics, and communication technologies and
management strategies in an integrated manner to provide traveler
information to increase the safety and efficiency of the road
transportation systems. The various user services offered by ITS have
been divided in eight groups have been briefly described. The ITS
architecture which provides a common framework for
planning, defining, and integrating intelligent transportation systems is
briefly described emphasizing logical and physical architecture.
ITS improves transportation safety and mobility and enhances global
connectivity by means of productivity improvements achieved through
the integration of advanced communications technologies into the
transportation infrastructure and in vehicles. Intelligent transportation
systems encompass a broad range of wireless and wire line
communication based information and electronics technologies to
better manage traffic and maximize the utilization of the existing
transportation infrastructure. It improves driving experience, safety and
capacity of road systems, reduces risks in transportation, relieves traffic
congestion, improves transportation efficiency and reduces pollution.
ITS user services
In order to deploy ITS, a framework is developed highlighting
various services the ITS can offer to the users. A list of 33 user
services has been provided in the National ITS Program Plan. The
number of user services, keep changing over time when a new
service is added. All the above services are divided in eight groups.
The division of these services is based on the perspective of the
organization and sharing of common technical functions. The eight
groups are described as follows:
1- Travel and traffic management
2- Public transportation operations
3- Electronic payment
4- Commercial vehicle operations
5- Advance vehicle control and safety systems
6- Emergency management
7- Information management
8- Maintenance and construction management
The ITS Architecture provides a common framework for
planning, defining, and integrating intelligent transportation systems. It
specifies how the different ITS components would interact with each
other to help solving transportation problems. It provides the
transportation professionals to address their needs with wide variety
of options. It identifies and describes various functions and assigns
responsibilities to various stake-holders of ITS. The ITS architecture
should be common and of specified standards throughout the state or
region so that it can address solution to several problems while
interacting with various agencies.
Interoperability - The ITS architecture should be such that the
information collected, function implemented or any equipment
installed be interoperable by various agencies in different state and
Capable of sharing and exchanging information - The information by
traffic operations may be useful to the emergency services.
Resource sharing - regional communication towers constructed by
various private agencies are required to be shared by ITS operations.
To accomplish user service requirements
many functions or processes are needed.
The logical architecture defines a set of
functions (or processes) and information
flows (or data flows) that respond to the
user service requirements. It describes the
lower end interaction of different
components of ITS. Processes and data
flows are grouped to form a particular
functions. These are represented
graphically by data flow diagrams (DFDs).
Each process is broken down into more sub
processes. The sub process is further
broken into sub process which are called
process specifications (P-specs) lowest
level. These p specs are required to be
performed to fulfill user services
The functions from logical architecture that serve the same
need are grouped into sub systems. With these subsystems
a physical entity is developed to deliver functions. The data
flow of logical architecture are also combined to define
interface between subsystems. The picture shows the
functions A and B of logical architecture assigned to
subsystem A in physical architecture. Both the architecture
forms the core of ITS.
The physical architecture of ITS defines the physical subsystems
and architectural flows based on the logical architecture. The 22
subsystems are broadly classified in four groups as
centers, field, vehicle, and travelers. The picture shows the
subsystems and communications that comprise the national physical
architecture. The subsystem represent aggregation of functions that
serve the same transportation need and closely correspond to
physical elements of transportation management system. Vehicle
group consists of five different types of vehicles. The traveler group
represents different ways a traveler can access information on the
status of the transportation system. There are four different types of
Fixed point to fixed point
Wide area wireless
Vehicle - vehicle communication
Field - vehicle communication
Through the communication systems all the subsystems are
interconnected and transfer the required data. The picture shows the
communication between traffic management subsystem and the
roadway subsystem. Traffic management subsystem is connected to
communications which gets real time information of the transportation
system through roadway subsystem which comprise of signal
control, detectors, camera, VMS etc.
traffic light system
ODERN traffic signal controls use highly capable Microprocessor
based algorithms to control vehicle movements through intersections.
However, the infrastructure that provides the interface between the
controller cabinet, which houses the traffic controller, and the signals
and sensors continues to use technologies developed as early as
1912. These dated technologies limit intersection communication
capabilities, thus resulting in construction practices that are costly to
install, maintain and upgrade. The goal of this research is to
investigate the suitability and advantages for safety and access of
applying modern distributed control practices to controlling signal
lights for not only vehicles, but also pedestrians who are often
overlooked in the design of intersection control. Additionally, research
on enabling technologies will improve service for vehicles
and pedestrians. Current practices treat all vehicles the same regardl
ess of stopping and acceleration capabilities. Pedestrians too are
treated as if they have equal mobility, agility, and cognitive abilities.
With current traffic controls there is little opportunity to tune traffic
controller operations based upon individual user needs.
Traffic Light System Architecture
For our tests, only the pedestrian signal and call buttons were
implemented with smart signal design leaving the traffic lights
under conventional traffic control operations. Fig. is a block diagram of
the distributed traffic system architecture that was built and tested for
this investigation. It consists of two independent Ethernet networks:one
to provide communications with the traffic controller and one network f
or the real-time control of the distributed smart signals. The bridge
node that interfaces with the traffic controller uses the National
Transportation Communications ITS Protocol (NTCIP). Also
attached to the NTCIP network are two Windows based computers for
simulation and configuration. The Traffic Operations computer
generates messages to alter traffic signal timing representative of
control from a traffic operations center. This computer was also used to
implement preemption and setup the timing plans in the Traffic
Video Detection System For Traffic
The point based inductive loop is widely used in conventional traffic light
sensors. The sensor is used either to detect the presence of vehicles or : to
measure the gap or headway of the arriving vehicle in the vehicle-actuated
system or to count the traffic volume and to determine the queue length in a
coordinated adaptive system. In a more sophisticated system, the sensor is
also used to detect any traffic incident. However, the rising cost of installing
the loops and disruption of traffic flows during installation or maintenance
has resulted in the video detection system becoming more attractive.
In addition, the cost of equipment for the video detection system has
reduced substantially in the past l0 years. This paper describes the
utilization of a video camera and image processing to detect the presence of
vehicles, to count the volume of approaching traffic, to measure queue
length and to detect traffic incidents at the approach road of a signalized
intersection.Neural networks were used to detect
the presence of the vehicles, to detect the traffic incident and to measure the
queue length by identifying whether the road surface was occupied by
vehicles and whether these vehicles were moving or stationary for specified
duration of time. The number of arriving vehicles was counted by
observing the fluctuation of the selected pixels values in the middle of the
traffic lane. A single camera which was developed in this study is able to
capture the above mentioned parameters simultaneously from a multi-lane
Smart Surveillance System
CCTV camera refers to Closed Circuit Television camera which is video
camera used to transmit the signal from a particular place to another. The
images can be displayed on monitors and recorded for Ce system to
reference as well. It is widely employed as a surveillance monitor and keep
track of happenings at places requiring monitoring Smart Video
Surveillance is the use of computer vision
and traffic. pattern recognition technologies to analyze information from situ
ated sensors. Smart Cameras are becoming more popular in Intelligent
Surveillance Systems area. Smart cameras are cameras that can perform
tasks far beyond simply taking photos and recording videos. Thanks to the
purposely built-in intelligent image processing and pattern recognition
algorithms, smart cameras can detect motion, measure
objects, read vehicle number plates, and even recognize human behaviors.
Currently, the majority of CCTV systems use analogue techniques for
image distribution and storage. Conventional CCTV cameras generally use
a digital charge coupled device (CCD) to capture images. The digital
images then converted into an analogue composite video signal, which is
connected to the CCTV matrix, monitors and recording
equipment, generally via coaxial cables.
Architecture of the Smart Camera
For traffic surveillance the entire smart camera is packed into a single cabinet
which is typically mounted in tunnels and aside highways. The electrical power is
either supplied by a power socket or by solar panels.
For traffic surveillance the entire smart camera is packed into a
single cabinet which is typically mounted in tunnels and aside
highways. The electrical power is either supplied by a power socket
or by solar panels.
Thus, our smart camera is exposed to harsh environmental
inﬂuences such as rapid changes in temperature and humidity as
well as wind and rain. It must be implemented as an embedded
system with tight operating constraints such as size, power
consumption and temperature range.
The smart camera is divided into three major parts:
(i) the video sensor,
(ii) the processing unit,
(iii) the communication unit.
The video sensor represents the ﬁrst stage in the smart camera's
overall data ﬂow. The sensor captures incoming light
and transforms it into electrical signals that can be transferred to
the processing unit. A CMOS sensor best fulﬁlls the requirements
for video sensor. These sensors feature a high dynamics due to
their logarithmic characteristics and provide on-chip ADCs and
The second stage in the overall data ﬂow is
the processing unit. Due to the high-performance on
board image and video processing the requirements on the
computing performance are very high. A rough estimation
results in 10 GIPS computing performance.
These performance requirements together with the various c
onstraints of the embedded system solution are fulﬁlled with
digital signal processors(DSP).
The ﬁnal stage of the overall data ﬂow in our smart camera
represents the communication unit. The processing unit
transfers the data to the processing unit via a generic
interface. This interface eases the implementation of the
different network connections such as Ethernet, wireless LAN
The Single Stopped Vehicle
The core of the IDS is the Single Stopped Vehicle (SSV) algorithm.
Its primary objective is to detect stopped vehicles in high-speed, free-
flowing traffic - a situation in which accidents tend to be most serious.
When the first outstation detects a vehicle, it sends a message
containing relevant vehicle data to the next downstream outstation. This
next outstation will expect the vehicle to arrive within a certain time
window. If it does, the outstation will inform the following one and so on.
If it does not, it is likely that the vehicle has stopped between the two
outstations and an alarm is raised. This is a simplification of the
actual processing, which needs to keep a virtual map of all vehicles tran
siting each outstation pair. The IDS is able to detect and track vehicles
straddling lanes and changing lanes between outstations.
Single Stopped Vehicle (SSV)
This alarm is raised when a vehicle which was detected by an
upstream outstation fails to be detected by the current one. The
implication is that the vehicle has stopped somewhere between the
two sites, either on the running lanes or the shoulder.
This alarm is raised when an unrecognized vehicle is detected at
a site,the vehicle was not detected by the previous outstation. This
would normally be a previously stopped vehicle rejoining the traffic.
This alarm indicates a vehicle was detected at a speed
significantly below the current average speed of other vehicles on
the highway. This is in itself a dangerous condition and may
frequently indicate the vehicle is about to stop.
Any vehicle moving in the wrong direction on a highway is a
hazard and an alarm is generated immediately.
This indicates the average speed of the vehicles has fallen below a
pre-defined threshold at the site. The cause will usually be congestion.
This will also happen upstream from an incident, which case it will
probably be followed shortly by a Queued Traffic alarm.
A Queued Traffic alarm is raised to indicate traffic on that lane is
showing shock-wave or start/stop behavior. This is usually due either to
excessive congestion or a downstream incident.
Traffic information messages provide data collected over configurable
Traffic flow in vehicles per hour (on this lane) over the last time period.
Average vehicle speed over the last time period.
Presence of vehicles on the shoulder or in an ERA
Currently active alarms. This includes the number of active SSVs
for that lane, Slow Traffic and Queued Traffic indications.
Traffic count, in vehicles, over the last time period. For
added flexibility, two data collection intervals are defined - one for the
traffic count information and one for the flow, speed and alarm status
Every time a vehicle crosses a loop site, a record is generated
including such information as:
Carriageway, lane and direction
Vehicle length and speed
Date and time of the occurrence and site occupancy time
Other data may easily be obtained from this
information, such as the headway between consecutive
Traffic information message processing:
This provides a real-time picture of the highway conditions
such as average speed and vehicle count. This can be used to
warn of congestion, and support decisions, for example, to
open a shoulder to traffic.
Although the vehicle records are strictly a by-product of the incident
detection processing, they provide significant opportunities in longer-
term traffic management. These include:
Reconstitution of the highway scenario immediately prior to an
accident, for legal support (Idris is accurate enough for
Monitoring of traffic volumes and speeds at any level of
detail(seasonal, weekly, daily, hourly, etc.) for future highway
Monitoring of traffic patterns (lane changes, speed variations) to
support traffic management strategies both for day-to-day
congestion management and scheduling of maintenance
Analysis of motorists' behavior in diverse situations (free
flow, moderate congestion, congestion and as a shock-wave of an
incident propagates back along the highway).
Vehicle records can be used real-time, when maximum information
is needed at the Control Centre, or, once stored in a database, can
be analyzed at leisure by even the most time-consuming
A variable electronic or dynamic message sign, often abbreviated
VMS,CMS, or DMS, and in the UK known as a matrix sign, is an
electronic traffic sign often used on roadways to give travelers
information about special events. Such signs warn of traffic
congestion, accidents, incidents, roadwork zones, or speed limits on a
specific highway segment. In urban areas, VMS are used within parking
guidance and information systems to guide drivers to available car
parking spaces. They may also ask vehicles to take alternative
routes, limit travel speed, warn of duration and location of the incidents
or just inform of the traffic conditions.
A complete message on a panel generally includes a problem
statement indicating incident, roadwork, stalled vehicle etc.; a location
statement indicating where the incident is located; an effect statement
indicating lane closure, delay, etc. and an action statement giving
suggestion what to do traffic conditions ahead. These signs are also
used for AMBER Alert and Silver Alert messages.
On the interchange of I-5 and SR 120 in San Joaquin
County, California, an automated visibility and speed warning system
was installed in 1996to warn traffic of reduced visibility due to fog
(where Tule fog is a common problem in the winter), and of slow or
stopped traffic. VMS es were deployed at least as early as the 1960s.
The current VMS systems are largely deployed on freeways or trunk
Typical messages provide the following information:
Crashes, including vehicle spin-out or rollover
Stalls affecting normal flow in a lane or on shoulders
Non-recurring congestion, often a residual effect of cleared crash
Closures of an entire road , e.g. over a mountain pass in winter.
Downstream exit ramp closures
Debris on roadway
Short-term maintenance or construction lasting less than three days
Pavement failure alerts
AMBER Alerts and weather warnings via the warninginfrastructure of
NOAA Weather Radio's SAME system
Variable speed limitsThe
The information comes from a variety of traffic monitoring
and surveillance systems. It is expected that by providing real-
timeinformation on special events on the oncoming road, VMS can
improvevehicles' route selection, reduce travel time, mitigate the severity
and duration of incidents and improve the performance of the
APPLICATIONS OF CMSs
Permanently mounted CMSs are used primarily for the following applications:•
Non-recurrent problems – Caused by random, unpredictable incidents
such as crashes, stalled vehicles , spilled loads; or caused
by temporary, preplanned activities such as construction , maintenance, or ut
Environmental problems –
Caused by acts of nature such as fog, floods, ice, snow, etc.
Special event traffic problems – Problems associated with special
events (e.g., ballgames, parades, etc.)
Special operational problems – Operational features such as high
occupancy, reversible, exclusive or contra flow lanes and certain design
features such as drawbridges, tunnels, Ferry services. A limited number of
agencies are also using CMSs for:•
Recurrent problems –
Caused by daily peak period traffic demand exceeding freeway capacities.
In some cases, limits-of- congestion messages are displayed; in other cases
time messages are displayed.
Our suggestion is including adding one of variable electronic sign
(VMS) on sungai besi highway because the driver high speed
in this road and there is more accident in this area the VMS make helpless to
reduce the speed especially motorcyclist.
Wireless or wired network connectivity
Power over Ethernet driven
Enterprise-grade security support
2D image support
Wireless 802.11i support
Simple design, faster time-to-market
Freeway signs and traffic control
Stadium & arenas
Displays outside malls/restaruants
A good communication system is very crucial in an urban traffic control for
the following purposes:
Synchronization of controller timer at each intersection for offset
Exchange of traffic data between controllers.
Malfunction reporting from each controller to the control room.
Incident reporting to the control room.
Use of the smart camera for surveillance purpose.
Data compilation at the control room would be used for the benefit of road
users and research purposes.
Laying copper or fiber optic cable for this purpose is relatively very
expensive and involves road digging. Renting existing commercial
telecommunication cable also involves high operating cost. A wireless
communication system is an alternative option to avoid high initial
and running cost. Another alternatives using power cable plug Ethernet This
is actually a simple device that enables electricity cable to become LAN
cable at the same time. This option will reduce communication cost
tremendously as it will use existing power supply cable as the
communication line with reasonable bandwidth.
Countdown timing and walk/wait state information are polled from the
traffic controller by the bridge SNMP controller and are translated
and rebroadcast to the PnP network controller that distributes this
information to the smart signals and detectors. The service request
information from the smart pedestrian call button uses the same route, but
transmits minimal information which is translated by the SNMP bridge
controller before reaching the traffic controller. In this implementation, the bri
dge node consists of two microprocessors, a SNMP translator and a
PnP processor, operating in a master-slave configuration bridging the two
Ethernet networks. Network communications with the traffic controller use
SNMP employing a point-to-point User Datagram Protocol (UDP)transport
layer. All other devices use standard network Transmission Control Protocol
(TCP) and UDP broadcast communications where each network node uses
dynamic host configuration protocol (DHCP) for a unique local internet
protocol (IP) address allocation. The two networks can be replaced with a
common network hub or switch. However, they are shown as two
independent networks in Fig. 2 to give emphasis to the use of Ethernet over
power line (EoP). Every smart signal and detector as well as the translator
and bridge processors operate as a network node.
Low cost solutions are the second output of this study, ranging from
setting the optimum timing manually to an intelligent system with
communication system. The intelligent system is based on
distributed control system using microprocessors whereas the
communication systemic based on wireless system or system using
power cable as the communication medium to minimize cost.
Installation is a very important part as it directly affects the cost and also
the durability of the items installed. For every intersection, many items are
needed to be installed. They comprise of four video cameras, an industrial
PC, an image grabbing card, a multiplexer and support equipment such
as video recorder and uninterrupted power supply which were placed
beside the traffic light controller.