Lect -brainstem


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Lect -brainstem

  1. 1. Brain StemBrain Stem SMS 1084SMS 1084 Dr. Mohanad R. AlwanDr. Mohanad R. Alwan
  2. 2. Major Brain Stem ActivitiesMajor Brain Stem Activities  ConduitConduit  Ascending and descending pathwaysAscending and descending pathways  Integrative functionsIntegrative functions  Complex motor patternsComplex motor patterns  Respiratory and cardiovascular activityRespiratory and cardiovascular activity  Regulation of arousal and level ofRegulation of arousal and level of consciousnessconsciousness  Cranial Nerve functionsCranial Nerve functions
  3. 3. Major ExternalMajor External FeaturesFeatures
  4. 4. Brain StemBrain Stem Midbrain Pons Medulla
  5. 5. MidbrainMidbrain  Cerebral PedunclesCerebral Peduncles  Interpeduncular cisternInterpeduncular cistern  Origin of CN III -- Oculomotor NerveOrigin of CN III -- Oculomotor Nerve  Corpora QuadrigeminaCorpora Quadrigemina  Superior ColliculiSuperior Colliculi  Inferior ColliculiInferior Colliculi
  6. 6. MidbrainMidbrain  Substantia nigraSubstantia nigra  Red nucleusRed nucleus
  7. 7. MidbrainMidbrain Corpora quadrigemina Cerebral peduncles Interpeduncular cistern CN III
  8. 8. PonsPons  Cerebellar PedunclesCerebellar Peduncles  Superior (Dives under the colliculi)Superior (Dives under the colliculi)  Middle (Bridge of the pons)Middle (Bridge of the pons)  Inferior (inferior/medial to middle)Inferior (inferior/medial to middle)  Floor of the 4th VentricleFloor of the 4th Ventricle
  9. 9. PonsPons  4th ventricle4th ventricle  Pontine nucleiPontine nuclei  Locus ceruleusLocus ceruleus
  10. 10. PonsPons
  11. 11. PonsPons Middle cerebellar peduncle
  12. 12. PonsPons Middle cerebellar peduncle Inferior cerebellar peduncles Superior cerebellar peduncles
  13. 13. PonsPons  4th Ventricle4th Ventricle  Inflow from aqueduct ofInflow from aqueduct of SylviusSylvius  Sulcus limitansSulcus limitans
  14. 14. MedullaMedulla  PyramidsPyramids  Pyramidal decussationPyramidal decussation  Inferior oliveInferior olive  Obex (inferiormost point of the 4thObex (inferiormost point of the 4th ventricle)ventricle)
  15. 15. MedullaMedulla Pyramids Obex Inferior olive
  16. 16. MedullaMedulla Inferior Olive Pyramids
  17. 17. Caudal MedullaCaudal Medulla  Sensory nucleiSensory nuclei  Nucleus GracilisNucleus Gracilis  Nuclues CuneatusNuclues Cuneatus  Pyramidal decussationPyramidal decussation
  18. 18. Tectum and TegmentumTectum and Tegmentum  TectumTectum  Area posterior to the ventricular spaceArea posterior to the ventricular space  Only prominent in the midbrainOnly prominent in the midbrain  Superior and inferior colliculi (“tectal plate”)Superior and inferior colliculi (“tectal plate”)
  19. 19. Tectum and TegmentumTectum and Tegmentum Tectal Plate
  20. 20. Tectum and TegmentumTectum and Tegmentum  TegmentumTegmentum  Area anterior to the ventricular space (but notArea anterior to the ventricular space (but not everything anterior)everything anterior)  This is the embryologically oldest areas of theThis is the embryologically oldest areas of the brainstembrainstem
  21. 21. Big Four PathwaysBig Four Pathways
  22. 22. Remember the Big Four?Remember the Big Four? Corticospinal tract Dorsal Columns Spinothalamic tract Spinocerebellar tracts
  23. 23. Big Four PathwaysBig Four Pathways  Corticospinal tractCorticospinal tract  Descending motorDescending motor  Spinothalamic tractSpinothalamic tract  Ascending pain/temperatureAscending pain/temperature  Dorsal columns/Medial lemniscusDorsal columns/Medial lemniscus  Ascending somatosensory and consciousAscending somatosensory and conscious proprioceptionproprioception  Spinocerebellar tractsSpinocerebellar tracts  Ascending unconscious proprioceptionAscending unconscious proprioception
  24. 24. The Big Four -- Caudal MedullaThe Big Four -- Caudal Medulla Corticospinal tract Medial Lemniscus Spinothalamic tract Spinocerebellar tracts Lateral Cuneate Nucleus
  25. 25. The Big Four…err…three -- PonsThe Big Four…err…three -- Pons Corticospinal tract Medial Lemniscus Spinothalamic tract
  26. 26. The Big Three -- MidbrainThe Big Three -- Midbrain Corticospinal tract Medial Lemniscus Spinothalamic tract
  27. 27. Brain Stem NucleiBrain Stem Nuclei
  28. 28. Brain Stem NucleiBrain Stem Nuclei  Major neurotransmitter nucleiMajor neurotransmitter nuclei  Reticular formation (not really a “nucleus”Reticular formation (not really a “nucleus” but acts like a group of nuclei)but acts like a group of nuclei)  Nuclei associated with cranial nervesNuclei associated with cranial nerves
  29. 29. Raphe NucleiRaphe Nuclei  Ridge of cells along the midline in theRidge of cells along the midline in the center of the brainstemcenter of the brainstem  Multiple nucleiMultiple nuclei  CaudalCaudal  projections to the spinal cord and other partsprojections to the spinal cord and other parts of the brainstemof the brainstem  RostralRostral  projections to multiple cortical areasprojections to multiple cortical areas
  30. 30. Raphe NucleiRaphe Nuclei  Major serotonin nucleiMajor serotonin nuclei  Technically part of theTechnically part of the reticular formationreticular formation  Complex reciprocal relationships with multipleComplex reciprocal relationships with multiple areasareas  Ascending pathways involved in manyAscending pathways involved in many neurobehavioral phenomenaneurobehavioral phenomena  MoodMood  SleepSleep  Feeding/satietyFeeding/satiety  Descending pathways modulate spinal cordDescending pathways modulate spinal cord functionfunction  PainPain
  31. 31. Locus CeruleusLocus Ceruleus  Major norepinephrine nucleusMajor norepinephrine nucleus  Dorsal wall of the rostral ponsDorsal wall of the rostral pons  Projects toProjects to  Spinal cordSpinal cord  Brain StemBrain Stem  CortexCortex
  32. 32. Locus CeruleusLocus Ceruleus  FunctionFunction  ArousalArousal  Modulation of stress responsesModulation of stress responses  Linked toLinked to  DepressionDepression  AnxietyAnxiety  Post-traumatic stress disorderPost-traumatic stress disorder  Accounts for some of the psychiatricAccounts for some of the psychiatric symptoms in Parkinson’s Diseasesymptoms in Parkinson’s Disease
  33. 33. Locus CeruleusLocus Ceruleus Normal Parkinson’s Disease
  34. 34. Substantia NigraSubstantia Nigra  One of a few major dopamine centerOne of a few major dopamine center  Projects to the basal gangilaProjects to the basal gangila  FunctionFunction  Modulation of movementsModulation of movements  Major role in Parkinson’s DiseaseMajor role in Parkinson’s Disease  NOT involved in psychiatric symptomsNOT involved in psychiatric symptoms
  35. 35. Nucleus Basalis of MeynertNucleus Basalis of Meynert  NOT in the brainstem, but importantNOT in the brainstem, but important  Located in the basal forebrainLocated in the basal forebrain  Major acetylcholine nucleus in the brainMajor acetylcholine nucleus in the brain  Provides tonic stimulation to theProvides tonic stimulation to the hippocampushippocampus
  36. 36. Nucleus Basalis of MeynertNucleus Basalis of Meynert  Major neurotransmitter associated withMajor neurotransmitter associated with Alzheimer’s DiseaseAlzheimer’s Disease  Major medications for Alzheimer’s areMajor medications for Alzheimer’s are cholinesterase inhibitorscholinesterase inhibitors
  37. 37. Coming Up…Coming Up…  Spinal cordSpinal cord