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Blood

Blood

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Blood.3. Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Blood
    • SMS 1053
    • Dr. Mohanad R. Alwan
  • 2. Functions of Blood
    • Transport of:
      • Gases, nutrients, waste products
      • Processed molecules
      • Regulatory molecules
    • Regulation of pH and osmosis
    • Maintenance of body temperature
    • Protection against foreign substances
    • Clot formation
  • 3. Formed Elements
    • Red blood cells ( erythrocytes )
    • White blood cells ( leukocytes )
      • Granulocytes
        • Neutrophils
        • Eosinophils
        • Basophils
      • Agranulocytes
        • Lymphocytes
        • Monocytes
    • Platelets ( thrombocytes )
  • 4. Human blood smear X 500
  • 5. Production of Formed Elements
    • Hematopoiesis or hemopoiesis : Process of blood cell production
    • Stem cells : All formed elements derived from single population
      • Proerythroblasts : Develop into red blood cells
      • Myeloblasts : Develop into basophils, neutrophils, eosinophils
      • Lymphoblasts : Develop into lymphocytes
      • Monoblasts : Develop into monocytes
      • Megakaryoblasts : Develop into platelets
  • 6. Erythropoiesis
    • Production of red blood cells
      • Stem cells proerythroblasts early erythroblasts intermediate late reticulocytes
    • Erythropoietin : Hormone to stimulate RBC production
  • 7. Hematopoiesis
  • 8. Blood
    • Composition
      • Formed elements
        • Cells
      • Plasma
        • Fluid
  • 9. Blood Composition
    • pH – normal is 7.35 – 7.45; venous blood will have a lower pH because it has a higher concentration of CO 2 .
      • pH (parts hydrogen) is a measure of the amount of H + in a solution. Values range from 0-14. Neutral pH is 7.0 and a pH below 7 is acid while a pH above 7 is alkaline.
      • Blood is slightly ?
  • 10. Separated blood
    • Centrifuged blood
      • Plasma 55%
      • Buffy coat
        • WBCs <1%
      • Erythrocytes
        • Hematocrit
        • 45%
  • 11. Plasma
    • 90% water
    • 10% solutes
    • plasma transports:-
      • Ions, e.g., Na + , Cl - , Ca ++
      • Nutrients, e.g., simple sugars, amino acids, lipids
      • Wastes, e.g., urea, ammonia, CO 2
      • Miscellaneous: O 2 , hormones, vitamins, plasma proteins
  • 12. Plasma proteins
    • Albumin
      • Helps control osmotic pressure
      • Helps control diffusion of water (recall edema)
    • Globulin
      • Includes antibodies (Abs)
      • Transport proteins (lipids, iron, copper, etc.)
    • Fibrinogen
      • Involved in clotting
  • 13. Serum
    • Plasma with clotting factors removed
    • Let blood sit, pour off supernatant
  • 14. Formed elements
    • RBCs (erythrocytes)
    • WBCs (leukocytes)
      • Granulocytes
      • Agranulocytes
    • Blood smear
      • Light microscope
      • Stained
  • 15. Erythrocytes
    • 7-8  m diameter
    • Biconcave disc shape
      •  surface area
      •  efficiency for diffusion of O2 & CO2
  • 16. Erythrocytes
    • Structure
      • Plasma membrane
      • Cytoplasm
        • Hemoglobin
          • Binds O 2 & CO 2
        • No nucleus or organelles
  • 17. Erythrocytes
    • Flexible
    • Elastic
    • 100-120 day life span
    • Originate in bone marrow
  • 18. Haemoglobin
    • gives red blood cells their colour
    • can carry up to 4 molecules of O 2
    • associates and dissociates with O 2
    • contains iron
  • 19. Hemoglobin
    • Consists of:
      • 4 globin molecules : Transport carbon dioxide (carbonic anhydrase involved), nitric oxide
      • 4 heme molecules : Transport oxygen
        • Iron is required for oxygen transport
  • 20. Hemoglobin Breakdown
  • 21. Leukocytes
    • Protect body against microorganisms and remove dead cells and debris
    • Movements
      • Ameboid
      • Diapedesis
      • Chemotaxis
      • Passive Immunity
      • Active Immunity
      • Antigen – Antibody
    • Types
      • Neutrophils : Most common; phagocytic cells destroy bacteria (60%)
      • Eosinophils : Detoxify chemicals; reduce inflammation (4%)
      • Basophils : Alergic reactions; Release histamine, heparin increase inflam. response (1%)
      • Lymphocytes : Immunity 2 types; b & t Cell types. IgG-infection, IgM-microbes, IgA-Resp & GI, IgE- Alergy, IgD-immune response
      • Monocytes : Become macrophages
  • 22. Leukocytes (WBCs)
    • Part of defense system
      • Protect against bacteria, viruses, parasites
    • Attracted to sites of infection
    • Diapedesis: leave capillary by squeezing between endothelial cells
    • Ameboid movement
      • Travel toward infection
    • Originate in bone marrow
    • Granulocytes / agranulocytes
  • 23. Leukocytes
  • 24. Diapedesis http://www.whfreeman.com/immunology/CH01/diapedesis.htm
  • 25. Granulocytes
    • WBCs with granules in cytoplasm
      • Visible with LM
    • Neutrophils
    • Eosinophils
    • Basophils
    • Phagocytic
    • Larger than RBCs
    • Lobed nuclei
  • 26. Neutrophils
    • 60% of WBCs
    • Lobed nucleus
    • Light staining granules
      • Digestive enzymes
    • Function
      • Phagocytize & destroy bacteria
    • First cells to respond to infection
    • Secrete antibacterial chemicals
    • Phagocytize & digest bacteria
  • 27. Eosinophils
    • 1-4% of WBCs
    • Lobed nucleus
    • Eosin-staining granules
    • Phagocytize allergen-Ab complexes
    • Secrete antihistamine
    • Attack parasites
  • 28. Basophils
    • 0.5% of WBCs
    • Lobed nucleus
    • Large granules stained dark purple
    • Granules
      • Histamine – creates inflammation in allergic reaction
  • 29. Lymphocytes
    • Agranulocyte
    • 20-45% of WBCs
    • Spherical, dark-staining nucleus
    • Thin rim of blue staining cytoplasm
    • Each lymphocyte recognizes and acts against a specific antigen
  • 30. Lymphocytes
    • T lymphocytes can attack foreign cells directly
    (17.6)
  • 31. Lymphocytes
    • B lymphocytes transform into plasma cells and secrete antibodies
    (17.6b)
  • 32.  
  • 33. Monocytes
    • Agranulocyte
    • 4-8% of WBCs
    • Horseshoe shaped nucleus
    • Grey-blue stained cytoplasm
    • Become wandering macrophages after diapedesis
  • 34. Platelets or Thrombocytes
    • Platelets or thrombocytes
      • Not cells but fragments of megakryocytes that live in the bone marrow.
      • Function in the clotting process.
      • Normal value – 150,000 to 300,000/cubic millimeter.
      • Thrombocytopenia – low platelet count.
  • 35. Platelets
    • (thrombocytes)
    • Fragments of megakaryocytes in bone marrow
    • Attracted to hemorrhage
      • Plugs leaks
      • Promotes constriction of blood vessel
      • Triggers inflammation
      • Initiates clotting reaction
  • 36. Clotting Process
    • Hemostasis – prevention of blood loss.
      • Injury to a blood vessel occurs.
      • Myogenic response – smooth muscle lining of blood vessel contracts causing vasoconstriction.
      • Rough spot forms on the lining of the vessel (lining is simple squamous epithelium).
      • Platelets break up as they pass over the injured area – releasing platelet factors that make the platelets sticky and they stick to the wound. (In small vessels the platelet plug is all that is necessary to stop the bleeding).
  • 37. Clotting Process
    • Hemostasis
      • Platelet factors combine with prothrombin (protein manufacture in the liver), calcium and other substances to form thrombin (an enzyme).
      • Thrombin reacts with fibrinogen (a blood protein) to change it into fibrin that forms a fibrous gel in the area of the wound. Fibrin is like a web of fine threads that traps RBCs and form a barrier across the vessel.
  • 38. Clotting Process
    • Hemostasis
      • Clot retraction – fibrin threads pull the edges of the break in the vessel together.
      • Note: vitamin K (produced in the colon) stimulates the production of prothrombin by the liver.
    • Embolus – blood clot that moves
    • Thrombus – stationary blood clot
  • 39. Hemostasis
    • Arrest of bleeding
    • Events preventing excessive blood loss:
      • Vascular spasm : Vasoconstriction of damaged blood vessels
      • Platelet plug formation
      • Coagulation or blood clotting
  • 40. Platelet Plug Formation
  • 41. Platelets
    • SEM of a clot with platelet, fibrin mesh, rbc’s
  • 42. Fibrinolysis
    • Clot dissolved by activity of plasmin, an enzyme which hydrolyzes fibrin
  • 43. Blood Types
    • ABO Blood Group
      • 4 blood types – A, B, AB, O
      • Types are identified by antigens located on the RBC surface.
        • Antigens – protein substances that can stimulate the body to make antibodies.
        • Antibody – proteins made by the body in response to stimulation by an antigen – causes clumping or agglutination in the case of RBCs.
  • 44. Blood Grouping
    • Determined by antigens ( agglutinogens ) on surface of RBCs
    • Antibodies ( agglutinins ) can bind to RBC antigens, resulting in agglutination ( clumping ) or hemolysis ( rupture ) of RBCs
    • Groups
      • ABO and Rh
  • 45. Blood Types
    • ABO group
      • A person with Type A blood has A antigens on their RBC and a person with Type B blood has B antigens. What antigens does a person with type AB blood have? type O?
      • Natural antibodies are also present in the plasma: A person with type A blood has anti-B antibodies and a person with type B blood has anti A antibodies. What antibodies do people with type AB or type O blood have?
  • 46. ABO Blood Groups
  • 47. Blood Types
    • Typing and cross-matching – process by which blood type is identified and donor blood is tested for possible transfusion.
    • Transfusion:
      • Type O is a “universal donor”, i.e.can give blood to anyone.
      • Type AB is the “universal recipient”, i.e. can receive blood from anyone.
  • 48. Blood Types
    • Transfusion
      • Type A can receive type A or type O blood
      • Type B can receive type B or type O blood
      • Type AB can receive type B, A, AB, or O
      • Type O can receive type ??? Blood.
  • 49. Agglutination Reaction
  • 50. Blood Types
    • Rh factor – another antigen which may be present (Rh +) or absent (Rh -) on RBCs.
      • Rh negative (-) do not have natural antibodies to the Rh antigen. If they receive blood that is Rh positive (+) antibodies form but not a problem. The second exposure can produce a transfusion reaction (hemolysis and possible kidney damage).
  • 51. Rh Blood Group
    • First studied in rhesus monkeys
    • Types
      • Rh positive : Have these antigens present on surface of RBCs
      • Rh negative : Do not have these antigens present
    • Hemolytic disease of the newborn ( HDN)
      • Mother produces anti-Rh antibodies that cross placenta and cause agglutination and hemolysis of fetal RBCs
  • 52. Question
    • 1. Describe Blood clotting process?
    • 2 . Describe Hematopoiesis diagrams?
  • 53.  
  • 54.  
  • 55. Thank You