Blood.3.

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Blood.3.

  1. 1. Blood <ul><li>SMS 1053 </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Mohanad R. Alwan </li></ul>
  2. 2. Functions of Blood <ul><li>Transport of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gases, nutrients, waste products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Processed molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulatory molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Regulation of pH and osmosis </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance of body temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Protection against foreign substances </li></ul><ul><li>Clot formation </li></ul>
  3. 3. Formed Elements <ul><li>Red blood cells ( erythrocytes ) </li></ul><ul><li>White blood cells ( leukocytes ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Granulocytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Neutrophils </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eosinophils </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Basophils </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agranulocytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lymphocytes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Monocytes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Platelets ( thrombocytes ) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Human blood smear X 500
  5. 5. Production of Formed Elements <ul><li>Hematopoiesis or hemopoiesis : Process of blood cell production </li></ul><ul><li>Stem cells : All formed elements derived from single population </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proerythroblasts : Develop into red blood cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Myeloblasts : Develop into basophils, neutrophils, eosinophils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lymphoblasts : Develop into lymphocytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monoblasts : Develop into monocytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Megakaryoblasts : Develop into platelets </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Erythropoiesis <ul><li>Production of red blood cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stem cells proerythroblasts early erythroblasts intermediate late reticulocytes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Erythropoietin : Hormone to stimulate RBC production </li></ul>
  7. 7. Hematopoiesis
  8. 8. Blood <ul><li>Composition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formed elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plasma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fluid </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Blood Composition <ul><li>pH – normal is 7.35 – 7.45; venous blood will have a lower pH because it has a higher concentration of CO 2 . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pH (parts hydrogen) is a measure of the amount of H + in a solution. Values range from 0-14. Neutral pH is 7.0 and a pH below 7 is acid while a pH above 7 is alkaline. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood is slightly ? </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Separated blood <ul><li>Centrifuged blood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plasma 55% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buffy coat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WBCs <1% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Erythrocytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hematocrit </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>45% </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Plasma <ul><li>90% water </li></ul><ul><li>10% solutes </li></ul><ul><li>plasma transports:- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ions, e.g., Na + , Cl - , Ca ++ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrients, e.g., simple sugars, amino acids, lipids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wastes, e.g., urea, ammonia, CO 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Miscellaneous: O 2 , hormones, vitamins, plasma proteins </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Plasma proteins <ul><li>Albumin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps control osmotic pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps control diffusion of water (recall edema) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Globulin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes antibodies (Abs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transport proteins (lipids, iron, copper, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fibrinogen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involved in clotting </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Serum <ul><li>Plasma with clotting factors removed </li></ul><ul><li>Let blood sit, pour off supernatant </li></ul>
  14. 14. Formed elements <ul><li>RBCs (erythrocytes) </li></ul><ul><li>WBCs (leukocytes) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Granulocytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agranulocytes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Blood smear </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Light microscope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stained </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Erythrocytes <ul><li>7-8  m diameter </li></ul><ul><li>Biconcave disc shape </li></ul><ul><ul><li> surface area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> efficiency for diffusion of O2 & CO2 </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Erythrocytes <ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plasma membrane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cytoplasm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hemoglobin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Binds O 2 & CO 2 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No nucleus or organelles </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Erythrocytes <ul><li>Flexible </li></ul><ul><li>Elastic </li></ul><ul><li>100-120 day life span </li></ul><ul><li>Originate in bone marrow </li></ul>
  18. 18. Haemoglobin <ul><li>gives red blood cells their colour </li></ul><ul><li>can carry up to 4 molecules of O 2 </li></ul><ul><li>associates and dissociates with O 2 </li></ul><ul><li>contains iron </li></ul>
  19. 19. Hemoglobin <ul><li>Consists of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 globin molecules : Transport carbon dioxide (carbonic anhydrase involved), nitric oxide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 heme molecules : Transport oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Iron is required for oxygen transport </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Hemoglobin Breakdown
  21. 21. Leukocytes <ul><li>Protect body against microorganisms and remove dead cells and debris </li></ul><ul><li>Movements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ameboid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diapedesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemotaxis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Passive Immunity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Active Immunity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antigen – Antibody </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neutrophils : Most common; phagocytic cells destroy bacteria (60%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eosinophils : Detoxify chemicals; reduce inflammation (4%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basophils : Alergic reactions; Release histamine, heparin increase inflam. response (1%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lymphocytes : Immunity 2 types; b & t Cell types. IgG-infection, IgM-microbes, IgA-Resp & GI, IgE- Alergy, IgD-immune response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monocytes : Become macrophages </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Leukocytes (WBCs) <ul><li>Part of defense system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect against bacteria, viruses, parasites </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Attracted to sites of infection </li></ul><ul><li>Diapedesis: leave capillary by squeezing between endothelial cells </li></ul><ul><li>Ameboid movement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Travel toward infection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Originate in bone marrow </li></ul><ul><li>Granulocytes / agranulocytes </li></ul>
  23. 23. Leukocytes
  24. 24. Diapedesis http://www.whfreeman.com/immunology/CH01/diapedesis.htm
  25. 25. Granulocytes <ul><li>WBCs with granules in cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visible with LM </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Neutrophils </li></ul><ul><li>Eosinophils </li></ul><ul><li>Basophils </li></ul><ul><li>Phagocytic </li></ul><ul><li>Larger than RBCs </li></ul><ul><li>Lobed nuclei </li></ul>
  26. 26. Neutrophils <ul><li>60% of WBCs </li></ul><ul><li>Lobed nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Light staining granules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digestive enzymes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phagocytize & destroy bacteria </li></ul></ul><ul><li>First cells to respond to infection </li></ul><ul><li>Secrete antibacterial chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>Phagocytize & digest bacteria </li></ul>
  27. 27. Eosinophils <ul><li>1-4% of WBCs </li></ul><ul><li>Lobed nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Eosin-staining granules </li></ul><ul><li>Phagocytize allergen-Ab complexes </li></ul><ul><li>Secrete antihistamine </li></ul><ul><li>Attack parasites </li></ul>
  28. 28. Basophils <ul><li>0.5% of WBCs </li></ul><ul><li>Lobed nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Large granules stained dark purple </li></ul><ul><li>Granules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Histamine – creates inflammation in allergic reaction </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Lymphocytes <ul><li>Agranulocyte </li></ul><ul><li>20-45% of WBCs </li></ul><ul><li>Spherical, dark-staining nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Thin rim of blue staining cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>Each lymphocyte recognizes and acts against a specific antigen </li></ul>
  30. 30. Lymphocytes <ul><li>T lymphocytes can attack foreign cells directly </li></ul>(17.6)
  31. 31. Lymphocytes <ul><li>B lymphocytes transform into plasma cells and secrete antibodies </li></ul>(17.6b)
  32. 33. Monocytes <ul><li>Agranulocyte </li></ul><ul><li>4-8% of WBCs </li></ul><ul><li>Horseshoe shaped nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Grey-blue stained cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>Become wandering macrophages after diapedesis </li></ul>
  33. 34. Platelets or Thrombocytes <ul><li>Platelets or thrombocytes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not cells but fragments of megakryocytes that live in the bone marrow. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Function in the clotting process. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Normal value – 150,000 to 300,000/cubic millimeter. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thrombocytopenia – low platelet count. </li></ul></ul>
  34. 35. Platelets <ul><li>(thrombocytes) </li></ul><ul><li>Fragments of megakaryocytes in bone marrow </li></ul><ul><li>Attracted to hemorrhage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plugs leaks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promotes constriction of blood vessel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Triggers inflammation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiates clotting reaction </li></ul></ul>
  35. 36. Clotting Process <ul><li>Hemostasis – prevention of blood loss. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Injury to a blood vessel occurs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Myogenic response – smooth muscle lining of blood vessel contracts causing vasoconstriction. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rough spot forms on the lining of the vessel (lining is simple squamous epithelium). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Platelets break up as they pass over the injured area – releasing platelet factors that make the platelets sticky and they stick to the wound. (In small vessels the platelet plug is all that is necessary to stop the bleeding). </li></ul></ul>
  36. 37. Clotting Process <ul><li>Hemostasis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Platelet factors combine with prothrombin (protein manufacture in the liver), calcium and other substances to form thrombin (an enzyme). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thrombin reacts with fibrinogen (a blood protein) to change it into fibrin that forms a fibrous gel in the area of the wound. Fibrin is like a web of fine threads that traps RBCs and form a barrier across the vessel. </li></ul></ul>
  37. 38. Clotting Process <ul><li>Hemostasis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clot retraction – fibrin threads pull the edges of the break in the vessel together. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Note: vitamin K (produced in the colon) stimulates the production of prothrombin by the liver. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Embolus – blood clot that moves </li></ul><ul><li>Thrombus – stationary blood clot </li></ul>
  38. 39. Hemostasis <ul><li>Arrest of bleeding </li></ul><ul><li>Events preventing excessive blood loss: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vascular spasm : Vasoconstriction of damaged blood vessels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Platelet plug formation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coagulation or blood clotting </li></ul></ul>
  39. 40. Platelet Plug Formation
  40. 41. Platelets <ul><li>SEM of a clot with platelet, fibrin mesh, rbc’s </li></ul>
  41. 42. Fibrinolysis <ul><li>Clot dissolved by activity of plasmin, an enzyme which hydrolyzes fibrin </li></ul>
  42. 43. Blood Types <ul><li>ABO Blood Group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 blood types – A, B, AB, O </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Types are identified by antigens located on the RBC surface. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Antigens – protein substances that can stimulate the body to make antibodies. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Antibody – proteins made by the body in response to stimulation by an antigen – causes clumping or agglutination in the case of RBCs. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  43. 44. Blood Grouping <ul><li>Determined by antigens ( agglutinogens ) on surface of RBCs </li></ul><ul><li>Antibodies ( agglutinins ) can bind to RBC antigens, resulting in agglutination ( clumping ) or hemolysis ( rupture ) of RBCs </li></ul><ul><li>Groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ABO and Rh </li></ul></ul>
  44. 45. Blood Types <ul><li>ABO group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A person with Type A blood has A antigens on their RBC and a person with Type B blood has B antigens. What antigens does a person with type AB blood have? type O? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural antibodies are also present in the plasma: A person with type A blood has anti-B antibodies and a person with type B blood has anti A antibodies. What antibodies do people with type AB or type O blood have? </li></ul></ul>
  45. 46. ABO Blood Groups
  46. 47. Blood Types <ul><li>Typing and cross-matching – process by which blood type is identified and donor blood is tested for possible transfusion. </li></ul><ul><li>Transfusion: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Type O is a “universal donor”, i.e.can give blood to anyone. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type AB is the “universal recipient”, i.e. can receive blood from anyone. </li></ul></ul>
  47. 48. Blood Types <ul><li>Transfusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Type A can receive type A or type O blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type B can receive type B or type O blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type AB can receive type B, A, AB, or O </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type O can receive type ??? Blood. </li></ul></ul>
  48. 49. Agglutination Reaction
  49. 50. Blood Types <ul><li>Rh factor – another antigen which may be present (Rh +) or absent (Rh -) on RBCs. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rh negative (-) do not have natural antibodies to the Rh antigen. If they receive blood that is Rh positive (+) antibodies form but not a problem. The second exposure can produce a transfusion reaction (hemolysis and possible kidney damage). </li></ul></ul>
  50. 51. Rh Blood Group <ul><li>First studied in rhesus monkeys </li></ul><ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rh positive : Have these antigens present on surface of RBCs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rh negative : Do not have these antigens present </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hemolytic disease of the newborn ( HDN) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mother produces anti-Rh antibodies that cross placenta and cause agglutination and hemolysis of fetal RBCs </li></ul></ul>
  51. 52. Question <ul><li>1. Describe Blood clotting process? </li></ul><ul><li>2 . Describe Hematopoiesis diagrams? </li></ul>
  52. 55. Thank You

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