Oil fate and slick trajectory predictions for oil pollution control combating strategy

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Oil fate and slick trajectory predictions for oil pollution control combating strategy

  1. 1. DEPARTMENT OF MARINE TECHNOLOGY FACULTY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA OIL FATE AND SLICK TRAJECTORY PREDICTIONS FOR MARINE OIL POLLUTION CONTROL STRATEGIES (MMK1180) NAME : MATRIC No. : MOHAMMED ALI AL-MUHANDES MM091250 SUPERVISORS : BIN AHMAD MAIN : ASSOC. PROF. DR. ZAMANI CO. : DR. JASWAR
  2. 2. 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 RESEARCH BACKGROUND O’conneli (2006) stated that oil pollution affects on :  Fisheries and aquaculture resources ,  Tourism and,  Costal industries In this research:  It is essential to predict the oil fate and slick trajectory  Combating strategies need to be set  Through simulation
  3. 3. 1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT Oil pollution control strategies need to be developed for each oil fate and slick trajectory scenario. Since each scenario is unique and independent, simulation method is preferred.
  4. 4. 1.3 OBJECTIVE To develop a method of choosing oil pollution combating strategies
  5. 5. 2. LITERATURE REVIEW i. Oil fate; The most important processes are spreading, evaporation, dispersion viscosity and emulsification (O’connel, 2006c). ii. Slick trajectory; When an oil slick is predicted to affect on high sensitive area, this prediction helps the decision maker significantly to choose the combating strategies. iii. Types of shorelines; according to geographical shape, types of beaches and to the environmental and socio-economic activities (IPIECA 2008a). iv. In-hand equipment and combating strategies; the limitation of spill control techniques must be taken into consideration in determining the most appropriate clean up response (Persga, 2009a). All of on-scene commanders are allowed to take whatever action is appropriate to clean up and/or mitigate the effects of an oil spill (Ch'ng,1997).
  6. 6. CONT. 72 references have been used in the thesis
  7. 7. 3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Determine oil fate and slick trajectory criteria  Determine oil fate and slick trajectory Determine protection priority and types of shorelines Determine equipment and techniques Determine strategy Validation by Case of study
  8. 8. 3.1 DETERMINATION OF OIL FATE Item Spreading Evaporation Dispersion Viscosity Emulsification Using method Lehr’s relationships (math. equation) for major and minor diameters of ellipse ADIOS2 (software) ADIOS2 (software) ADIOS2 (software) Mackay’s relationship (math. equation)
  9. 9. 3.2 DETERMINATION OIL SLICK TRAJECTORY The oil slick trajectory was calculated using slick trajectory calculator software based on:  Wind effects 3% of its speed in its direction within specific time  Current affects 100% of its speed in its direction within the same specific time
  10. 10. 3.3 PROTECTION PRIORITY AND TYPES OF SHORELINES    Biological resources high priority Mangrove Human use features high priority Water intake and port Shorelines high priority Mangrove
  11. 11. 3.4 EQUIPMENT AND USED TECHNIQUES Techniques Equipment Containment and protection booming Booms : Fence; Air inflated; Shoreline . . sealing Recovery Skimmers: Weir; Oleophilic; Vacuum; . Mechanical Pumps: Archimedean; Reciprocating; . Peristaltic; Diaphragm; Centrifugal Dispersion spray system mounted on workboat Airplane Helicopter Clean up Sorbents: Inorganic, Natural organic and Synthetic Motorized equipment Manual equipment
  12. 12. 3.5 DETERMINE STRATEGY Offshore recovery strategy i.   ii. iii. iv. Skimmers pumps Offshore dispersion strategy Shoreline clean up and recovery strategy Shoreline protection strategy
  13. 13. COMBATING STRATEGY FLOW CHART
  14. 14. CONT.
  15. 15. CONT.
  16. 16. 3.5.1 OFFSHORE RECOVERY STRATEGY 3.5.1.1 SKIMMERS
  17. 17. 3.5.1.2 PUMPS
  18. 18. 3.5.2 OFFSHORE DISPERSION The applying dispersant according to equations covered the following: Application rate Vdis (litre/hectare) Application rate Qdis (litre/sec) Required speed (knot)
  19. 19. 3.5.3 SHORELINE CLEAN UP AND RECOVERY STRATEGY
  20. 20. 3.5.4 SHORELINE PROTECTION STRATEGY
  21. 21. 3.6 CASE OF STUDY The oil spill incident is simulated at area extended from 10 09’ N to 10 21’ N and from 1030 27’ E to 1030 37’ E which cover the area of international shipping line to shoreline of south west of Johor in Malaysia. The source of spill is considered from a vessel sailing in the international shipping line. The spill is 500 m3 crude oil type Arabian Medium, Amoco at 7 am.
  22. 22. 4. RESULTS . Oil fate prediction Spreadin g Oil slick trajectory Shoreline analysis and protection priority In hand equipment & techniques Demonstrating combating strategies Tanjunj Pelepas Port Booms Offshore recovery strategy Skimmers Evaporation Dispersion Viscosity Emulsification Tanjunj Bin Power Plant Pumps Mangrove Sorbent materials Dispersion system Vessels, Barges , motorized & manual equipment Offshore dispersion strategy Shoreline protection strategy Shoreline recovery & clean up strategy
  23. 23. 4.1 RESULTS OF OIL FATE PREDICTION i. ii. iii. iv. v. Spreading Evaporation Dispersion Viscosity Emulsification
  24. 24. 4.1.1 SPREADING 9 8 7 6 Wind speed (nm) 5 Major diameter (km *0.5) 4 Minor diameter (km *0.5 ) 3 2 1 0 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Prediction of changing of oil slick area from 7 a.m. to 4 pm
  25. 25. 4.1.2 EVAPORATION Predicted quantity of evaporated oil
  26. 26. 4.1.3 DISPERSION Predicted quantity of naturally dispersed oil
  27. 27. 4.1.4 VISCOSITY Predicted change of viscosity of spilled oil
  28. 28. 4.1.4 EMULSIFICATION 700 600 500 400 Quantity of oil (m3) Quantity of emulsion and oil (m3) 300 200 100 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Hours Predicted quantity of oil and oil with emulsion within 9 hours
  29. 29. 4.2 RESULTS OF OIL SLICK TRAJECTORY PREDICTION
  30. 30. CONT. 4 pm 2 pm 11 am 7am Predicted trajectory line pointed on each hour
  31. 31. CONT. 4 pm 2 pm 11 am 7 am Predicted trajectory line by using Google earth
  32. 32. 4.3 RESULTS OF SHORELINE ANALYSIS AND PROTECTION PRIORITY Tanjung Pelepas Port Tanjung Bin power plant Mangrove forest (9 km) High sensitive areas south west of Johor (Google earth)
  33. 33. 4.4 RESULTS OF USED EQUIPMENT Item Types Booms Fence, air inflated and shore sealing Skimmers Offshore weir, shallow water weir, oleophilic disk, vacuuum and toothed disc mechanical skimmers Pumps Peristaltic, diaphragm and centrifugal pump Chemical dispersant Two arms on board extended towards port and starboard Additional in hand equipments Two oil pollution control vessels 20 knots, Three support vessels, Storage tanks 320 cubic meters, Sorbents material, manual and motorized equipment
  34. 34. 4.5 RESULTS OF DEMONSTRATING COMBATING STRATEGIES 4.5.1 Offshore recovery strategy
  35. 35. 4.5.1.1 STAGE ONE
  36. 36. 4.5.1.2 STAGE TWO
  37. 37. 4.5.2 OFFSHORE DISPERSION STRATEGY
  38. 38. 4.5.2.1 STAGE ONE
  39. 39. 4.5.2.2 STAGE TWO
  40. 40. 4.5.3 SHORELINE PROTECTION STRATEGY Boo Length of No. of m No. booms anchors & weight 1 500 m 32 x 35 kg 2 500 m 32 x 35 kg 3 300 m 20 x 35 kg 4 400 m 26 x 35 kg 1 4 3 2 Protection technique for zone 1 Technique type: staggered shervon . configuration
  41. 41. CONT. Boom Length of No. boom No. of anchors & weight 1 200 m 0 2 200 m 0 3 70 m 5 x 35 kg 4 20 m 1 x 35 kg 5 1300 m 0 Technique type: staggered shervon and exclusive configuration Protection technique for Zone two
  42. 42. 4.5.4 SHORELINE RECOVERY AND CLEAN-UP The remained 300 m3 of oil and emulsion reached next to tidal zone and might be scattered along the shoreline and went into part of Johor strait. The recovery of collected oil in the deployed protection booms areas depend upon instant findings and ought to be done by using oleophilic skimmer, Shore and harbour weir skimmer , diaphragm pump, Vacuum systems and Sorbent materials . In addition to manual and motorized equipment.
  43. 43. 4.5.5 RESULT OF COMBATING BASED ON PREDICTION General budget after offshore combating
  44. 44. CONT. Operation Combated oil (m3) Combated oil and emulsion (m3) Offshore recovery operation (stage one) 74 103 Offshore recovery operation (stage two) 60 83 Offshore dispersion operation (stage one) 19 26 Offshore dispersion operation (stage two) 13 26 Remaining 240 300  Protection of the most environmental and economical sensitive areas such as Tanjung Pelepas Port, Tanjung Bin steam power, most of the mangrove shoreline up to Puteri Habour was based on prediction of the slick trajectory.  Large quantity of contaminate was accumulated next to the protection booms which led to make shoreline clean-up and recovery easier and faster.
  45. 45. 5 CONCLUSION  This research simulated an oil fate and slick trajectory predictions for marine oil pollution control strategies to reach highest environmental and economical benefit in south east of Johor.  The developed combating strategies flow chart was applied and cover all the strategies which are used.  The highest sensitive areas in Johor state were nominated to be protected whenever a significant oil spillage will be happened.  Matrix of equipment, which are suitable of Johor, was listed to deal with wide range of oil types.  Protection booming configuration to protect the highest sensitive areas was appointed according to the special geographical area in the south east of Johor.
  46. 46. PAPERS Two papers still in processing to be published and entitled :  OIL FATE AND TRAJECTORY SIMULATION IN MALAYSIAN SHORELINE  OIL POLLUTION COMBATING STRATEGIES SIMULATION IN MALAYSIAN SHORELINE
  47. 47. Thank you Trima kaseh

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