Impact of environmental protection requirements on the design


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Impact of environmental protection requirements on the design

  2. 2. IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS ON THE DESIGN OF MARINE VEHICLE Marine transport is the nero of the international trade where 80% of the world merchandise trade in volume carried by sea . Although it is the most important type of transport, there are negative effects on the environment . These effects starting from the shipbuilding throughout the service until the ship breaking . Thus, protection of environment became a global issue and many regulations have been issued . The regulations include requirements which impact positively on the design of marine
  3. 3. IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS ON THE DESIGN OF MARINE VEHICLE 1) Ships impact on the environment 2) Regulations to protect the environment as a global issue 3) Impact of environmental protection requrements on design of marine vehicle 4) Trend of optimizing green ship building technology 5) Future ship 6) Conclusion
  4. 4. 1) SHIPS IMPACT ON THE ENVIRONMENT Construction Operation Breaking
  5. 5. 1.1) Construction  Excessive emission of CO2 resulted from welding of joints, plates and piping systems  Heavy material that found in the anti- fouling paints  Pent paint removal blasting grit  Process and bilge water  Solvents, oily wastes and waste engine fluids are among the potential pollutants
  6. 6. 1.2) Operation Oil pollution: Operational or accidental spills of oil or other hazardous cargo can affect sensitive areas. Effects can impact the region fisheries impact directly on tourism may extend to more than a year .  Ballast water : The threatening of non indigenous species through ballast water discharge and The consequences are getting unusual new generation of marine species some of them are harmful on
  7. 7. Operation  Emission : Greenhouse gases greatly affect the temperature of the Earth. The NOx emissions associated with the condition and age of engine and Sox is mostly associated with the fuel quality  Anti-fouling : antifouling coatings can leach into the surrounding water and accumulate benthic organisms . The nature of the toxicity is chronic and can affect such functions as morphology , growth and
  8. 8. Operation  Noise pollution: can disturb marine mammals and fish . There is particular concern over cetaceans that may experience disturbance to feeding and breeding  Garbage and waste disposal at sea : accumulated and take a large volume onboard , the crew tend to throw out this waste onto open sea  Ship and boat wash: result in erosion of
  9. 9. 1.3) Breaking  Asbestos : All forms of asbestos are hazardous, and can cause cancer  Heavy metals : Found in paints, coatings, anodes and electrical equipment . These parts are often dumped or burnt on the beaches causing widespread pollution of the area.  Oil pollution : oil residues and the other refuses are being spilled and mixed with soil and water in the beach. Effect on
  10. 10. PROTECT THE ENVIRONMENT AS A GLOBAL ISSUE There are many regulations and conventions which are made by IMO through its committee MEPC to protect the environment from shipping industry lead to innovate new technologies which result to high quality of transporting by sea . Conventions such as:
  11. 11. REGULATIONS TO PROTECT THE ENVIRONMENT AS A GLOBAL ISSUE Annex I: Regulations for the Prevention of Pollution by Oil Annex II: Regulations for the Control of Pollution by Noxious Liquid Substances in bulk Annex III: Regulations for the Prevention of Pollution by Harmful Substances Carried by Sea in Packaged Form Annex IV: Regulations for the Prevention of Pollution by Sewage from Ships Annex V: Regulations for the Prevention of
  12. 12. REGULATIONS TO PROTECT THE ENVIRONMENT AS A GLOBAL ISSUE Annex VI: Regulations for the Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships and NOx Technical Code Ballast Water Management Convention (BWMC) International Convention on the Control of Harmful Anti-fouling System on Ships Nairobe International Convention on the Removal of Wrecks
  13. 13. 3) IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ON DESIGN OF MARINE VEHICLE Designers are looking with consideration at the consumption of materials and energy and the pollution to environment in ship manufacturing, service and breaking :  Design for Production period  Design for Operational period  Design for Breaking
  14. 14. 3.1) Design for Production period Designer have to know clearly about production processes so that he can play a significant role to :  Minimize air emissions  Minimize use of hazardous materials and environmental contaminates  Maximize use of recycled and recyclable material  Minimize waste and scrap  Maximize use of rapidly renewable and regional materials
  15. 15. 3.2) Design for Operational period The hull and propulsion resistance as much as possible to increase the ship efficiency resulting less fuel consumption and greenhouse emission . In addition to designing friendly hull and compartments to prevent the oil and noxious liquid pollution : Engine Exhaust Gas should be minimum  CO2 Index (GHG Exhaust) must be lower  Care should be given to prevent Oil, Noxious
  16. 16. . Fig. illustrates the needs to be addressed while designing Diesel Engine Exhaust Low NOx, SOx Incinerator Vapor Emission Control System for Tanker Bilge-oil Discharge Control Garbage Disposal Sewage Treatment TBT-free Painting Best Hull Form & Propulsion Less Fuel Oil Consumption at Sea Ballast Water Treatment Green Passport Less Hazardous Materials Electric Motor Driven Deck Machinery Less Ballast Water Ship Low GHG Exhaust Gray-water Treatment, etc. Oil Discharge Monitoring for Tanker
  17. 17. 3.3) Design for Breaking Planning to recover materials in order to maximize economic value and minimize environmental impacts through subsequent reuse, repair, remanufacture and recycling, so, some principles should be strictly followed to perform the this operation :
  18. 18. Design for Breaking Materials must be documented and methods for deconstruction Select materials using the precautionary principle Minimize or eliminate chemical connections Preferring to use bolted, screwed and nailed connections rather than welding Separate mechanical, electrical and plumbing systems
  19. 19. 4) TREND OF OPTIMIZING GREEN SHIP BUILDING TECHNOLOGY To optimize the marine design system , it essential to focus on saving materials, increasing work efficiency and decreasing cost. For example :  By optimizing the hull lines the ship speed will be increased, saving energy and improving the economic efficiency.  The optimization of hull structure will increase the deadweight and improve economic efficiency.
  20. 20. Trend of optimizing green ship building technology  The optimization of electric system design will decrease the length of cables, decrease the quantity of equipment and increase the quantity of section prefabrication..  As long as we emphasize the concept of green ship design, there will be many methods to be applied to optimize design.
  21. 21. 4.1) Selection of Materials To reach green shipbuilding, It is essential to select green materials. This should be laid on the following : Innocuous, inoffensive and environment materials.  Materials convenient for reclaiming and materials which can be recycled. To decrease the quantity of variety and specification of materials to improve the
  22. 22. 4.2) Selection of marine equipment The most important factors in selection of marine equipments is the low energy consumption, low pollution and high efficiency. For example: 1- Choosing vaporized natural gas as fuel of diesel engine can save 35 percent of fuel cost and reduce harmful emission . 2- Electric propulsion system have following advantages : Handling facility, good maneuvering characteristics.  Low vibration and noise level.
  23. 23. Selection of marine equipment Small volume, light weight and flexible arrangement. The ships with electric propulsion system are equipped with middle-high speed diesel generator set of small volume and light weight, cancel gear box and long shafting, etc, general arrangement is flexible and convenient and easy to enlarge loading capacity.  High efficiency. Quantity of diesel generators can be automatically controlled by electric power managing system according to the load to ensure the optimal load condition of the diesel generators. It improves the efficiency of generator set greatly and saves the
  24. 24. Fig. illustrate electric propulsion system
  25. 25. 4.3) Improvement of Building Technique High quality of welding and finishing leads to lessen the resistance impact the ship in service which lead to improve the ship efficiency. There are many points in this area such as: Innovation and application of high efficient welding technology will increase work efficiency, save energy and slow down pollution .  The integration of hull construction with outfitting and painting and innovation and application of ship painting technology will increase work efficiency, save energy, decrease waste, slow down pollution and carry out integrated hull construction, outfitting and painting.
  26. 26. Improvement of Building Technique  Application of super block lifting technique of integrated accommodation, engine room, bow, stern and pump room, etc. will realize extended manufacturing and parallel working of interim products to improve work efficiency and save energy . Application of hull accuracy control technology, including no-tolerance lifting of blocks, expanding no- tolerance laying-off, increasing the accuracy of block manufacturing, effectively controlling the deviation of hull principle dimensions will improve work efficiency, save energy and decrease pollution and waste . Application of secondary steel nesting technology to
  27. 27. 5) FUTURE SHIP The energy gotten from the sun, wind and the waves. The main consideration of future ship are :  Using the sun, wind and waves to employ multiple energy generators that include fuel cells.  Optimizing cargo capacity and lowering energy consumption per transported unit.  Taking into consideration other environmental challenges.
  28. 28. Future green ship
  29. 29. Solar energy
  30. 30. Wind energy
  31. 31. Wave energy
  32. 32. Light weight materials The hull of this friendly ship made of aluminium and thermoplastic composite materials which offer these distinct advantages over common carbon steels : High tensile strength Less maintenance Easy to shape Lightweight Fatigue resistant
  33. 33. 6) CONCLUSION Apparently the requirements to protect the environment have positive impact on designing marine vehicle . As environment becomes a global issue, saving our plant for now days and next generations is essential . For that reason, there are many regulations issued . These regulations create innovation and excite the minds of
  34. 34. References : 1) Green flsgship from on 25/9/2010 2) Green ship technology book, 2nd edition April 2010, from 3) Green vessel design , by Joseph Payne, Pe, Leed Ap, from df on 22/10/2010 4) Impact of Environmental Protection Requirements on the design of marine vehicles by Mohammad Mobassher - Bin –Tofa UTM master student MMK2513 5) International maritime organization main web site on-conventions 25/9/2010 6) Marine environment issues in shipping and ports from marine safety MMK2823 note book 2009. 7) Ship breaking activities and its impacts on the coastal zones from on 26/10/2010 8) Shipbuilding and ship repair from on 21/10/2010 9) Ship hull performance technology from on 23/9/2010 10) "Ship Recycling Convention - What does it require shipbuilders to do?" (PDF/1.5 MB). Forum Item- 4 Ballast Water Management Convention and Current Technology on 22/10/2010 11) The Development Trend of Green Ship Building Technology from General on 23/9/2010 12) Understanding current environmental issues and their impacts on ship design from - 18k on 24/10/2010