Adverse drug reactions

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Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are untoward effects of drugs that are given in conventional therapeutic settings. These reactions are extremely common in the practice of medicine and are believed to affect 7% to 8% of patients admitted to a hospital. About 10% of such reactions prove fatal .


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Adverse drug reactions

  1. 1. Ministry of High Education Almajmaa University College of Medicine
  2. 2. Adverse drug reactions Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are untoward effects of drugs that are given in conventional therapeutic settings. These reactions are extremely common in the practice of medicine and are believed to affect 7% to 8% of patients admitted to a hospital. About 10% of such reactions prove fatal .
  3. 3. Adverse reaction to minocycline, a long-acting tetracycline derivative
  4. 4. Exogenous Estrogens and Oral Contraceptives Estrogen therapy, once used primarily for distressing menopausal symptoms , with added progestins, to prevent or slow the progression of osteoporosis endogenous hyperestrinism increases the risk of developing ovarian carcinoma and, probably, breast carcinoma
  5. 5. Risks of estrogen • increases the risk of endometrial carcinoma • increases the risk of thromboembolism, including deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and stroke . • Estrogens and progestins increase blood levels of high-density lipoprotein and decrease levels of low-density lipoprotein.
  6. 6. Risks of Oral Contraceptives • • • • Breast carcinoma Cervical cancer Thromboembolism Cardiovascular disease
  7. 7. Aspirin (Acetylsalicylic Acid) Aspirin overdose may result from accidental ingestion in young children or suicide attempts in adults The major untoward consequences are , metabolic respiratory alkalosis develops, followed by a metabolic acidosis that often proves fatal  Fatal doses may be as little as 2 to 4 gm in children and 10 to 30 gm in adults
  8. 8. Chronic aspirin toxicity (salicylism) develop in persons who take 3 gm or more daily. Chronic salicylism is manifested by headache, dizziness, ringing in the ears (tinnitus), difficulty in hearing, mental confusion, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea The CNS changes may progress to convulsions and coma
  9. 9. Injury by Nontherapeutic Toxic Agents (Drug Abuse) Drug abuse generally involves the use of mindaltering substances Drug addiction and overdose are serious public health problems Considered here are cocaine, heroin, and marijuana
  10. 10. Cocaine  In 2008, the National Survey on Drug Use and Health estimated that there were 1.9 million users of cocaine in the United States.  Cocaine Extracted from the leaves of the coca plant, cocaine usually is prepared as a water-soluble powder .  Cocaine can be snorted, smoked after mixing with tobacco, ingested, or injected subcutaneously or intravenously.
  11. 11. The effects of cocaine Cardiovascular effects : tachycardia, hypertension, and peripheral vasoconstriction. Cocaine also induces myocardial ischemia CNS effects. The most common CNS findings are hyperpyrexia Effects on the fetus. In pregnant women, cocaine may cause decreasehypoxiad blood flow to the placenta, resulting in fetal and spontaneous abortion
  12. 12. Heroin • Heroin derived from the poppy plant and is closely related to morphine. Its effects are even more harmful than those of cocaine. • estimated that almost 4 million people in the United States have used heroin. • Effects are varied and include euphoria, hallucinations, somnolence, and sedation.
  13. 13. The effects of Heroin • Sudden death. Sudden death, usually related to overdose • Pulmonary disease. Pulmonary complications include edema, septic embolism, lung abscess. • Infections. Infectious complications are common. The sites most commonly affected are the skin and subcutaneous tissue, heart valves, liver, and lungs Most cases are caused by Staphylococcus aureus Viral hepatitis virus (HIV) infection because sharing of dirty needles . • Skin lesions abscesses, cellulitis, and ulcerations due to subcutaneous injections. Scarring at injection sites • Renal problems.
  14. 14. Marijuana Marijuana, or “pot,” is the most widely used illegal drug . is made from the leaves of the Cannabis sativa plant, which contain the psychoactive substance Δ9tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)
  15. 15. The effects of Marijuana • The lungs are affected by chronic marijuana smoking • laryngitis, pharyngitis bronchitis • cough, hoarseness, and asthma
  16. 16. summary Drug injury may be caused by therapeutic drugs (adverse drug reactions) or non-therapeutic agents (drug abuse). long-acting tetracyclines and other antibiotics , and aspirin are the drugs most frequently involved. The common drugs of abuse include Cocaine , Heroin , Marijuana .
  17. 17. Questions ?
  18. 18. Resources • basic robbins pathology • Medicine books web site.
  19. 19. Thank you Don by : Mohammed Abdullah Hazazi 2nd year medical student Supervisor : DR. khwaja amer Assistant Professor of Physiology

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