WAN
WAN Connection Types
•

There are three types of Wan Connectivity :
– Dedicated Lines (Leased Lines)
– Circuit Switching
–...
Dedicated line
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–

•

Permanent connection for the destination
Used for short or long distance
Bandwidth is f...
V.35 Modem

E0
10.1.1.1/8

V.35
Cable

E0
20.1.1.1/8

V.35
Cable

2 pair of
Copper Wire

LAN – 10.0.0.0/8

LAN – 20.0.0.0/...
Advantages and Disadvantages of Leased Lines

• Advantages
•
•
•
•
•

Complete secure
High Bandwidth
High speed connection...
Circuit switched Networks

–
–
–
–
–
–
–

It is also used for short and medium distances.
Bandwidth is fixed
Charges depen...
Packet switched Networks

– Used for medium or longer connections
– Bandwidth is shared
– Many virtual connections on one ...
Frame Relay
Frame Relay
• Frame Relay is a connection oriented, standard NBMA layer 2
WAN protocol
• Connections in Frame Relay are pr...
• Advantages Of Frame-relay
– VC’s overcome the scalability problem of leased line by
providing the multiple logical circu...
Frame Relay Terminology
•

Data Link Connection Identifier(DLCI) :
– used to identify each VC on a physical interface (i.e...
Frame Relay Terminology
• Frame-relay technology Uses Shared bandwidth
• Local Management interface(LMI):
– used between t...
Congestion Notification
Congestion Notification
• FECN and BECN :
– Forward Explicit Congestion Notification
– Backward Explicit Congestion Notifi...
• INSERT LAB steps
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Wan

  1. 1. WAN
  2. 2. WAN Connection Types • There are three types of Wan Connectivity : – Dedicated Lines (Leased Lines) – Circuit Switching – Packet Switching
  3. 3. Dedicated line – – – – – – – – • Permanent connection for the destination Used for short or long distance Bandwidth is fixed Availability is 24/7 Charges are fixed whether used or not. Uses analog circuits Always same path is used for destination Example is Leased Line Leased Line is of three types 1) Short Leased Line 2) Medium Leased Line 3) Long Lease Line (IPLC)
  4. 4. V.35 Modem E0 10.1.1.1/8 V.35 Cable E0 20.1.1.1/8 V.35 Cable 2 pair of Copper Wire LAN – 10.0.0.0/8 LAN – 20.0.0.0/8 HYDERABAD OFFICE G.703 Modem KSA OFFICE EXCHANGE HYDERABAD MUX G.703 Modem KSA MUX Fiber Optic Cable
  5. 5. Advantages and Disadvantages of Leased Lines • Advantages • • • • • Complete secure High Bandwidth High speed connection Superior quality Reliable • Disadvantages • Expensive • Permanent physical connection
  6. 6. Circuit switched Networks – – – – – – – It is also used for short and medium distances. Bandwidth is fixed Charges depend on usage of line Also called as line on demand. Usually used for backup line Connects at BRI port of router ISDN and PSTN are the examples
  7. 7. Packet switched Networks – Used for medium or longer connections – Bandwidth is shared – Many virtual connections on one physical connection – Example: - Frame Relay
  8. 8. Frame Relay
  9. 9. Frame Relay • Frame Relay is a connection oriented, standard NBMA layer 2 WAN protocol • Connections in Frame Relay are provided by Virtual circuits. • Virtual circuits are multiple logical connections on same physical connection • Frame Relay virtual connection types. a) PVC b) SVC
  10. 10. • Advantages Of Frame-relay – VC’s overcome the scalability problem of leased line by providing the multiple logical circuits over the same physical connection – Only one serial interface of a router is needed to handle the VC connections to multiple sites Whereas using leased lines multiple serial interfaces are needed to connect to multiple sites – Cheaper – Best quality – VC’s are full duplex
  11. 11. Frame Relay Terminology • Data Link Connection Identifier(DLCI) : – used to identify each VC on a physical interface (i.e.) Each VC has a unique local address called a DLCI number. – switch will map to the destination depending on the DLCI number – Inverse ARP is used to map DLCI’s to next hop addresses. – Mapping can also be done manually. – Its Locally significant. – These numbers are given by the Frame relay service providers, Service providers assign DLCI’s in the range of 16 to 1007.
  12. 12. Frame Relay Terminology • Frame-relay technology Uses Shared bandwidth • Local Management interface(LMI): – used between the Frame relay DTE (eg.Router) and the Frame Relay DCE (e.g.. Frame Relay switch) – Defines how the DTE interacts with the DCE – Locally significant – Provides VCs status information(a keep-alive mechanism) – LMI standards : Cisco, ANSI, Q933a The DTE and DCE must have the same LMI signaling type
  13. 13. Congestion Notification
  14. 14. Congestion Notification • FECN and BECN : – Forward Explicit Congestion Notification – Backward Explicit Congestion Notification – When congestion occurs switch marks the FECN and BECN bits in the frame header. – FECN is sent to the destination – BECN is sent to the source – Thereby notifying both source and destination about the congestion. – FECN = 0 and BECN =0 implies no congestion.
  15. 15. • INSERT LAB steps
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