Routing

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  • Routing is the act of moving information across an internetwork from a source to a destination. Along the way, at least one Router typically is encountered.
    Determining optimal routing paths.
  • Routing

    1. 1. Head Office 10.0.0.1/8 S0 E0 192.168.1.150/24 LAN - 192.168.1.0/24 Branch Office S1 10.0.0.2/8 LAN - 192.168.2.0/24
    2. 2. Routing • Routing is the process through which the router learns the destination which is directly not connected To route, a router needs to do the following • • • • • Know the destination address Identify the sources from which the router can learn Discover possible routes to the intended destination Select the best route Maintain and verify routing information
    3. 3. Rules of Routing • Head Office Ethernet interface should be in the same network as your Head office LAN and similarly on Branch Office side. Show Diagram • Head Office S0 and Branch Office S1 should be in same network. Show Diagram • Head Office LAN and Branch Office LAN should be in different Network. Show Diagram • All interfaces of Router should be in different network. Show Diagram
    4. 4. Types of Routing • Static Routing: Uses a route that a network administrator enters into the router manually • Dynamic Routing: Uses a route that a network routing protocol adjusts automatically for topology or traffic changes
    5. 5. Static Routing • It is configured by Administrator manually. • Mandatory need of Destination Network ID • It is Secure & fast • Used for Small organizations • Administrative distance for Static Route is 0 and 1. It is the “trustworthiness” of the routing information. Lesser the Administrative distance, higher the preference.
    6. 6. Static Routing Network Diagram Head Office 10.0.0.1/8 S0 E0 192.168.1.150/24 LAN - 192.168.1.0/24 Branch Office S1 10.0.0.2/8 E0 192.168.2.150/24 LAN - 192.168.2.0/24
    7. 7. Routing Network Diagram Head Office 10.0.0.1/8 S0 E0 192.168.1.150/24 LAN - 192.168.1.0/24 Branch Office S1 10.0.0.2/8 E0 192.168.2.150/24 LAN - 192.168.2.0/24
    8. 8. Routing Network Diagram Head Office 10.0.0.1/8 S0 E0 192.168.1.150/24 LAN - 192.168.1.0/24 Branch Office S1 10.0.0.2/8 E0 192.168.2.150/24 LAN - 192.168.2.0/24
    9. 9. Routing Network Diagram Head Office 10.0.0.1/8 S0 E0 192.168.1.150/24 LAN - 192.168.1.0/24 Branch Office S1 10.0.0.2/8 E0 192.168.2.150/24 LAN - 192.168.2.0/24
    10. 10. Routing Network Diagram Head Office 10.0.0.1/8 S0 E0 192.168.1.150/24 LAN - 192.168.1.0/24 Branch Office 11.0.0.1/8 S0 S1 10.0.0.2/8 E0 192.168.2.150/24 LAN - 192.168.2.0/24
    11. 11. Microsoft Windows 2000 [Version 5.00.2195] (C) Copyright 1985-2000 Microsoft Corp. C:> telnet 192.168.1.150 Connecting ..... ================================ Welcome to Hyderabad Router ================================ User Access Verification password : **** Hyderabad> enable password : **** Hyderabad# configure terminal Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z. Hyderabad(config)# interface serial 0 Hyderabad(config-if)# ip address 10.0.0.1 255.0.0.0 Hyderabad(config-if)# no shut Hyderabad(config-if)# clockrate 64000 Hyderabad(config-if)# encapsulation hdlc Hyderabad(config-if)# exit Hyderabad(config)# exit Hyderabad# Diagram
    12. 12. Microsoft Windows 2000 [Version 5.00.2195] (C) Copyright 1985-2000 Microsoft Corp. C:> telnet 192.168.1.150 Connecting ..... ================================ Welcome to Hyderabad Router ================================ User Access Verification password : **** Hyderabad> enable password : **** Hyderabad# configure terminal Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z. Hyderabad(config)# interface serial 0 Hyderabad(config-if)# ip address 10.0.0.1 255.0.0.0 Hyderabad(config-if)# no shut Hyderabad(config-if)# clockrate 64000 Hyderabad(config-if)# encapsulation hdlc Hyderabad(config-if)# exit Hyderabad(config)# exit Hyderabad# Diagram
    13. 13. Hyderabad# show ip route Default gateway is not set Host Gateway Last Use Total Uses Interface ICMP redirect cache is empty Hyderabad# configure terminal Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z. Hyderabad(config)# ip routing Hyderabad(config)# ^Z Hyderabad# show ip route Enabling Routing Enabling Routing Router(config)#ip routing Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP Router(config)#ip routing D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP i- IS-IS, L1-IS-IS level-1, L2-IS-IS level-2,*- candidate default U - per-user static route, o - ODR Gateway of last resort is not set C 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, Ethernet0 C 10.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, Serial0 Hyderabad# Diagram
    14. 14. Hyderabad# configure terminal Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z. Hyderabad(config)# ip route 192.168.2.0 255.255.255.0 10.0.0.2 Hyderabad(config)# ^Z Hyderabad# show ip route Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP Configuring Static Route D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRPConfiguring Static Route OSPF inter area external, O - OSPF, IA N1 Router(config)# ip route 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 - OSPF NSSA external type <Destination Network ID> Router(config)# ip route<Destination Network ID> E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP <Destination Subnet Mask> <Destination Subnet Mask> i- IS-IS, L1-IS-IS level-1, L2-IS-IS level-2,*- candidate default <Next-hop IP address > <Next-hop IP U - per-user static route, o - ODR address > Or Or Gateway of last resort is not set Router(config)# ip route <Destination Network ID> Router(config)# ip route <Destination Network ID> <Destination Subnet Mask> <Destination Subnet Mask> C 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, Ethernet0 <Exit interface type><interface number> <Exit 10.0.0.2 S 192.168.2.0/24 [1/0] via interface type><interface number> C 10.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, Serial0 Hyderabad# 1 is nothing but 1 is nothing but S – for Static Routing S – for Static Routing Administrative Distance Administrative Distance Diagram
    15. 15. Microsoft Windows 2000 [Version 5.00.2195] (C) Copyright 1985-2000 Microsoft Corp. C:> telnet 192.168.2.150 Connecting ..... ================================ Welcome to Chennai Router ================================ User Access Verification password : **** Chennai> enable password : **** Chennai# configure terminal Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z. Chennai(config)# interface serial 1 Chennai(config-if)# ip address 10.0.0.2 255.0.0.0 Chennai(config-if)# no shut Chennai(config-if)# encapsulation hdlc Chennai(config-if)# exit Chennai(config)# exit Chennai# Chennai# Diagram
    16. 16. Hyderabad# configure terminal Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z. Hyderabad(config)# ip route 192.168.2.0 255.255.255.0 10.0.0.2 Hyderabad(config)# ^Z Hyderabad# show ip route Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP i- IS-IS, L1-IS-IS level-1, L2-IS-IS level-2,*- candidate default U - per-user static route, o - ODR Gateway of last resort is not set C 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, Ethernet0 S 192.168.2.0/24 [1/0] via 10.0.0.2 C 10.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, Serial0 Hyderabad# ping 192.168.2.1 Type escape sequence to abort. Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192.168.2.1, timeout is 2 seconds: !!!!! Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 40/43/44 ms Hyderabad# Diagram
    17. 17. Chennai# configure terminal Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z. Chennai(config)# ip route 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 S1 Chennai(config)# ^Z Chennai# show ip route Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP i- IS-IS, L1-IS-IS level-1, L2-IS-IS level-2,*- candidate default U - per-user static route, o - ODR Gateway of last resort is not set C 192.168.2.0/24 is directly connected, Ethernet0 S 192.168.1.0 is directly connected, Serial1 C 10.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, Serial1 Chennai# ping 192.168.1.1 Type escape sequence to abort. Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192.168.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds: !!!!! Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 40/43/44 ms Chennai# Diagram

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