Chapter 6

Catalyst Switch
Operations
© 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

6-1
Three Switch Functions

• Address learning
• Forward/filter decision
• Loop avoidance
© 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

www.cis...
How Switches Learn Host
Locations
MAC Address Table

A

0260.8c01.1111

C

B

E0

E1

E2

E3

0260.8c01.2222

0260.8c01.33...
How Switches Learn Host
Locations
MAC Address Table
E0: 0260.8c01.1111
A

0260.8c01.1111

C

0260.8c01.2222

B

E0

E1

E2...
How Switches Learn Host
Locations
MAC Address Table
E0: 0260.8c01.1111
E3: 0260.8c01.4444
A

0260.8c01.1111

C

0260.8c01....
How Switches Filter Frames
MAC Address Table

A

0260.8c01.1111

C

E0:
E2:
E1:
E3:

0260.8c01.1111
0260.8c01.2222
0260.8c...
Broadcast and Multicast
Frames
MAC Address Table

A

0260.8c01.1111

C

0260.8c01.2222

E0:
E2:
E1:
E3:

0260.8c01.1111
02...
Redundant Topology
Server/Host X

Router
Y
Segment 1

Segment 2

• Redundant topology eliminates single points of failure....
Broadcast Storms
Server/Host X

Router
Y
Segment 1

Broadcast

Switch A

Switch
B

Segment 2

Host X sends a Broadcast

© ...
Broadcast Storms
Server/Host X

Router
Y
Segment 1

Broadcast

Switch A

Switch
B

Segment 2

Host X sends a Broadcast
© 2...
Broadcast Storms
Server/Host X

Router
Y
Segment 1

Switch A

Broadcast

Switch
B

Segment 2

• Switches continue to propa...
Multiple Loop Problems
Broadcast

Server/Host

Loop
Loop

Loop

Workstations

• Complex topology can cause multiple loops ...
Solution: Spanning-Tree
Protocol

x

Block

• Provides a loop-free redundant network topology by
placing certain ports in ...
Spanning-Tree
Protocol Path Cost

Speed Cost (Reratify IEEE Spec)
Cost (Previous IEEE Spec)
------------------------------...
Spanning-Tree Port States
• Spanning-tree transits each port
through several different states:
Blocking
(20
Seconds)
Liste...
Bridging Compared with
LAN Switching
Bridging
• Primarily software based
• One spanning-tree instance per bridge
• Usually...
Transmitting Frames Through
a Switch
Cut-Through
• Switch checks destination
address and immediately
begins forwarding fra...
Transmitting Frames Through
a Switch
Cut-Through

Store and Forward

• Switch checks destination
address and immediately
b...
Transmitting Frames Through
a Switch
Cut-Through
• Switch checks destination
address and immediately
begins forwarding fra...
Duplex Overview
Half Duplex (CSMA/CD)
• Unidirectional data flow
• Higher potential for collision
• Hubs connectivity

© 2...
Duplex Overview
Half Duplex (CSMA/CD)
• Unidirectional data flow
• Higher potential for collision
• Hubs connectivity

Swi...
Configuring the Switch

• Catalyst 1900 Switch
– Menu-driven interface
– Web-based Visual Switch
Manager
– Cisco IOS ® CLI...
Catalyst 1900 Series
Default Configurations
• IP address: 0.0.0.0
• CDP: enabled
• Switching mode: fragment-free
• 100base...
Ports on the Catalyst 1900
Switch

10BaseT ports
AUI port
100BaseT uplink ports

© 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Catalyst
191...
Ports on the Catalyst 1900
Switch (cont.)
wg_sw_d#sh run
Building configuration...
Current configuration:
!
!
interface Et...
Configuring the Switch
Configuration Modes
• Global configuration mode
– wg_sw_a# conf term
– wg_sw_a(config)#

• Interfac...
Configuring the Switch IP
Address
wg_sw_a(config)#ip address {ip
address} {mask}

© 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

www.cisco.c...
Configuring the Switch IP
Address
wg_sw_a(config)#ip address {ip
address} {mask}

wg_sw_a(config)#ip address 10.5.5.11 255...
Configuring the Switch
Default Gateway
wg_sw_a(config)# ip default-gateway
{ip address}

© 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

www....
Configuring the Switch
Default Gateway
wg_sw_a(config)# ip default-gateway
{ip address}

wg_sw_a(config)#ip default-gatewa...
Showing the Switch IP
Address
wg_sw_a#show ip
IP address: 10.5.5.11
Subnet mask: 255.255.255.0
Default gateway: 10.5.5.3
M...
Showing Duplex Options
wsahnrc
gw# ieas
__s tfe
Eee0 iEbd
trt/ snl
hn
1
ae
HdriBli1aawesutn0sT
ra
iBe
Arss0.731
de i006.4
...
Duplex Mismatches
• The manually set duplex parameter
differs between connected ports.
• The switch port is in autonegotia...
FCS and Late
Collision Errors
w_waso itrae
gs_#hw nefcs
Ehre 01i Eald
tent / s nbe
Hrwr i Biti 1Bsadae s ul-n 0aeT
Adesi 0...
Managing the MAC Address
Table
wg_sw_a#show mac-address-table

© 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

www.cisco.com

ICND v1.1—6-35
Managing the MAC Address
Table
wg_sw_a#show mac-address-table
wg_sw_a#sh mac-address-table
Number of permanent addresses :...
Setting a Permanent MAC
Address
wg_sw_a(config)#mac-address-table permanent
{mac-address type module/port}

© 2000, Cisco ...
Setting a Permanent MAC
Address
wg_sw_a(config)#mac-address-table permanent
{mac-address type module/port}
wg_sw_a(config)...
Setting a Permanent MAC
Address
wg_sw_a(config)#mac-address-table permanent
{mac-address type module/port}
wg_sw_a(config)...
show version

w_waso vrin
gs_#hw eso
CsoCtls 10/80Etrrs EiinSfwr
ic aayt 9022 nepie dto otae
VrinV.10
eso 80.1
Cprgt()CsoS...
Review Questions
1. What function does the Spanning-Tree
Protocol provide?
2. What are the different spanning-tree
port st...
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CATALYST SWITCH OPERATIONS

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  • Purpose: The purpose of this chapter is to describe the operation of a Layer 2 switch and to cover the basic configurations on the Catalyst 1900 switch.
    Timing: This module should take about 2 hours to present.
    Contents:
    Basic layer 2 switch operations.
    Spanning Tree operations.
    Cat1900 configurations.
    Lab
  • Emphasize: The next few slides discuss the basic function of a bridge/switch:
    1. How it learns the location of the hosts by reading the source MAC address of incoming frames.
    2. How it makes forwarding/filtering decisions.
    There are three conditions in which a switch will flood a frame out on all ports except to the port on which the frame came in, as follows:
    Unknown unicast address
    Broadcast frame
    Multicast frame
    3. How STP is used to avoid loops in a switched/bridged network.
  • Slide 1 of 3
    Emphasize: The 1900en max MAC address table size is 1024. Once the table is full, it will flood all new addresses until existing entries age out.
    The command to change the MAC address table aging time is, as follows:
    wg_sw_a(config)#mac-address-table aging-time ?
    <10-1000000> Aging time value
    The default is 300 sec.
    The MAC address table is also referred to as the CAM table (Content Address Memory) on some switches.
  • Slide 2 of 3
  • Slide 3 of 3
    Emphasize: Once C replies, the switch will also cache station C’s MAC address to port E2, as shown in the next slide.
  • Emphasize: Layer 2 has no mechanism (like a TTL) to stop loops.
  • Layer 1 of 3
    Emphasize: Broadcast frames are flooded.
  • Layer 2 of 3
  • Layer 3 of 3
    Emphasize: Layer 2 has no TTL mechanism to stop looping frames.
  • Emphasize: A looped topology is often desired to provide redundancy, but looped traffic is undesirable. The Spanning-Tree protocol was originally designed for bridges. Today, it is also applied to LAN switches and routers operating as a bridge. Spanning-Tree protocol ensures that all bridged segments are reachable but any points where loops occur will be blocked.
  • Emphasize: There are two cost calculation methods. The Catalyst 1900 uses the older method. The new method is designed to accommodate the higher gigabit Ethernet speed.
    Note:
    Port priority is used to determine which path has preference when path costs are equal (for example, when you have two parallel links connecting two switches together). The default port priority is 128.
    The port aggregation protocol and EtherChannels® are not taught in this class.
    Fast EtherChannel is supported by the Catalyst 1900 switch.
  • Emphasize: Using the default Spanning-Tree protocol timers setting, the times it takes to go from the blocking state to the forwarding state is 50 sec (20 + 15 + 15).
  • Emphasize: A Layer 2 switch operates just like a bridge by default.
    Switches use VLANs to solve many of the issues of a large Layer 2 environment.
  • Layer 1 of 3
  • Layer 2 of 3
    Emphasize: In the cut-through mode, the switch checks the destination address (DA) as soon as the header is received and immediately begins forwarding the frame. There is a significant decrease in latency from input port to output port. The delay in cut-through switching remains constant regardless of frame size, because this switching mode starts to forward the frame as soon as the switch reads the destination addresses. In some switches, just the destination addresses are read. Some other switches continue to read the CRC and keep a count of errors. If the error rate is too high, the switch can be set to use store-and-forward, either manually or automatically. Other Catalyst switches support combined cut-through and store-and-forward modes.
  • Layer 3 of 3
    Note: 64 bytes is the minimum Ethernet frame size.
    The command to switch the mode on the 1900 is:
    wg_sw_a(config)#switching-mode ?
    fragment-free Fragment Free mode
    store-and-forward Store-and-Forward mode
  • Slide 1 of 2
    Emphasize: Hub connectivity is always half duplex.
  • Slide 2 of 2
    Emphasize: Full duplex is for point-to-point connections only. A Fast Ethernet full-duplex connection provides a throughput of 200 Mbps (100 Mbps per direction).
    Note:
  • Emphasize: In this class, we will only cover the Cisco IOS CLI configuration method.
    Note: Two versions of software exist for the 1900 switch: the Standard version and the Enterprise version. The difference between the Enterprise Edition Software and standard edition software is the supported feature set.
  • Emphasize: The Catalyst 1900 comes with a factory default setting. Listed in the slide are just some of the default settings on the switch. A switch is plug-and-play to use for basic bridging functions.
  • Slide 1 of 2
    Emphasize: On the 1912 and 1924, the AUI port is e0/25.
    The Fast Ethernet ports are fast0/26 and fast0/27.
  • Slide 2 of 2
    Purpose: Use this slide to explain that the ports on the 1900 switch are refer to as port as well as interface.
  • Emphasize: Configuration of the 1900 switch using the Cisco IOS CLI is similar to that of the router.
    The 1900 automatically saves any configuration changes to NVRAM (like the Catalyst 5000).
  • Layer 1 of 2
    Emphasize: The 1900 and the 2900xl IP address is always in VLAN1.
    You can’t move it to a different VLAN like the SC0 port on the Catalyst 5000.
  • Layer 2 of 2
    Emphasize: Explain to the students why a Layer 2 switch requires an IP address.
  • Layer 1 of 2
  • Layer 2 of 2
    Note: By default, RIP is enabled on the Catalyst 1900 switch. This enables the switch to automatically learn the default gateway IP address by listening to the RIP updates.
    To disable this feature, the command is as follows:
    wg_sw_a(config)#no rip
    wg_sw_a(config)#end
    wg_sw_a#sh ip
    IP Address: 10.1.1.10
    Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0
    Default Gateway: 0.0.0.0
    Management VLAN: 1
    Domain name:
    Name server 1: 0.0.0.0
    Name server 2: 0.0.0.0
    HTTP server : Enabled
    HTTP port : 80
    RIP : Disabled
  • Note: The command to set the DNS server address is as follows:
    wg_sw_a(config)#ip name-server ?
    A.B.C.D IP Address
  • Emphasize: The show interfaces command will display the duplex status.
    FCS errors and late collision errors are discussed in a later slide.
  • Purpose: Use this slide to discuss FCS and late collision errors.
  • Layer 1 of 2
    Emphasize: Displaying the MAC address table provides reference information for managing the address table, and also provides a reference should you want or need to revert to previous table information.
  • Layer 2 of 2
    Note: The 1900en maximum MAC address table size is 1024. Once the table is full, it will flood all new addresses until existing entries age out.
    The command to change the MAC address table aging time is as follows:
    wg_sw_a(config)#mac-address-table aging-time ?
    <10-1000000> Aging time value
    The default is 300 sec.
    The MAC address table is also referred to as the CAM table (Content Address Memory) on some switches.
  • Layer 1 of 3
  • Layer 2 of 3
  • Layer 3 of 3
    Emphasize: Permanent addresses do not age out.
  • Note: This is the output from a Catalyst 1924. It has 27 fixed Ethernet interfaces.
  • Purpose: Review the chapter with open-ended questions.
    Note: The questions in this section are open-ended questions designed to foster further discussion.
    Answers to the review questions are in Appendix D, “Answers.”
  • CATALYST SWITCH OPERATIONS

    1. 1. Chapter 6 Catalyst Switch Operations © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 6-1
    2. 2. Three Switch Functions • Address learning • Forward/filter decision • Loop avoidance © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.1—6-2
    3. 3. How Switches Learn Host Locations MAC Address Table A 0260.8c01.1111 C B E0 E1 E2 E3 0260.8c01.2222 0260.8c01.3333 D 0260.8c01.4444 • Initial MAC address table is empty. © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.1—6-3
    4. 4. How Switches Learn Host Locations MAC Address Table E0: 0260.8c01.1111 A 0260.8c01.1111 C 0260.8c01.2222 B E0 E1 E2 E3 0260.8c01.3333 D 0260.8c01.4444 • Station A sends a frame to station C. • Switch caches the station A MAC address to port E0 by learning the source address of data frames. • The frame from station A to station C is flooded out to all ports except port E0 (unknown unicasts are www.cisco.com © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND v1.1—6-4
    5. 5. How Switches Learn Host Locations MAC Address Table E0: 0260.8c01.1111 E3: 0260.8c01.4444 A 0260.8c01.1111 C 0260.8c01.2222 B E0 E2 E1 E3 0260.8c01.3333 D 0260.8c01.4444 • Station D sends a frame to station C. • Switch caches the station D MAC address to port E3 by learning the source address of data frames. • The frame from station D to station C is flooded out to all ports except port E3 (unknown unicasts are flooded). www.cisco.com © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND v1.1—6-5
    6. 6. How Switches Filter Frames MAC Address Table A 0260.8c01.1111 C E0: E2: E1: E3: 0260.8c01.1111 0260.8c01.2222 0260.8c01.3333 0260.8c01.4444 E0 E2 0260.8c01.2222 B E1 X XE3 0260.8c01.3333 D 0260.8c01.4444 • Station A sends a frame to station C. • Destination is known; frame is not flooded. © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.1—6-6
    7. 7. Broadcast and Multicast Frames MAC Address Table A 0260.8c01.1111 C 0260.8c01.2222 E0: E2: E1: E3: 0260.8c01.1111 0260.8c01.2222 0260.8c01.3333 0260.8c01.4444 E0 E1 E2 E3 B 0260.8c01.3333 D 0260.8c01.4444 • Station D sends a broadcast or multicast frame. • Broadcast and multicast frames are www.cisco.com flooded to all ports other than the © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. ICND v1.1—6-7
    8. 8. Redundant Topology Server/Host X Router Y Segment 1 Segment 2 • Redundant topology eliminates single points of failure. • Redundant topology causes broadcast storms, multiple frame copies, and MAC address table instability problems. © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.1—6-8
    9. 9. Broadcast Storms Server/Host X Router Y Segment 1 Broadcast Switch A Switch B Segment 2 Host X sends a Broadcast © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.1—6-9
    10. 10. Broadcast Storms Server/Host X Router Y Segment 1 Broadcast Switch A Switch B Segment 2 Host X sends a Broadcast © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.1—6-10
    11. 11. Broadcast Storms Server/Host X Router Y Segment 1 Switch A Broadcast Switch B Segment 2 • Switches continue to propagate broadcast traffic over and over. © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.1—6-11
    12. 12. Multiple Loop Problems Broadcast Server/Host Loop Loop Loop Workstations • Complex topology can cause multiple loops to occur. • Layer 2 has no mechanism to stop the loop. © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.1—6-12
    13. 13. Solution: Spanning-Tree Protocol x Block • Provides a loop-free redundant network topology by placing certain ports in the blocking state. © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.1—6-13
    14. 14. Spanning-Tree Protocol Path Cost Speed Cost (Reratify IEEE Spec) Cost (Previous IEEE Spec) -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------bps 2 1 ps 4 1 Mbps 19 10 bps 100 100 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.1—6-14
    15. 15. Spanning-Tree Port States • Spanning-tree transits each port through several different states: Blocking (20 Seconds) Listening (15 Seconds) Learning (15 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. Seconds) Forwarding www.cisco.com ICND v1.1—6-15
    16. 16. Bridging Compared with LAN Switching Bridging • Primarily software based • One spanning-tree instance per bridge • Usually up to 16 ports per bridge LAN Switching • Primarily hardware-based (ASIC) • Many spanning-tree instances per switch • More ports on a switch © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.1—6-16
    17. 17. Transmitting Frames Through a Switch Cut-Through • Switch checks destination address and immediately begins forwarding frame. Frame © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.1—6-17
    18. 18. Transmitting Frames Through a Switch Cut-Through Store and Forward • Switch checks destination address and immediately begins forwarding frame. • Complete frame is received and checked before forwarding. Frame Frame Frame Frame © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.1—6-18
    19. 19. Transmitting Frames Through a Switch Cut-Through • Switch checks destination address and immediately begins forwarding frame. Frame Store and Forward • Complete frame is received and checked before forwarding. Frame Frame Frame Fragment-Free (Modified Cut-Through)—Cat1900 Default • Switch checks the first 64 bytes, then immediately begins forwarding frame. Frame © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.1—6-19
    20. 20. Duplex Overview Half Duplex (CSMA/CD) • Unidirectional data flow • Higher potential for collision • Hubs connectivity © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com Switch Hub ICND v1.1—6-20
    21. 21. Duplex Overview Half Duplex (CSMA/CD) • Unidirectional data flow • Higher potential for collision • Hubs connectivity Switch Hub Full Duplex • • • • • Point-to-point only Attached to dedicated switched port Requires full-duplex support on both ends Collision-free Collision detect circuit disabled © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.1—6-21
    22. 22. Configuring the Switch • Catalyst 1900 Switch – Menu-driven interface – Web-based Visual Switch Manager – Cisco IOS ® CLI (command line interface) © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.1—6-22
    23. 23. Catalyst 1900 Series Default Configurations • IP address: 0.0.0.0 • CDP: enabled • Switching mode: fragment-free • 100baseT port: autonegotiate duplex mode • 10baseT port: half duplex • Spanning tree: enabled • Console password: none © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.1—6-23
    24. 24. Ports on the Catalyst 1900 Switch 10BaseT ports AUI port 100BaseT uplink ports © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. Catalyst 1912 e0/1 to e0/12 e0/25 fa0/26 (port A) fa0/27 (port B) www.cisco.com Catalyst 1924 e0/1 to e0/24 e0/25 fa0/26 (port A) fa0/27 (port B) ICND v1.1—6-24
    25. 25. Ports on the Catalyst 1900 Switch (cont.) wg_sw_d#sh run Building configuration... Current configuration: ! ! interface Ethernet 0/1 ! interface Ethernet 0/2 wg_sw_d#sh span Port Ethernet 0/1 of VLAN1 is Forwarding Port path cost 100, Port priority 128 Designated root has priority 32768, address 0090.8673.3340 Designated bridge has priority 32768, address 0090.8673.3340 Designated port is Ethernet 0/1, path cost 0 Timers: message age 20, forward delay 15, hold 1 wg_sw_a#show vlan-membership Port VLAN Membership Type Port VLAN Membership Type -----------------------------------------------------------------1 5 Static 13 1 Static 2 1 Static 14 1 Static 3 1 Static 15 1 Static © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.1—6-25
    26. 26. Configuring the Switch Configuration Modes • Global configuration mode – wg_sw_a# conf term – wg_sw_a(config)# • Interface configuration mode – wg_sw_a(config)# interface e0/1 – wg_sw_a(config-if)# © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.1—6-26
    27. 27. Configuring the Switch IP Address wg_sw_a(config)#ip address {ip address} {mask} © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.1—6-27
    28. 28. Configuring the Switch IP Address wg_sw_a(config)#ip address {ip address} {mask} wg_sw_a(config)#ip address 10.5.5.11 255.255.255.0 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.1—6-28
    29. 29. Configuring the Switch Default Gateway wg_sw_a(config)# ip default-gateway {ip address} © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.1—6-29
    30. 30. Configuring the Switch Default Gateway wg_sw_a(config)# ip default-gateway {ip address} wg_sw_a(config)#ip default-gateway 10.5.5.3 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.1—6-30
    31. 31. Showing the Switch IP Address wg_sw_a#show ip IP address: 10.5.5.11 Subnet mask: 255.255.255.0 Default gateway: 10.5.5.3 Management VLAN: 1 Domain name: Name server 1: 0.0.0.0 Name server 2: 0.0.0.0 HTTP server: Enabled HTTP port: 80 RIP: Enabled wg_sw_a# © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.1—6-31
    32. 32. Showing Duplex Options wsahnrc gw# ieas __s tfe Eee0 iEbd trt/ snl hn 1 ae HdriBli1aawesutn0sT ra iBe Arss0.731 de i006.4 ds 9833 M 10ysB10Kt T 5 be W00bs U 0 t, 0 i 8. S St 01 T te Fwdg 2d P a: oai rrn Fwdrsis 1 oa Tntn rr aio: Ptoti:ibd o mirgDae r non sl Unnna fon Ebd no uctldg nl kw is oi: ae Uesr mta fon Ebd ngte uis ldg nl ried lct oi: ae Dcpo ertn sii: Dl stgHfue ue ei:a dl px tn l px BkrseDae a psr ibd c eu: sl Reetii ei Stts cv asc TniStts rsttii am asc ------------------------------------------------ ----------------------Tagdre olo fm t o as 44 Tafm 41 olre 8 t as 45 00 42 Taoe olct t ts 440Taoe 95 45 olct t ts 297 914 55 Baa/lctre rdsmta fm octuis as 31 Baa/lctre 11 rdsmta fm 0 octuis as 39 91 03 Baa/lctct rdsmta oe octuis ts 359Baa/lctct 275 80 62 rdsmta oe octuis ts 884 41 Gdrefwd o fm oae o as rrd 43 Dea 42 erl 8 frs 0 Fm fte re ied as lr 9Sg clis il oio ne lsn 0 Rtre u fm n as 0Mtlclis uieoio lp lsn 0 Nbf dcd oue ias fr sr 0Eei clis xsv oio cse lsn 0 Quflias ueu dcd e l sr 0 Eo: rr rs Eo: rr rs F eo C rr S rs 0 Leoio a clis t lsn 0 Age eo lnn rr imt rs 0 Eei dea xsv erl cse frs 0 Gnfm itre a as 0 Jb eo ae rr br rs 0 Arsiao de vlis ds otn 0 Oetnieo trrstrr h am rs 0 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.1—6-32
    33. 33. Duplex Mismatches • The manually set duplex parameter differs between connected ports. • The switch port is in autonegotiate and the attached port is set to full duplex with no auto negotiation capability, causing the switch port to be in halfduplex mode. © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.1—6-33
    34. 34. FCS and Late Collision Errors w_waso itrae gs_#hw nefcs Ehre 01i Eald tent / s nbe Hrwr i Biti 1Bsadae s ul-n 0aeT Adesi 09.6334 drs s 0087.31 MU10 bts B 100Kis T 50 ye, W 00 bt 821 SPSae 0.d T tt: Fradn owrig FradTastos 1 owr rniin: Pr mntrn:Dsbe ot oioig iald Ukonuiatfodn:Eald nnw ncs loig nbe Urgsee mliatfodn:Eald neitrd utcs loig nbe Dsrpin ecito: Dpe stig Hl dpe ulx etn: af ulx Bc pesr:Dsbe ak rsue iald RcieSaitc eev ttsis -----------------------------------Ttlgo fae oa od rms 481 44 Ttlott oa ces 4450 945 Bodatmliatfae racs/utcs rms 301 11 Bodatmliatott racs/utcs ces 3609 852 Go fae fradd od rms owre 482 43 Fae flee rms itrd 9 Rn fae ut rms 0 N bfe dsad o ufr icrs 0 Err: ros FSerr C ros Aineterr lgmn ros Gatfae in rms Adesvoain drs iltos © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 0 0 0 0 Tasi Saitc rnmt ttsis -----------------------------------Ttlfae oa rms 440 052 Ttlott oa ces 2517 9954 Bodatmliatfae racs/utcs rms 301 993 Bodatmliatott racs/utcs ces 2485 8714 Dfras eerl 0 Snl cliin ige olsos 0 Mlil cliin utpe olsos 0 Ecsiecliin xesv olsos 0 Qeefl dsad uu ul icrs 0 Err: ros Lt cliin ae olsos 0 Ecsiedfras xesv eerl 0 Jbe err abr ros 0 Ohrtasi err te rnmt ros 0 www.cisco.com ICND v1.1—6-34
    35. 35. Managing the MAC Address Table wg_sw_a#show mac-address-table © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.1—6-35
    36. 36. Managing the MAC Address Table wg_sw_a#show mac-address-table wg_sw_a#sh mac-address-table Number of permanent addresses : 0 Number of restricted static addresses : 0 Number of dynamic addresses : 6 Address Dest Interface Type Source Interface List -----------------------------------------------------------------00E0.1E5D.AE2F Ethernet 0/2 Dynamic All 00D0.588F.B604 FastEthernet 0/26 Dynamic All 00E0.1E5D.AE2B FastEthernet 0/26 Dynamic All 0090.273B.87A4 FastEthernet 0/26 Dynamic All 00D0.588F.B600 FastEthernet 0/26 Dynamic All 00D0.5892.38C4 FastEthernet 0/27 Dynamic All © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.1—6-36
    37. 37. Setting a Permanent MAC Address wg_sw_a(config)#mac-address-table permanent {mac-address type module/port} © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.1—6-37
    38. 38. Setting a Permanent MAC Address wg_sw_a(config)#mac-address-table permanent {mac-address type module/port} wg_sw_a(config)#mac-address-table permanent 2222.2222.2222 ethernet 0/3 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.1—6-38
    39. 39. Setting a Permanent MAC Address wg_sw_a(config)#mac-address-table permanent {mac-address type module/port} wg_sw_a(config)#mac-address-table permanent 2222.2222.2222 ethernet 0/3 wg_sw_a#sh mac-address-table Number of permanent addresses : 1 Number of restricted static addresses : 0 Number of dynamic addresses : 4 Address Dest Interface Type Source Interface List -----------------------------------------------------------------00E0.1E5D.AE2F Ethernet 0/2 Dynamic All 2222.2222.2222 Ethernet 0/3 Permanent All 00D0.588F.B604 FastEthernet 0/26 Dynamic All 00E0.1E5D.AE2B FastEthernet 0/26 Dynamic All 00D0.5892.38C4 FastEthernet 0/27 Dynamic All © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.1—6-39
    40. 40. show version w_waso vrin gs_#hw eso CsoCtls 10/80Etrrs EiinSfwr ic aayt 9022 nepie dto otae VrinV.10 eso 80.1 Cprgt()CsoSses Ic 19-98 oyih c ic ytm, n. 9319 RM Sse Bosrp Vrin30 O: ytm otta, eso .3 w_wdutm i 8a()1hu()5mnt()2scn() gs_ pie s dys 7ors 3iues 5eods csoCtls 10 (8sl poesrwt 24K12Kbtso mmr ic aayt 90 46x) rcso ih 08/04 ye f eoy Hrwr badrvso i 1 adae or eiin s UgaeSau:N ugaecretyi pors. prd tts o prd urnl n rges Cni Fl Sau:Fl wsdcgdwlae fo 1... ofg ie tts ie gw.f onodd rm 0111 2 FxdEhre/EE823itraes 7 ie tentIE 0. nefc() Bs Ehre Ades 0-08-33-0 ae tent drs: 09-67-34 w_wa gs_# © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.1—6-40
    41. 41. Review Questions 1. What function does the Spanning-Tree Protocol provide? 2. What are the different spanning-tree port states? 3. Describe the difference between fullduplex and half-duplex operations. What is the default duplex setting on the Catalyst 1900 switch 10-Mbps port and 100-Mbps port? 4. What is the default switching mode on the Catalyst 1900 switch? © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.1—6-41

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