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Comp tia a+ 220 701 and 220-702 cert guide


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  • 1. CompTIA A+ Cert Guide Mark Edward Soper Scott Mueller David L. Prowse Pearson 800 East 96th Street Indianapolis, Indiana 46240 USA From the Library of Lee Bogdanoff
  • 2. ii CompTIA A+ Cert Guide CompTIA A+ Cert Guide Associate Publisher David Dusthimer Copyright © 2010 by Pearson All rights reserved. No part of this book shall be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without written permission from the publisher. No patent liability is assumed with respect to the use of the information contained herein. Although every precaution has been taken in the preparation of this book, the publisher and author assume no responsibility for errors or omissions. Nor is any liability assumed for damages resulting from the use of the information contained herein. ISBN-13: 978-0-7897-4047-2 ISBN-10: 0-7897-4047-8 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication data is on file. Printed in the United States of America First Printing: October 2009 Executive Editor Rick Kughen Acquisitions Editor Betsy Brown Development Editor Dayna Isley Managing Editor Patrick Kanouse Project Editor Seth Kerney Copy Editor The Wordsmithery LLC Indexer Trademarks Tim Wright All terms mentioned in this book that are known to be trademarks or service marks have been appropriately capitalized. Que Publishing cannot attest to the accuracy of this information. Use of a term in this book should not be regarded as affecting the validity of any trademark or service mark. Proofreader Leslie Joseph Warning and Disclaimer Mark Reddin Every effort has been made to make this book as complete and as accurate as possible, but no warranty or fitness is implied. The information provided is on an “as is” basis. The authors and the publisher shall have neither liability nor responsibility to any person or entity with respect to any loss or damages arising from the information contained in this book or from the use of the CD or programs accompanying it. Technical Editors Pawan Bhardwaj Publishing Coordinator Vanessa Evans Multimedia Developer Dan Scherf Book Designer Louisa Adair Bulk Sales Que Publishing offers excellent discounts on this book when ordered in quantity for bulk purchases or special sales. For more information, please contact U.S. Corporate and Government Sales 1-800-382-3419 Composition Mark Shirar For sales outside of the U.S., please contact International Sales From the Library of Lee Bogdanoff
  • 3. Contents at a Glance Introduction xxxvi Chapter 1 PC Technician Essentials 3 Chapter 2 PC Anatomy 101 21 Chapter 3 Motherboards, Processors, and Adapter Cards 51 Chapter 4 BIOS 115 Chapter 5 Power Supplies and System Cooling 157 Chapter 6 RAM 199 Chapter 7 I/O and Multimedia Ports and Devices 223 Chapter 8 Video Displays and Graphics Cards 295 Chapter 9 Laptops and Portable Devices 325 Chapter 10 Security 385 Chapter 11 Printers 423 Chapter 12 Storage Devices 481 Chapter 13 Using and Managing Windows 545 Chapter 14 Installing and Upgrading Windows Operating Systems 647 Chapter 15 Troubleshooting and Maintaining Windows 685 Chapter 16 Networking 738 Chapter 17 Safety and Environmental Issues 811 Chapter 18 Troubleshooting and Communications Methods and Professional Behavior 833 Appendix A Answers to the “Do I Know This Already?” Quizzes and Troubleshooting Scenarios 859 Index 894 From the Library of Lee Bogdanoff
  • 4. iv CompTIA A+ Cert Guide Table of Contents Introduction xxxvi Chapter 1 PC Technician Essentials 3 PC Tools 3 Preventing Electrostatic Discharge 4 The CompTIA Six-Step Troubleshooting Process 5 Numbering Systems Used in Computers 6 Decimal Numbering System 6 Binary Numbering System 6 Binary Versus Decimal MB/GB 10 Data Storage and Overhead 11 Hexadecimal Numbering System 14 Measuring Data Transfer and Frequency 14 Bandwidth 14 Parallel Information Transfers 15 Serial Transfers 16 Hertz (Hz) 17 Important Websites 18 Chapter 2 PC Anatomy 101 21 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 22 The Essential Parts of Any Computer 26 Front and Rear Views of a Desktop PC 26 All Around a Notebook (Laptop) Computer 28 Quick Reference to PC Components 29 Points of Failure 30 Points of Failure on a Desktop Computer 31 Points of Failure on a Notebook Computer 31 Hardware, Software, and Firmware 32 Hardware 32 Software 32 Firmware 33 Why Hardware, Software, and Firmware Are Important to Understand 34 Working Inside Your PC 34 Opening the Case of a Desktop PC 34 Taking ESD Precautions 35 From the Library of Lee Bogdanoff
  • 5. Contents v Connecting Internal and External Data Cables 36 Attaching Cables to the Floppy Drive and Controller 36 Attaching the VGA Cable to a Video Card or Port 38 Installing a PCI Card 39 Hardware Resources 40 IRQs 41 I/O Port Addresses 43 DMA (Direct Memory Access) Channels 44 Memory Addresses 45 Viewing Hardware Resources in Use 45 Chapter 3 Motherboards, Processors, and Adapter Cards 51 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 51 Motherboards and Their Components 55 The System Bus and I/O Bus 56 Form Factors 57 ATX and Micro ATX 57 BTX 57 NLX 59 Riser Cards and Daughterboards 59 Integrated I/O Ports 60 Memory Slots 62 Expansion Slots 62 PCI Slots 63 AGP 63 PCIe (PCI-Express) Slots 64 AMR and CNR Slots 66 Mass Storage Interfaces 67 EIDE/PATA 68 SATA 69 SCSI 69 Choosing the Best Motherboard for the Job 70 Installing Motherboards 71 Step-by-Step Motherboard Removal (ATX and BTX) 71 Step-by-Step Motherboard Removal (NLX) 73 Preparing the Motherboard for Installation (ATX/BTX) 74 Step-by-Step Motherboard Installation (ATX/Baby-AT) 75 Step-by-Step Motherboard Installation (NLX) 76 From the Library of Lee Bogdanoff
  • 6. vi CompTIA A+ Cert Guide Troubleshooting Motherboards 76 System Will Not Start 77 Devices Connected to the Port Cluster Don’t Work 80 Devices Connected to Header Cables Don’t Work 81 Mass Storage Devices Do Not Work Properly 82 Memory Failures 82 Card, Memory, or Heat Sink Blocked by Motherboard Layout 82 Processors and CPUs 83 Overview of Processor Differences 83 Intel Processors 83 AMD Processors 86 Processor Sockets and Packaging 89 CPU Technologies 90 Hyperthreading (HT Technology) 90 Dual-Core and Multi-Core 91 Processor Throttling 91 Microcode (MMX) 91 Overclocking 92 Cache 93 VRM 93 Speed (Real Versus Actual) Clock Speed Versus Performance 94 32-bit Versus 64-bit 95 Choosing the Best Processor for the Job 95 Performance 95 Thermal Issues 95 32-bit Versus 64-bit (x64) Compatibility 96 Other Processor Features 96 Installing Processors 96 Removing the Heat Sink 97 Removing the Processor 99 Installing a New Processor 100 Slot-Type CPU (early Pentium III, early AMD Athlon, and Others) 102 Troubleshooting Processors 104 System Runs Slower Than Rated Speed 104 Other Causes for Overheating 105 Processor Failure 105 From the Library of Lee Bogdanoff
  • 7. Contents vii Installing Adapter Cards 105 General Installation 105 Display Adapters 109 Sound Cards 109 Video Capture Cards 110 Troubleshooting Adapter Cards 110 Device Connected to Adapter Card Doesn’t Work 110 Performing Driver and Firmware Upgrades 111 Chapter 4 BIOS 115 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 115 Understanding BIOS, CMOS, and Firmware 119 Configuring the System BIOS 121 Accessing the BIOS Setup Program 122 BIOS Settings Overview 124 Automatic Configuration of BIOS/CMOS Settings 127 Selecting Options 128 Main Menu 128 Standard Features/Settings 129 PATA and SATA BIOS Configuration 130 Floppy Drive BIOS Configuration 130 System Information 131 Advanced BIOS Settings/Features 132 Integrated Peripherals 133 Onboard Devices 134 I/O Devices 135 PATA/IDE and SATA Configuration 136 Power Management 138 PnP/PCI Configurations 139 Hardware Monitor 140 Processor and Memory Configuration 141 Security Features 142 Exiting the BIOS and Saving/Discarding Changes 143 Power-On Self-Test and Error Reporting 144 Beep Codes 145 POST Error Messages 146 POST Hex Codes 147 From the Library of Lee Bogdanoff
  • 8. viii CompTIA A+ Cert Guide BIOS Updates 148 Flash BIOS Update 149 BIOS Chip Replacement 151 Chapter 5 Power Supplies and System Cooling 157 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 157 Power Supplies 161 Power Supply Ratings 161 Multivoltage Power Supplies 163 Causes and Cures of Power Supply Overheating 165 Overloading 165 Inadequate Air Flow Outside the System 167 Fan Failure 167 Inadequate Air Flow Inside the System 168 Dirt and Dust 168 Replacing Power Supply Form Factors and Connectors 169 Removing and Replacing the Power Supply 172 Testing Power Supplies with a Multimeter 174 Determining Power Supply DC Voltage Levels 176 Avoiding Power Supply Hazards 178 Power Protection Types 179 Surge Suppressors 180 Battery Backup Units (UPS and SPS) 182 Buying the Correct-Sized Battery Backup System 184 Power Conditioning Devices 184 Troubleshooting Power Problems 185 System Cooling 186 Passive and Active Heat Sinks 187 North/Southbridge Cooling 188 Video Card Cooling 190 Case Fans 191 Thermal Compound 192 Liquid Cooling Systems 195 Chapter 6 RAM 199 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 199 RAM Basics 203 From the Library of Lee Bogdanoff
  • 9. Contents ix RAM Types 205 DRAM 205 SRAM 205 SDRAM 205 DDR SDRAM 206 DDR2 SDRAM 206 Rambus 206 Operational Characteristics 207 Comparison of Memory Modules 207 Memory Module Width 209 Parity and Non-Parity Memory 209 ECC and Non-ECC Memory 210 Registered and Unbuffered Memory 211 Single-Sided and Double-Sided Memory 212 Installing Memory Modules 212 Installing DIMMs and Rambus RDRAM Modules 212 Troubleshooting Memory 214 Verifying RAM Compatibility 214 Overclocking Can Lead to System Instability 215 Avoid Mixing Metals in RAM and Sockets 215 Use Caution When Mismatching RAM Speeds 215 EDO Compatibility with Other RAM Types 216 “Parity Error - System Halted” Message 217 RAM-Sizing Errors at Bootup 217 Determining Whether Cache RAM Is the Source of a Memory Problem 218 Other Methods for RAM Testing 218 Preventative Maintenance for Memory 219 Chapter 7 I/O and Multimedia Ports and Devices 223 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 223 Understanding I/O Ports 227 USB 227 USB Port Types, Speeds, and Technical Details 227 Adding USB Ports 230 SCSI 231 Multiple Device Support with SCSI Host Adapters 231 Jumper Block and DIP Switch Settings for Device IDs 232 SCSI Standards 234 From the Library of Lee Bogdanoff
  • 10. x CompTIA A+ Cert Guide SCSI Cables 235 SCSI Signaling Types 236 Daisy-Chaining SCSI Devices 236 SCSI Host Adapter Card Installation 238 SCSI Daisy-Chain Maximum Length 238 SCSI Termination Methods 239 Serial (COM) 240 Serial Port Pinouts 242 Types of Serial Cables 243 Standard IRQ and I/O Port Addresses 245 How to Configure or Disable Serial Ports 245 Serial Port Software Configuration 246 Adding Additional Serial Ports 247 Parallel (LPT) 248 Parallel Port Configuration 250 IEEE 1394 (FireWire) 255 IEEE 1394 Ports and Cables 255 IEEE 1394–Compatible Devices and Technical Requirements 256 Installing an IEEE 1394 Card 256 PS/2 (Mini-DIN) 257 Centronics 257 1/8-inch Audio Mini-Jack 258 SPDIF Digital Audio 258 MIDI Port 259 RG-6 Coaxial 260 Understanding Input Devices 260 Keyboard 260 Mouse and Pointing Devices 261 Mouse Resource Usage 262 Bar Code Reader 262 Biometric Devices 262 Touch Screens 263 Touch Screen Interfacing to the Computer 263 Understanding Multimedia Devices 264 Webcam 264 Digital Camera 264 MIDI Music and MIDI Ports 264 From the Library of Lee Bogdanoff
  • 11. Contents xi Sound Card 264 Microphone 265 Video Capture Card 266 Installing Input and Multimedia Devices 266 Installing a Keyboard 267 Installing a Mouse or Other Pointing Device 267 Installing a Bar Code Reader 267 Installing a Webcam 268 Installing a Digital Camera 268 Installing a MIDI Port 269 Installing a Microphone 269 Installing a Biometric Device 270 Installing a Touch Screen 270 Installing a Sound Card 270 Installing a Video Capture Card 271 Troubleshooting Input and Multimedia Devices 272 Troubleshooting Keyboards 272 Troubleshooting Mice and Pointing Devices 272 Mouse Pointer Won’t Move 274 Jerky Mouse Pointer Movement 275 User Can’t Double-Click Icons 276 Troubleshooting Touch Screen 276 Troubleshooting Sound Card 277 Sound Card Plays Sounds But Can’t Record CD-Quality Sound 277 Sound Card Works in Some Systems But Not in Others 277 Sound Playback Is Distorted or Choppy 277 No Sound at All from Sound Card 277 Sound Card Can’t Play MIDI Files 278 Troubleshooting SCSI Devices 279 External SCSI Device Isn’t Available 279 External or Internal SCSI Device Isn’t Available 280 Troubleshooting I/O Ports 280 Troubleshooting USB Ports and Devices 280 USB Devices Not Recognized 280 USB Port Problems 281 Troubleshooting IEEE 1394 Ports and Devices 282 System Can’t Detect the IEEE 1394 Card or Port 282 Incorrect Driver for IEEE 1394 Card or Device 283 From the Library of Lee Bogdanoff
  • 12. xii CompTIA A+ Cert Guide Troubleshooting Parallel (LPT) Ports and Devices 283 Parallel Port Mode Problems 283 Problems with Daisy-Chained Devices 284 Cabling and Port Problems 284 Testing Parallel Ports 285 Switchbox Problems 286 Troubleshooting Serial Ports and Devices 286 COM 4 I/O Port Conflicts 286 Serial Port Drops Characters When Multitasking 286 Can’t Connect Serial Devices to Port Because of Mismatched Connectors 287 Serial Cabling and Port Problems 287 Serial Configuration Problems 288 Testing Serial Ports 288 Maintaining Input Devices 288 Maintaining Mice and Pointing Devices 288 Maintaining Keyboards 290 Chapter 8 Video Displays and Graphics Cards 295 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 295 Video (Graphics) Card Types 299 Video Card Cooling 299 Installing a Video Card 300 BIOS Configuration 300 Video Card Physical and Driver Installation 301 Display Types 303 CRT Monitor 304 LCD Monitor 305 Data Projector 305 Video Connector Types 306 VGA 307 DVI 307 HDMI 309 Component/RGB 309 S-Video 310 Composite 310 From the Library of Lee Bogdanoff
  • 13. Contents xiii Display Settings 310 Resolution 311 Color Quality (Color Depth) 313 Refresh Rates 314 Installing a Monitor 315 Troubleshooting Displays and Video Cards 316 Troubleshooting Picture Quality Problems with OSD 316 Using Advanced Display Properties for Troubleshooting 318 Troubleshooting Video Hardware 319 Preventative Maintenance for Displays 321 Chapter 9 Laptops and Portable Devices 325 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 325 Fundamental Features of Laptops and Portable Devices 329 Memory 331 Storage Devices 331 Peripherals 332 Docking Stations and Port Replicators 333 Media and Accessory Bays 334 Expansion Slots 335 PCMCIA (PC Card, CardBus) 335 ExpressCard 338 Mini-PCI 339 Communications Connections 340 Bluetooth 340 Infrared (IrDA) 341 Cellular WAN 342 Ethernet 342 Wireless Ethernet (WLAN) 343 LCD Screen Technologies 343 Active Matrix 344 Passive Matrix 344 Screen Resolutions 344 Screen Quality Considerations 345 Input Devices 346 Stylus and Digitizer 346 Fn Keys 346 From the Library of Lee Bogdanoff
  • 14. xiv CompTIA A+ Cert Guide Touch Pad 346 Pointing Stick / TrackPoint 348 Power Management Issues 348 Processor Throttling 349 Peripheral Power Management 349 Power Sources 349 Battery Types 349 AC Adapters 350 Configuring Power Management 351 ACPI 351 Suspend, Standby, and Hibernate Modes 355 Applications for Portable and Laptop Hardware 356 Using Communications Connections 356 Using Bluetooth 357 Using Infrared (IrDA) 357 Using Cellular WAN 358 Using Ethernet 358 Using Wireless Ethernet (WLAN) 358 Working with Power Sources 360 Working with Display Subsystem Components 360 Adjusting the Amount of Shared Video Memory 361 Adjusting Brightness and Contrast on a Laptop Computer’s Display 361 Using DualView to Work with a Secondary Monitor or Projector 362 Cloning the Laptop Display to a Secondary Display or Projector 364 Safe Removal of PC Cards 365 Safe Removal of ExpressCards 365 Safe Removal of Laptop-Specific Hardware 365 Safe Removal of Batteries 366 Safe Removal and Installation of Mini-PCI Cards 367 Safe Removal and Installation of Hard Disk Drives 368 Safe Removal of Optical Drives 370 Safe Removal and Installation of Memory 371 Safe Removal of LCD Panels 371 Safe Removal and Replacement of Pointing Devices 373 Portable and Laptop Diagnostics 374 Power Troubleshooting 374 AC Power Troubleshooting 374 DC Power Troubleshooting 375 From the Library of Lee Bogdanoff
  • 15. Contents xv Display Troubleshooting 376 Using an External Monitor to Check the Display Subsystem 376 Solving Internal Display Problems 376 LCD Cutoff Switch 376 Checking for Backlight Problems 376 Dead Pixels 377 Other Components 377 Removing Peripherals 377 Stylus and Digitizer Problems 378 Keypad Problems 378 Antenna Wires 379 Preventative Maintenance for Laptops and Portable Devices 379 Cooling Devices 379 Display Screens 381 Suitable Operating Environments 381 Air Temperature 381 Air Quality 381 Storage Methods 381 Transportation and Shipping 381 Chapter 10 Security 385 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 385 Security Fundamentals 389 Secure and Insecure File Systems 389 Authentication Technologies 389 Username/Password/PIN 390 Smart Cards 390 Biometrics 390 Protection Against Viruses and Malware 391 Software Firewalls 391 Hardware Recycling and Deconstruction 392 Securing Wireless Networks 392 WEP and WPA Encryption 392 Access Point Configuration for Maximum Security 393 DHCP Versus Static IP Addresses 394 Changing the SSID 394 Disabling SSID Broadcast 395 From the Library of Lee Bogdanoff
  • 16. xvi CompTIA A+ Cert Guide MAC Address Filtering 396 Changing Default Administrator User Password 397 Updating Access Point Firmware 398 Firewall Features 399 Data and Physical Security 399 Data Access Local Security Policy 399 Encryption Technologies 400 BitLocker Encryption 401 Backups 401 Data Migration 402 Data and Data Remnant Removal 402 Password Management 402 Locking a Workstation 403 Incident Reporting 403 Social Engineering 404 Access Control Purposes and Principles 405 Operating System Access Control 405 User, Administration, and Guest Accounts 405 User Account Control (UAC) 405 Groups 406 Permissions Actions, Types, and Levels 406 Permission Inheritance and Propagation 407 Moving and Copying Folders and Files 407 Components 408 Restricted Spaces 408 Auditing and Event Logging 408 Installing, Configuring, and Troubleshooting Security Features 409 BIOS Security Features 409 Troubleshooting BIOS Security Issues 410 Software Firewalls 410 Troubleshooting Software Firewalls 411 Wireless Client Configuration 412 Troubleshooting Wireless Clients 414 Unused Wireless Connections 416 File Systems (Converting From FAT32 To NTFS) 417 From the Library of Lee Bogdanoff
  • 17. Contents xvii Malicious Software Protection 418 Types of Malware and Infection Methods 419 Training Users in Malware Protection 419 Chapter 11 Printers 423 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 423 Printing Fundamentals 427 Laser and LED Printers 427 How Laser Printers Use Memory 428 Toner Cartridges 430 Laser Printer Paper and Media 431 Inkjet Printers 432 Ink Cartridges 432 Inkjet Printer Paper and Media 434 Thermal Printers 434 Thermal Printer Ribbons 434 Thermal Printer Paper 434 Impact Printers 435 Impact Printer Ribbons 436 Impact Printer Paper and Media 436 Printer and Scanner Control 437 Drivers 437 Firmware 438 Print Processes 438 Laser Print Process 439 Step 1: Cleaning 440 Step 2: Conditioning 440 Step