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Introduction to Windows Server 2003 Chapter 07
Introduction to Windows Server 2003 Chapter 07
Introduction to Windows Server 2003 Chapter 07
Introduction to Windows Server 2003 Chapter 07
Introduction to Windows Server 2003 Chapter 07
Introduction to Windows Server 2003 Chapter 07
Introduction to Windows Server 2003 Chapter 07
Introduction to Windows Server 2003 Chapter 07
Introduction to Windows Server 2003 Chapter 07
Introduction to Windows Server 2003 Chapter 07
Introduction to Windows Server 2003 Chapter 07
Introduction to Windows Server 2003 Chapter 07
Introduction to Windows Server 2003 Chapter 07
Introduction to Windows Server 2003 Chapter 07
Introduction to Windows Server 2003 Chapter 07
Introduction to Windows Server 2003 Chapter 07
Introduction to Windows Server 2003 Chapter 07
Introduction to Windows Server 2003 Chapter 07
Introduction to Windows Server 2003 Chapter 07
Introduction to Windows Server 2003 Chapter 07
Introduction to Windows Server 2003 Chapter 07
Introduction to Windows Server 2003 Chapter 07
Introduction to Windows Server 2003 Chapter 07
Introduction to Windows Server 2003 Chapter 07
Introduction to Windows Server 2003 Chapter 07
Introduction to Windows Server 2003 Chapter 07
Introduction to Windows Server 2003 Chapter 07
Introduction to Windows Server 2003 Chapter 07
Introduction to Windows Server 2003 Chapter 07
Introduction to Windows Server 2003 Chapter 07
Introduction to Windows Server 2003 Chapter 07
Introduction to Windows Server 2003 Chapter 07
Introduction to Windows Server 2003 Chapter 07
Introduction to Windows Server 2003 Chapter 07
Introduction to Windows Server 2003 Chapter 07
Introduction to Windows Server 2003 Chapter 07
Introduction to Windows Server 2003 Chapter 07
Introduction to Windows Server 2003 Chapter 07
Introduction to Windows Server 2003 Chapter 07
Introduction to Windows Server 2003 Chapter 07
Introduction to Windows Server 2003 Chapter 07
Introduction to Windows Server 2003 Chapter 07
Introduction to Windows Server 2003 Chapter 07
Introduction to Windows Server 2003 Chapter 07
Introduction to Windows Server 2003 Chapter 07
Introduction to Windows Server 2003 Chapter 07
Introduction to Windows Server 2003 Chapter 07
Introduction to Windows Server 2003 Chapter 07
Introduction to Windows Server 2003 Chapter 07
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Introduction to Windows Server 2003 Chapter 07

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  • 1. Hands-On Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Chapter 7 Configuring and Managing Data Storage
  • 2. Objectives • Understand the Windows Server 2003 storage options, including basic and dynamic disks • Perform disk management and troubleshooting on partitions, volumes, and mounted drives • Configure and manage RAID volumes for fault tolerance • Perform disk backups • Restore data to a disk 2
  • 3. Windows Server 2003 Storage Options • Basic disk – Uses traditional disk management techniques – Contains primary partitions, extended partitions, and logical drives • Dynamic disk – Does not use traditional partitioning – Provides flexibility in number of volumes per disk 3
  • 4. Basic Disks • Partitioning – Blocks a group of tracks and sectors to be used by a particular file system • Formatting – Creates a table of file and folder information for a particular file system • RAID – Set of standards for lengthening disk life and preventing data loss – Basic disks can use RAID level 0, 1, and 5 4
  • 5. Basic Disks (cont.) • Disk Striping – Ability to spread data over multiple disks or volumes – Prevents disk wear • Disk mirroring – Practice of creating a mirror image of all data from the original disk to a backup disk – Backup disk goes live only if original disk fails • Disks added to a Windows Server 2003 computer are automatically configured as basic disks • Basic disk partitions can be primary or extended 5
  • 6. Primary Partitions • Basic disks must contain at least one primary partition and can contain up to four partitions – A primary partition is one from which you can boot an operating system – Can be used for other purposes, such as to hold files in a different file system format • At least one (and only one) primary partition must be marked as active – An active partition is where your computer looks for hardware-specific files to start the operating system – Also called the system partition 6
  • 7. Extended Partitions • Created from space not yet partitioned • Enables the basic disk to exceed the fourpartition limit • After creation, it is further divided into logical drives – Logical drives are then formatted and assigned drive letters • The boot partition can be installed on a primary or extended partition – The boot partition contains the operating system files located in the Windows folder 7
  • 8. 8
  • 9. Volume and Stripe Sets • Volume set – Two or more partitions combined to look like one volume with a single drive letter • Stripe set – Two or more combined disks – Striped for Raid level 0 or 5 • Backward compatibility with sets created in NT – Cannot create new sets if disk fails 9
  • 10. Dynamic Disks • Ability to set up a large number of volumes on one disk • Ability to extend volumes onto additional physical disks • Supports RAID levels 0, 1, and 5 • Can be formatted for FAT16, FAT32, and NTFS • Can be reactivated if powered down or disconnected • Employs better disk management than basic disks 10
  • 11. Dynamic Disks Configurations • Dynamic disks are recognized by both the Windows 2000 and Windows Server 2003 operating systems • Dynamic disk terminology uses volumes instead of partitions or sets • Five types of volumes: – – – – – Simple volumes Spanned volumes Striped volumes Mirrored volumes Raid-5 volumes 11
  • 12. Simple Volume • Portion of a disk or an entire disk that is set up as a dynamic disk • Option to extend the volume with unallocated space • Can be extended for up to 32 sections of the same disk • Does not provide fault tolerance 12
  • 13. Spanned Volume • Two to 32 disks that are treated as one volume • Use to combine several small portions of disk space or to combine small disks • Volumes formatted for NTFS can be extended • If one disk of a spanned volume fails, the entire volume is inaccessible • If a portion of a spanned volume is deleted, the entire disk set is deleted 13
  • 14. 14
  • 15. Striped Volume • Referred to RAID level 0 • Extends life of hard drives by spreading data equally over two to 32 drives • Increases disk performance • Equal portions of data in 64 KB blocks are written in rows on each disk • Useful for large databases or data replication • Data can be lost when one or more disks fail 15
  • 16. 16
  • 17. Disk Management • Tasks – – – – View disk information Create and delete partitions and volumes Convert a basic disk to a dynamic disk Troubleshoot disk problems • Tools – – – – Disk Management Disk Defragmenter Check Disk chkdsk 17
  • 18. Creating Partitions • When creating a partition, leave 1 MB or more free for conversions from a basic disk to a dynamic disk • Organize storage units with partitions – For example, keep the operating system on a partition separate from user data to protect data • A partition can be formatted during or after creation – A volume on a dynamic disk formatted with the Disk Management tool can only be formatted for NTFS 18
  • 19. 19
  • 20. Converting a Partitioned Basic Disk to a Dynamic Disk 20
  • 21. Creating Volumes 21
  • 22. Mounting a Drive • A mounted drive appears as a folder and is accessed through a path like other folders • Can mount basic or dynamic disks, CD-ROMs, or Zip drives • Other drives can be added to the folder • Reduces the number of drive letters in use • Used to store user home directories • Can be used for databases in order to provide easier user access and backups 22
  • 23. Using Disk Defragmenter • Disks gradually become fragmented – Files are saved to the first area of available disk space – Accessing a file may require reads from different areas of a disk • Disk Defragmenter – Analyzes disks and creates reports – Locates fragmented folders and files and moves them to a contiguous location on the physical disk • Defragment a disk on a busy server every one to two weeks 23
  • 24. 24
  • 25. 25
  • 26. Using Check Disk • Scans disks for bad sectors and file system errors • Meant for use when users are not accessing the system • Two options: – Automatically fix file system errors • Repairs any errors in the file system – Scan for and attempt recovery of bad sectors • Includes the above • Also finds and fixes bad sectors, recovering any information it can read 26
  • 27. Using chkdsk • Command-line tool to check the disk for errors • Starts automatically during booting if the boot process detects a corrupt file allocation table or corrupted files • Can check FAT16, FAT32, NTFS, or a combination of these • Can save lost information to a file (Filexxx.chk) • Offers switch and parameter options 27
  • 28. 28
  • 29. 29
  • 30. Fault Tolerance • Ability of a system to recover gracefully from hardware or software failure • Windows Server 2003 provides fault tolerance through software RAID • RAID is not a replacement for regular backups • Data is written to more than one drive – If one drive fails, data can be accessed from one of the remaining drives 30
  • 31. RAID Volumes • RAID level 0 – Striping with no other redundancy • RAID level 1 – Disk mirroring by duplicating data to a backup disk on the same controller or adapter – Disk duplexing by duplicating data to a backup disk on a different controller or adapter – Write access is slower than read access – More expensive than other RAID levels if three or more volumes are involved 31
  • 32. 32
  • 33. 33
  • 34. RAID Volumes (cont.) • RAID level 2 – An array of disks with striping and error-correction information • RAID level 3 – Like level 2, but the error-correcting information is only written to one disk • RAID level 4 – Like level 2, with checksum verification • The checksum is sum of bits in a file to verify that a reconstructed file is not corrupt • Server 2003 does not support RAID levels 2 to 4 34
  • 35. RAID Volumes (cont.) • RAID level 5 – Offers striping, error correction, and checksum verification over all of the disks – Uses more RAM than other RAID levels – Requires at least three disks in the array – Same data guarantee as mirroring, but slower – If more than one drive fails, data is lost 35
  • 36. Comparing RAID 0, 1, and 5 • RAID 0 does not offer fault tolerance, and is therefore not recommended in many situations • The boot and system files can be placed on RAID level 1, but not on RAID level 5 • RAID level 1 uses two hard disks, and RAID level 5 uses three to 32 • RAID 1 is more expensive to implement than RAID level 5 per megabyte of storage • RAID level 5 requires more memory than RAID level 1 36
  • 37. Using a Striped Volume (RAID level 0) • Reduces the wear on multiple disk drives by equally spreading the load • Increases disk performance compared to other methods for configuring dynamic disk volumes • Used in situations where a main data warehouse is stored elsewhere and fast access is needed for the secondary storage 37
  • 38. Using a Mirrored Volume (RAID level 1) • Only dynamic disks are set up as a mirrored volume • One of the most guaranteed forms of fault tolerance • The time to create or update information is doubled because of the mirrored disk • Disk read performance is the same as a single disk • System and boot volumes can reside on a mirrored volume 38
  • 39. Using a RAID-5 Volume • Uses parity blocks on each disk with information about the data contained in each row of 64 KB blocks – The parity is Boolean logic – The parity block is always in row n of disk n, where n is the disk number • Not as fast as a striped volume • Uses more memory than mirroring or simple striping • The amount of storage space is 1/n where n is the number of physical disks in the volume 39
  • 40. 40
  • 41. Software RAID versus Hardware RAID • Hardware RAID is independent of the operating system • Hardware RAID is more expensive than software RAID, but offers the following advantages: – Faster read and write response – Ability to place boot and system files on different RAID levels – Ability to “hot-swap” a failed disk without shutting down the server – More setup options to retrieve damaged data and combine different RAID levels 41
  • 42. Disk Backup • Backups from tape drive on the server – Tapes hold more data – No extra load from network traffic – Ability to perform backups from another tape in the event of tape failure – Assurance that the registry is backed up • Backups on the network – Can be stored on a single backup media for easier administration – Registry cannot be backed up – More network traffic 42
  • 43. Backup Options • Normal backup – Backup of an entire system – Changes each file’s archive attribute • Incremental backup – Backs up files that are new or have been updated – Only backs up files with archive attribute – Removes the archive attribute • Differential backup – Like incremental backup, but does not remove the archive attribute – Quicker restores than incremental restores 43
  • 44. Backup Options (cont.) • Copy backup – Backs up only the files or folders selected – The archive attribute is left unchanged – Does not affect regular backup routines • Daily backup – Only backs up files that have been modified on the day the backup is performed – The archive attribute is unchanged • Additional tools in the Backup or Restore Wizard – Schedule backups to occur automatically – Restore data from removable media 44
  • 45. 45
  • 46. 46
  • 47. Summary • Windows Server 2003 supports two different disk configurations: – Basic disks are backward-compatible to earlier operating systems and provide rudimentary handling – Dynamic disks can be configured for more comprehensive disk management involving simple, spanned, striped, mirrored, and RAID-5 volumes • The Disk Management tool provides a graphical view of the disk configuration • Use the Disk Management to create basic disk partitions or dynamic disk volumes 47
  • 48. Summary • Mounting a drive enables you to save drive letter assignments and to access a drive through a folder • Plan to regularly defragment disks using the Disk Defragmenter tool • Use the Check Disk and chdsk tools to find and repair disk problems • RAID provides fault tolerance for your server’s hard disks – Windows Server 2003 supports RAID level 0, 1, and 5 • RAID level 0, also know as striping, provides no actual fault tolerance other than to extend the life of the disks 48
  • 49. Summary • With disk mirroring or disk duplexing (RAID level 1), the same data is written to a partition on each of the two disks included in the mirror • With RAID level 5, data is written across a minimum of three disks in 64 KB chunks – Parity information is added to achieve fault tolerance • Use the Backup utility to regularly back up important data and system files – Works with tapes, CD-Rs, CD-RWs, and Zip disks • The restore capability in the Backup utility enables you to restore an entire server, one disk drive, specific folders on a disk drive, or only specific files 49

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