Router:
• It is an internetworking device used to connect two or more
different networks
• It works on layer 3 i.e. networ...
1.1.1.1/8
S0

HYD
E0
10.1.1.1/8

LAN – 10.0.0.0/24

S1
1.1.1.2/8

KSA
E0
20.1.1.1/24

LAN – 20.0.0.0/24
• HUB
It is generally used to connect all devices on a
network so that they can communicate with each
other. It always do ...
What is TCP/IP?
• TCP/IP is a standard language like English used
by computers and network devices for
communication
• TCP...
IP ADDRESS
• IP Address is Logical Address
• It is a Network Layer address (Layer 3)
• Two Versions of IP:
– IP version 4 ...
IP version 4
Bit is represent by 0 or 1 (i.e. Binary)
IP address in binary form (32 bits):
0101010100000101101111110000000...
IP version 6
• 128-bit address is divided along 16-bit boundaries,
and each 16-bit block is converted to a 4-digit
hexadec...
Binary to Decimal Conversion
Taking Example for First Octet :
Total 8 bits, Value will be 0’s and 1’s
i.e. 28 = 256 combin...
IP Address Classification
• IP Addresses are divided into 5 Classes
• CLASS A
• CLASS B

Used in LAN & WAN

• CLASS C
• CL...
Class Ranges
CLASS A Range

0.0.0.0

- 127.255.255.255

CLASS B Range

128.0.0.0 - 191.255.255.255

CLASS C Range

192.0.0...
Octet Format
• IP address is divided into Network & Host Portion
• CLASS A is written as

N.H.H.H

• CLASS B is written as...
No. Networks & Hosts
• CLASS A
– 126 Networks & 16777214 Hosts per Network

• CLASS B
– 16384 Networks & 65534 Hosts per N...
Network & Broadcast Address

• The network address is represented with all bits as
ZERO in the host portion of the address...
Example - Class A
Class A
10.0.0.0
10.0.0.1
10.0.0.2
10.0.0.3

10.255.255.254
10.255.255.255

Network Address

Valid IP Ad...
Example - Class B
Class B
172.16.0.0
172.16.0.1
172.16.0.2
172.16.0.3

172.16.255.254
172.16.255.255

Network Address

Val...
Example - Class C
Class B
192.168.1.0
192.168.1.1
192.168.1.2
192.168.1.3
192.168.1.4
192.168.1.5
192.168.1.6
192.168.1.25...
Private IP Address
• There are certain addresses in each class of IP
address that are reserved for Private Networks.
These...
Subnet Mask
Subnet Mask:-Its an address used to identify the
network and host portion of the ip address
Class A
Class B
Cl...
• Network:- collection / group hosts
• Host:- Single PC/ computer.
• Default Gateway:– Its an entry and exit point of the ...
Subnetting
•

Dividing a Single Network into Multiple Networks.

•

Converting Host bits into Network Bits
i.e. Converting...
What is Supernetting or CIDR?
• Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) merges or
combine network addresses of same class in...
ip address
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ip address

  1. 1. Router: • It is an internetworking device used to connect two or more different networks • It works on layer 3 i.e. network layer • .It Performs Routing • ROUTING:- Forwarding packets from one network to another network choosing the best path is called routing.
  2. 2. 1.1.1.1/8 S0 HYD E0 10.1.1.1/8 LAN – 10.0.0.0/24 S1 1.1.1.2/8 KSA E0 20.1.1.1/24 LAN – 20.0.0.0/24
  3. 3. • HUB It is generally used to connect all devices on a network so that they can communicate with each other. It always do broadcasting. • Switch Like Hub, it is also used to connect all devices on a network so that they can communicate with each other. But first time it will do broadcast and from second time onwards it will do unicast.
  4. 4. What is TCP/IP? • TCP/IP is a standard language like English used by computers and network devices for communication • TCP/IP is a universal standard and can make communication possible among all operation system
  5. 5. IP ADDRESS • IP Address is Logical Address • It is a Network Layer address (Layer 3) • Two Versions of IP: – IP version 4 is a 32 bit address – IP version 6 is a 128 bit address
  6. 6. IP version 4 Bit is represent by 0 or 1 (i.e. Binary) IP address in binary form (32 bits): 01010101000001011011111100000001 32 bits are divided into 4 Octets: 01010101. 00000101. 10111111. 00000001 IP address in decimal form: 85.5.191.1
  7. 7. IP version 6 • 128-bit address is divided along 16-bit boundaries, and each 16-bit block is converted to a 4-digit hexadecimal number and separated by colons (Colon-Hex Notation) FEDC:BA98:7654:3210:FEDC:BA98:7654:3210
  8. 8. Binary to Decimal Conversion Taking Example for First Octet : Total 8 bits, Value will be 0’s and 1’s i.e. 28 = 256 combination Total IP Address Range 0.0.0.0 to 255.255.255.255
  9. 9. IP Address Classification • IP Addresses are divided into 5 Classes • CLASS A • CLASS B Used in LAN & WAN • CLASS C • CLASS D • CLASS E Reserved for Multicasting Reserved for Research & Development
  10. 10. Class Ranges CLASS A Range 0.0.0.0 - 127.255.255.255 CLASS B Range 128.0.0.0 - 191.255.255.255 CLASS C Range 192.0.0.0 - 223.255.255.255 CLASS D Range 224.0.0.0 - 239.255.255.255 CLASS E Range 240.0.0.0 - 255.255.255.255
  11. 11. Octet Format • IP address is divided into Network & Host Portion • CLASS A is written as N.H.H.H • CLASS B is written as N.N.H.H • CLASS C is written as N.N.N.H
  12. 12. No. Networks & Hosts • CLASS A – 126 Networks & 16777214 Hosts per Network • CLASS B – 16384 Networks & 65534 Hosts per Network • CLASS C – 2097152 Networks & 254 Hosts per Network
  13. 13. Network & Broadcast Address • The network address is represented with all bits as ZERO in the host portion of the address • The broadcast address is represented with all bits as ONES in the host portion of the address • Valid IP Addresses lie between the Network Address and the Broadcast Address. • Only Valid IP Addresses are assigned to hosts/clients
  14. 14. Example - Class A Class A 10.0.0.0 10.0.0.1 10.0.0.2 10.0.0.3 10.255.255.254 10.255.255.255 Network Address Valid IP Addresses Broadcast Address
  15. 15. Example - Class B Class B 172.16.0.0 172.16.0.1 172.16.0.2 172.16.0.3 172.16.255.254 172.16.255.255 Network Address Valid IP Addresses Broadcast Address
  16. 16. Example - Class C Class B 192.168.1.0 192.168.1.1 192.168.1.2 192.168.1.3 192.168.1.4 192.168.1.5 192.168.1.6 192.168.1.255 Network Address Valid IP Addresses Broadcast Address
  17. 17. Private IP Address • There are certain addresses in each class of IP address that are reserved for Private Networks. These addresses are called private addresses. Class A 10.0.0.0 to 10.255.255.255 Class B 172.16.0.0 to 172.31.255.255 Class C 192.168.0.0 to 192.168.255.255
  18. 18. Subnet Mask Subnet Mask:-Its an address used to identify the network and host portion of the ip address Class A Class B Class C N.H.H.H N.N.H.H N.N.N.H 255.0.0.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.255.0 Note:- "255" represents the network and "0" represents host.
  19. 19. • Network:- collection / group hosts • Host:- Single PC/ computer. • Default Gateway:– Its an entry and exit point of the network. – ex:- The ip address of the router ethernet address.
  20. 20. Subnetting • Dividing a Single Network into Multiple Networks. • Converting Host bits into Network Bits i.e. Converting 0’s into 1’s • Subnetting can be perform in two ways. – FLSM (Fixed Length Subnet Mask) – VLSM (Variable Length subnet mask) • Subnetting can be done based on requirement . – Requirement of Hosts ? 2h - 2 >= requirement – Requirement of Networks ? 2n >= requirement
  21. 21. What is Supernetting or CIDR? • Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) merges or combine network addresses of same class into one single address to reduce the size of the routing table. • It is done on core router to reduce the size of routing table. • It is implemented by ISP (internet service providers).
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