Growth of cellular telephone subscribers throughout the world 1000Worldwide subscribers (millions) 100 10 1 0.1 1985 1990 1995 2000
Second generation (2G) cellular methods 400Subscribers Using Technology (millions) 300 200 100 0 1st Generation GSM IS-136 & IS-95 Analog PDC CDMA
2G systems Most of today’s cellular methods use second generation or 2G technologies While first generation systems relied on FDMA/FDD and only FM, second generation standards use digital modulation and TDMA/FDD or CDMA/FDD
Most popular systems GSM (Global System Mobile) IS-136 (NADC) (North American Digital Cellular) PDC (Pacific Digital Cellular) IS-95 CDMA
. . . Key specifications of leading 2G technologies cdmaOne, IS-95, GSM, DCS-1900, NADC, IS-54/IS- ANSI J-STD-008 ANSI J-STD-007 136, ANSI J- STD-011, PDCChannel Data Rate 1.2288 Mchips/see 270.833 kbps 48.6 kbps (IS-136) (42kbps for PDC)Voice Channels per 64 8 8 Carrier Speech coding Code Excited Linear Residual Pulse Vector Sun Excited Prediction (CELP) Excited Long Tern Linear Predictive @ 13kbps, Prediction (RPE- Coder (VSELP) @ Enhanced Variable LTP) @ 13 kbps 7.95 kbps Rate Codec (EVRC) @ 8 kbps
2.5G Mobile radio networks Evolution from 2G 2.5G required to support increased data rates for modern Internet applications. 2.5G are new data-centric standard that can be overlaid on existing 2G technologies 2.5G supports new web browsing format language called WAP (Wireless applications Protocol)
2.5G Mobile radio networks WAP enables standard web pages to be viewed in a compressed format suitable for small portable hand-held wireless devices. First developed in Japan by NTT-DoCoMo I-mode for PDC network - supports games, color graphics and interactive web pages using 9.6 kbps 25 million Japanese subscribers in 2001
2.5G TDMA standards HSCSD (High Speed Circuit Switched Data) for 2.5G GSM Allows a single mobile user to use more than one specific time slot as in GSM TDMA Increases application rate from 9,600 bps (2G GSM) to 14,400 bps (2.5G GSM) Ideal for streaming internet access or real-time interactive web sessions. Can be implemented by a software change at existing GSM base stations.
. . . 2.5G TDMA standards GPRS(General Packet Radio Service) GPRS for 2.5G GSM and IS-136 Packet based data network suited for non-real time internet usage E-mail retrieving, faxes and where download upload GPRS can support more users that HSCSD, but in a bursty manner.
. . . 2.5G TDMA standards EDGE(Enhanced Data Ration for GSM[or Global]) for 2.5G GSM and IS-136 More advanced upgrade to GSM standard Regains additional hardware/software at existing base stations New digital modulation format (8- PSK/octal PSK) Raw data rate of 547.2 kbps possible with 8 GSM slots of a GSM channel are allowed for each user.
2.5G CDMA standards IS-95B for 2.5G CDMA Medium data rate (MDR) service with throughput of 115.2 kbps per user (8 x 14.4 kbps) Advanced handoff procedures allows mobiles to search different radio channels independently
Third generation3G wireless methods Unparalleled wireless access Multi Mbps Internet access using VoIP (Voice Over Internet Protocol), voice activated calls Ability to receive live music, interactive web sessions, voice and data access with multiple features at the same time, at all times
. . . Third generation3G wireless methods ITU (International Telecommunications Union) proposed A global frequency band in 2000 MHz range • Single wireless communications standard for all countries in the world IMT-2000. • World community remains split between GSM/IS-136/PDC and CDMA • www.gsmworld.com • www.edg.org
3G CDMA standards 3G W-CDMA (UMTS - Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) Packet based wireless service which enables computers, entertainment devices, telephones to connect to internet anytime, anywhere. Packet data rates up to 2.048 Mbps per stationary user Broadcasting, VHE (Virtual Home Entertainment) m- commerce (mobile commerce), games, interactive video, virtual private technology - all possible from small portable wireless device
. . . 3G CDMA standards 3G cdma2000 or cmda2000 IX New high data rate internet access with backward compatibility to IS-95 and IS-95B systems - 1.25 MHz bandwidth Instantaneous data rate of 307 kbps in packet mode Both FDD (mobile radio) and TDD (in-building cordless) applications
3G TDMA standards 3G TD-SCDMA (Time Division Synchronous Code Division Multiple Access) Developed by CATT (Chinese Academy of Telecommunications Technology) and Siemens. Adopted by ITU as one of 3G options in 1999 Existing GSM - 3G evolution through additions of high data rate equipment in each GSM station - 1.6 MHz bandwidth Utilizes smart antennas, spatial filtering and joint detection technologies
Broadband wirelessservices Wireless Local Loop (WLL) Demand for broadband internet and computer access from businesses and homes Fixed wireless equipment have advantages such as fixed path between T-R Microwave or millimeter radio frequencies used >28GHz - wave length is very small - small high gain antennas. Especially useful in developing nations with less telecommunications setup.
Emerging applications and markets for broadband services Fiber Large business in high-density urban areasBackbone Network Wireless Central Mid-market business Mid-market outside the urban core outside the urban core Office Central Office Copper/xDSL OC-3 Small business Small business DAX Cable Residences ISP
. . . Broadbandwireless services Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANS) UNII (Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure) hand allocated by FCC for low power spread spectrum 5.150 - 5.35 Ghz, 5.725 - 5.825 GHz (1997) 902-928 Mhz, 2400-2483.5Mhz, 5.725-5.825 MHz (1980s end) IEEE 802.11 (1997) standard and (IEEE 802.11b) approved to provide guidelines for WLAN manufacturers
High Performance Radio LocalArea Network (HIPERLAN) Europe standard to provide similar capability to IEEE 802.11 5.2 GHz and 17.1Ghz frequency lands Up to 20 Mbps data rate at 50m range and vehicle speeds of 35km/hr Advanced standards include Europe’s ETSI-BRAN (Broadband Radio Access Network) and HIPERLAN/2.
Personal Area Networks Ability to replace cables between devices with wireless short range connection Bluetooth operates in 2.4GHz ISM band (2900- 2483.5MHz) with 1 MHz channel bandwidth Uses FH-SS TDD scheme with 1600 hps 1Mbps symbol rate using GSFSk modulation IEEE 802.15 sttandards committee is our international forum for developing Bluetooth and other PANS