Overview of Current Communications             Systems
Growth of cellular telephone                               subscribers throughout the world                               ...
Second generation (2G)                                                     cellular methods                               ...
2G systems Most of today’s cellular methods  use second generation or  2G technologies While first generation systems re...
Most popular systems GSM (Global System Mobile) IS-136 (NADC)  (North American Digital Cellular) PDC (Pacific Digital C...
Key Specifications of leading          2G technologies                       cdmaOne, IS-95, GSM, DCS-1900, NADC, IS-54/IS...
. . . Key specifications of          leading 2G technologies                     cdmaOne, IS-95, GSM, DCS-1900, NADC, IS-5...
. . . Key specifications of          leading 2G technologies                     cdmaOne, IS-95, GSM, DCS-1900, NADC, IS-5...
2.5G Mobile radio networks Evolution from 2G  2.5G required to  support increased data rates for  modern Internet applic...
2.5G Mobile radio networks WAP enables standard web pages to  be viewed in a compressed format   suitable for small port...
2.5G TDMA standards HSCSD (High Speed Circuit Switched  Data) for 2.5G GSM   Allows a single mobile user to use more    ...
. . . 2.5G TDMA standards GPRS(General Packet Radio Service) GPRS for 2.5G GSM and IS-136   Packet based data network su...
. . . 2.5G TDMA standards EDGE(Enhanced Data Ration for GSM[or Global]) for 2.5G GSM and IS-136 More advanced upgrade to ...
2.5G CDMA standards IS-95B for 2.5G CDMA   Medium data rate (MDR) service with    throughput of 115.2 kbps per user    (...
Third generation3G wireless methods Unparalleled wireless access   Multi Mbps Internet access using    VoIP (Voice Over ...
. . . Third generation3G wireless methods ITU (International  Telecommunications Union)  proposed   A global frequency b...
2G - 3G evolution                                         IS-136     IS-95                 GSM                            ...
3G CDMA standards 3G W-CDMA (UMTS - Universal Mobile  Telecommunications System)   Packet based wireless service which e...
. . . 3G CDMA standards 3G cdma2000 or cmda2000 IX   New high data rate internet access    with backward compatibility t...
3G TDMA standards 3G TD-SCDMA (Time Division  Synchronous Code Division  Multiple Access)   Developed by CATT (Chinese A...
Broadband wirelessservices Wireless Local Loop (WLL)    Demand for broadband internet and     computer access from busin...
Emerging applications and markets for        broadband services                                     Fiber                 ...
Broadband wireless spectrum world-              wide
. . . Broadbandwireless services Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANS)   UNII (Unlicensed National Information     Infras...
IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN                 IEEE 802.11                     2.4 GHZ            850 TO 950 NM     FHSS        ...
IEEE 802.11b Wireless LAN
High Performance Radio LocalArea Network (HIPERLAN) Europe standard to provide  similar capability to IEEE 802.11 5.2 GH...
Personal Area Networks Ability to replace cables between devices with  wireless short range connection Bluetooth operate...
PAN Bluetooth standard
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Overview of current communications systems

  1. 1. Overview of Current Communications Systems
  2. 2. Growth of cellular telephone subscribers throughout the world 1000Worldwide subscribers (millions) 100 10 1 0.1 1985 1990 1995 2000
  3. 3. Second generation (2G) cellular methods 400Subscribers Using Technology (millions) 300 200 100 0 1st Generation GSM IS-136 & IS-95 Analog PDC CDMA
  4. 4. 2G systems Most of today’s cellular methods use second generation or 2G technologies While first generation systems relied on FDMA/FDD and only FM, second generation standards use digital modulation and TDMA/FDD or CDMA/FDD
  5. 5. Most popular systems GSM (Global System Mobile) IS-136 (NADC) (North American Digital Cellular) PDC (Pacific Digital Cellular) IS-95 CDMA
  6. 6. Key Specifications of leading 2G technologies cdmaOne, IS-95, GSM, DCS-1900, NADC, IS-54/IS- ANSI J-STD-008 ANSI J-STD-007 136, ANSI J- STD-011, PDC Uplink Frequencies 824-849 MHz 890-915 MHz 800 MHz, 1500 MHz (US Cellular) (Europe) (Japan) 1850-1910 MHz (US 1850-1910 MHz (US 1850-1910 MHz (US PCS) PCS) PCS)Downlink Frequencies 869-894 MHz 935-960 MHz 869-894 MHz, (US Cellular) (Europe) (US Cellular) 1930-1990 MHz (US 1930-1990 MHz (US 1930-1990 MHz (US PCS) PCS) PCS) 800 MHz, 1500 MHz (Japan)
  7. 7. . . . Key specifications of leading 2G technologies cdmaOne, IS-95, GSM, DCS-1900, NADC, IS-54/IS- ANSI J-STD-008 ANSI J-STD-007 136, ANSI J- STD-011, PDC Duplexing FDD FDD FDD Multiple Access CDMA TDMA TDMA Technology Modulation BPSK with GMSK with π /4 DQPSK Quadrature BT = 0.3 SpreadingCarrier Separation 1.25 MHz 200 kHz 30 kHz (IS-136) (25 kHz for PDC)
  8. 8. . . . Key specifications of leading 2G technologies cdmaOne, IS-95, GSM, DCS-1900, NADC, IS-54/IS- ANSI J-STD-008 ANSI J-STD-007 136, ANSI J- STD-011, PDCChannel Data Rate 1.2288 Mchips/see 270.833 kbps 48.6 kbps (IS-136) (42kbps for PDC)Voice Channels per 64 8 8 Carrier Speech coding Code Excited Linear Residual Pulse Vector Sun Excited Prediction (CELP) Excited Long Tern Linear Predictive @ 13kbps, Prediction (RPE- Coder (VSELP) @ Enhanced Variable LTP) @ 13 kbps 7.95 kbps Rate Codec (EVRC) @ 8 kbps
  9. 9. 2.5G Mobile radio networks Evolution from 2G  2.5G required to support increased data rates for modern Internet applications. 2.5G are new data-centric standard that can be overlaid on existing 2G technologies 2.5G supports new web browsing format language called WAP (Wireless applications Protocol)
  10. 10. 2.5G Mobile radio networks WAP enables standard web pages to be viewed in a compressed format  suitable for small portable hand-held wireless devices. First developed in Japan by NTT-DoCoMo  I-mode for PDC network - supports games, color graphics and interactive web pages using 9.6 kbps  25 million Japanese subscribers in 2001
  11. 11. 2.5G TDMA standards HSCSD (High Speed Circuit Switched Data) for 2.5G GSM  Allows a single mobile user to use more than one specific time slot as in GSM TDMA  Increases application rate from 9,600 bps (2G GSM) to 14,400 bps (2.5G GSM)  Ideal for streaming internet access or real-time interactive web sessions.  Can be implemented by a software change at existing GSM base stations.
  12. 12. . . . 2.5G TDMA standards GPRS(General Packet Radio Service) GPRS for 2.5G GSM and IS-136  Packet based data network suited for non-real time internet usage  E-mail retrieving, faxes and where download  upload  GPRS can support more users that HSCSD, but in a bursty manner.
  13. 13. . . . 2.5G TDMA standards EDGE(Enhanced Data Ration for GSM[or Global]) for 2.5G GSM and IS-136 More advanced upgrade to GSM standard Regains additional hardware/software at existing base stations New digital modulation format (8- PSK/octal PSK) Raw data rate of 547.2 kbps possible with 8 GSM slots of a GSM channel are allowed for each user.
  14. 14. 2.5G CDMA standards IS-95B for 2.5G CDMA  Medium data rate (MDR) service with throughput of 115.2 kbps per user (8 x 14.4 kbps)  Advanced handoff procedures allows mobiles to search different radio channels independently
  15. 15. Third generation3G wireless methods Unparalleled wireless access  Multi Mbps Internet access using VoIP (Voice Over Internet Protocol), voice activated calls Ability to receive live music, interactive web sessions, voice and data access with multiple features at the same time, at all times
  16. 16. . . . Third generation3G wireless methods ITU (International Telecommunications Union) proposed  A global frequency band in 2000 MHz range • Single wireless communications standard for all countries in the world IMT-2000. • World community remains split between GSM/IS-136/PDC and CDMA • www.gsmworld.com • www.edg.org
  17. 17. 2G - 3G evolution IS-136 IS-95 GSM & PDC GPRS IS-95B HSCSD HSCSD cdma2000-1xRTT W-CDMA Cdma2000-1xEV, DV, DO EDGE 3GPP2 TD-SCDMA cdma2000-3xRTT 3GPP
  18. 18. 3G CDMA standards 3G W-CDMA (UMTS - Universal Mobile Telecommunications System)  Packet based wireless service which enables computers, entertainment devices, telephones to connect to internet anytime, anywhere.  Packet data rates up to 2.048 Mbps per stationary user  Broadcasting, VHE (Virtual Home Entertainment) m- commerce (mobile commerce), games, interactive video, virtual private technology - all possible from small portable wireless device
  19. 19. . . . 3G CDMA standards 3G cdma2000 or cmda2000 IX  New high data rate internet access with backward compatibility to IS-95 and IS-95B systems - 1.25 MHz bandwidth  Instantaneous data rate of 307 kbps in packet mode  Both FDD (mobile radio) and TDD (in-building cordless) applications
  20. 20. 3G TDMA standards 3G TD-SCDMA (Time Division Synchronous Code Division Multiple Access)  Developed by CATT (Chinese Academy of Telecommunications Technology) and Siemens.  Adopted by ITU as one of 3G options in 1999  Existing GSM - 3G evolution through additions of high data rate equipment in each GSM station - 1.6 MHz bandwidth  Utilizes smart antennas, spatial filtering and joint detection technologies
  21. 21. Broadband wirelessservices Wireless Local Loop (WLL)  Demand for broadband internet and computer access from businesses and homes  Fixed wireless equipment have advantages such as fixed path between T-R  Microwave or millimeter radio frequencies used >28GHz - wave length is very small - small high gain antennas.  Especially useful in developing nations with less telecommunications setup.
  22. 22. Emerging applications and markets for broadband services Fiber Large business in high-density urban areasBackbone Network Wireless Central Mid-market business Mid-market outside the urban core outside the urban core Office Central Office Copper/xDSL OC-3 Small business Small business DAX Cable Residences ISP
  23. 23. Broadband wireless spectrum world- wide
  24. 24. . . . Broadbandwireless services Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANS)  UNII (Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure) hand allocated by FCC for low power spread spectrum  5.150 - 5.35 Ghz, 5.725 - 5.825 GHz (1997)  902-928 Mhz, 2400-2483.5Mhz, 5.725-5.825 MHz (1980s end)  IEEE 802.11 (1997) standard and (IEEE 802.11b) approved to provide guidelines for WLAN manufacturers
  25. 25. IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN IEEE 802.11 2.4 GHZ 850 TO 950 NM FHSS DSSS Diffuse IR2 Mbps 1 Mbps 1 Mbps 2 Mbps IEEE 802.11b4GFSK 2GFSK DBPSK DQPSK Extension 5.5 Mbps 5.5 Mbps 11 Mbps DQPSK--CCK DQPSK--CCK DQPSK--CCK BPSK--PBCC BPSK--PBCC BPSK--PBCC
  26. 26. IEEE 802.11b Wireless LAN
  27. 27. High Performance Radio LocalArea Network (HIPERLAN) Europe standard to provide similar capability to IEEE 802.11 5.2 GHz and 17.1Ghz frequency lands Up to 20 Mbps data rate at 50m range and vehicle speeds of 35km/hr Advanced standards include Europe’s ETSI-BRAN (Broadband Radio Access Network) and HIPERLAN/2.
  28. 28. Personal Area Networks Ability to replace cables between devices with wireless short range connection Bluetooth operates in 2.4GHz ISM band (2900- 2483.5MHz) with 1 MHz channel bandwidth Uses FH-SS TDD scheme with 1600 hps 1Mbps symbol rate using GSFSk modulation IEEE 802.15 sttandards committee is our international forum for developing Bluetooth and other PANS
  29. 29. PAN Bluetooth standard
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