Distributed databases and dbm ss
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Distributed databases and dbm ss

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  • So a public key program is used to encrypt a randomly generated encryption key. The random key is used to encrypt the actual message using a symmetric algorithm

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  • 1. III. Current TrendsDistributed Databases and DBMSs: Concepts and Design Slide 1/32
  • 2. 12.0 Content Content12.1 Objectives12.2 Overview of Networking12.3 Introduction to DDBMSs - Concepts 12.6 Transparency in a DDBMS - Advantages and Disadvantages - Distribution Transparency - Homogeneous and Heterogeneous - Transaction Transparency12.4 Functions and Architecture - Performance Transparency - Functions of a DDBMS 12.7 Date’s 12 Rules for DDBMs - Reference Architecture for a 12.8 Summary DDBMS/ Federated MDBS12.5 Distributed Relational Database Design - Data Allocation - Fragmentation Slide 2/32
  • 3. 12.1 Objectives Objectives In this Lecture you will learn: • Concepts. • Advantages and disadvantages of distributed databases. • Functions and architecture for a DDBMS. • Distributed database design. • Levels of transparency. • Comparison criteria for DDBMSs. Slide 3/32
  • 4. 12.2 Overview of Networking Overview of NetworkingNetwork: interconnected collection of autonomous computers,capable of exchanging information.• Local Area Network (LAN) intended for connecting computers atsame site.• Wide Area Network (WAN) used when computers or LANs needto be connected over long distances. •WAN relatively slow •Less reliable than LANs. •DDBMS using LAN provides much faster response time than one using WAN. Slide 4/32
  • 5. 12.2 Overview of Networking Overview of NetworkingNetwork: interconnected collection of autonomous computers,capable of exchanging information.• Local Area Network (LAN) intended for connecting computers atsame site.• Wide Area Network (WAN) used when computers or LANs needto be connected over long distances. •WAN relatively slow •Less reliable than LANs. •DDBMS using LAN provides much faster response time than one using WAN. Slide 5/32
  • 6. 12.3 Introduction Concepts Databases and networks: 1. A centralized DBMS could be physically processed by several computers distributed across a network 2. There could be several separate DBMS on several computers distributed across a network 3. There may be a Distributed DBMS (DDBMS) • made up of several DBMSs distributed across a network • each with local autonomy • Each participates in at least one global DBMS action • The DDBMS therefore can operate as a single global DBMS Slide 6/32
  • 7. 12.3 Introduction Concepts DDBMS to Avoid `islands of information’ problem… A “Distributed Database”: is a logically interrelated collection of shared data (and a description of this data), physically distributed over a computer network. A “Distributed DBMS” (DDBMS): is a Software system that permits the management of the distributed database and makes the distribution transparent to users. Fundamental Principle: make distribution transparent to user. The fact that fragments are stored on different computers is hidden from the users Slide 7/32
  • 8. 12.3 Introduction ConceptsDDBMS has following characteristics: •Data at each site is under•Collection of logically-related shared data. control of a DBMS.•Data split into fragments. •DBMSs handle local•Fragments may be replicated. applications autonomously.•Fragments/replicas allocated to sites. •Each DBMS participates in at•Sites linked by a communication network. least one global application. Slide 8/32
  • 9. 12.3 Introduction Important difference between DDBMS and distributed processing ! Distributed processing ofDDBMS centralised DBMS Slide 9/32
  • 10. 12.3 Introduction Distributed ProcessingDistributed processing of a centralised DBMS has followingcharacteristics :•Much more tightly coupled than a DDBMS.•Database design is same as for standard DBMS•No attempt to reflect organizational structure•Much simpler than DDBMS•More secure than DDBMS•No local autonomy Slide 10/32
  • 11. 12.3 IntroductionImportant difference between DDBMS and parallel database Parallel Database Architectures:DDBMS Shared: a)memory b)disk c)nothing Slide 11/32
  • 12. 12.3 Introduction Why use a DDBMS? (!) Advantages: Disadvantages: •Reflects organizational •Complexity structure •Cost •Improved shareability and •Security local autonomy •Integrity control more •Improved availability difficult •Improved reliability •Lack of standards •Improved performance •Lack of experience •Economics •Database design more •Modular growth complex Slide 12/32
  • 13. 12.3 Introduction Homogeneous & Heterogeneous DDBMSsHomogeneous: All sites use same DBMS product. • Much easier to design and manage. • Approach provides incremental growth • Allows increased performance.Heterogeneous: Sites may run different DBMS products,underlying data models. • Sites implemented their own databases - integration considered later. •Translations required to allow for • Different hardware. • Different DBMS products. • Different hardware and DBMS products. •Typical solution is to use gateways. Slide 13/32
  • 14. 12.3 Introduction Open Database access and interoperability“The Open Group” formed Specification Working Group (SWG)to provide specifications that create database infrastructure environmentwhere there is: • Common SQL API :allows client applications to be written that do not need to know vendor of DBMS they are accessing. • Common database protocol : enables DBMS from one vendor to communicate directly with DBMS from another vendor without need for a gateway. •Common network protocol: allows communications between different DBMSs. Slide 14/32
  • 15. 12.3 Introduction Multidatabase system (MDBS)!MDBS: DDBMS where each site maintains complete autonomy• Resides transparently on top of existing database and file systems • presents a single database to its users.• Allows users to access and share data without requiring physicaldatabase integration.2 types:• Federated MDBS: looks like a DDBMS for global users and acentralized DBMS for local users.• Unfederated MDBS: has no “local” users Slide 15/32
  • 16. 12.4 Functions and Architecture of a DDBMS Functions and Architecture of a DDBMS Slide 16/32
  • 17. 12.4 Functions and Architecture of a DDBMS Functions of a DDBMS • Expect DDBMS to have at least the functionality of a DBMS. Also to have following functionality: • Extended communication services. • Extended Data Dictionary. • Distributed query processing. • Extended concurrency control. • Extended recovery services. Slide 17/32
  • 18. 12.4 Functions and Architecture of a DDBMS DDBMS Reference Architecture A reference architecture consists of: • Set of global external schemas. • Global conceptual schema (GCS). • Fragmentation schema and allocation schema (see later …) • Set of schemas for each local DBMS conforming to 3-level ANSI/SPARC. Comparison with federated MDBS: In DDBMS: GCS is union of all local conceptual schemas. In FMDBS: GCS is subset of local conceptual schemas (LCS), consisting of data that each local system agrees to share. GCS of tightly coupled system involves integration of either parts of LCSs or local external schemas. FMDBS with no GCS is called loosely coupled. Slide 18/32
  • 19. 12.4 Functions and Architecture of a DDBMS Distributed Relation Database Design Slide 19/32
  • 20. 12.5 Distributed Relational Database Design Data Allocation !Four alternative strategies regarding placement of data:• Centralized: single database and DBMS stored at one site with users distributed across the network.• Partitioned: Database partitioned into disjoint fragments, eachfragment assigned to one site.• Complete Replication: Consists of maintaining complete copyof database at each site.• Selective Replication: Combination of partitioning, replication, and centralization.Comparison of strategies Slide 20/32
  • 21. 12.5 Distributed Relational Database Design Data AllocationFour alternative strategies regarding placement of data:• Centralized: single database and DBMS stored at one site with users distributed across the network.• Partitioned: Database partitioned into disjoint fragments, eachfragment assigned to one site.• Complete Replication: Consists of maintaining complete copyof database at each site.• Selective Replication: Combination of partitioning, replication, and centralization.Comparison of strategies Slide 21/32
  • 22. 12.5 Distributed Relational Database Design Fragmentation Why fragment? Disadvantages: Performance & Integrity. Usage: - Apps work with views rather than entire relations. Efficiency: - Data stored close to where most frequently used. - Data not needed by local applications is not stored. Security: - and so not available to unauthorized users. Parallelism: - With fragments as unit of distribution, T can be divided into several subqueries that operate on fragments. Slide 22/32
  • 23. 12.5 Distributed Relational Database Design Fragmentation !Three Correctness of fragmentation rules:1. Completeness: If relation R decomposed into fragments R1, R2, ... Rn, each data item that can be found in R must appear in at least one fragment.2. Reconstruction: Must be possible to define a relational operation that will reconstruct R from the fragments. - for horizontal fragmentation: Union operation - for vertical: Join3. Disjointness: If data item di appears in fragment Ri, then should not appear in any other fragment. - Exception: vertical fragmentation. - For horizontal fragmentation, data item is a tuple. - For vertical fragmentation, data item is an attribute. Slide 23/32
  • 24. 12.5 Distributed Relational Database Design Fragmentation !Four types of fragmentation:1. Horizontal: Consists of a subset of the tuples of a relation. - Defined using Selection operation - Determined by looking at predicates used by Ts. - Involves finding set of minimal (complete and relevant) predicates. - Set of predicates is complete, iff, any two tuples in same fragment are referenced with same probability by any application. - Predicate is relevant if there is at least one application that accesses fragments differently. Slide 24/32
  • 25. 12.5 Distributed Relational Database Design Fragmentation ! Other possibility is noFour types of fragmentation: fragmentation:2. Vertical: subset of atts of a relation. -If relation is small and not - Defined using Projection operation updated frequently, may be - Determined by establishing affinity of one attribute fragment. better not to to another.3. Mixed: horizontal fragment that is vertically fragmented, or a vertical fragment that is horizontally fragmented. - Defined using Selection and Projection operations4. Derived: horizontal fragment that is based on horizontal fragmentation of a parent relation. - Ensures fragments frequently joined together are at same site. - Defined using Semijoin operation Slide 25/32
  • 26. 12.6 Distributed Relational Database Design Transparency in a DDBMSTransparency hides implementation details from users.Overall objective: equivalence to user of DDBMs to centralised DBMS - FULL transparency not universally accepted objectiveFour main types:1. Distribution transparency2. Transaction transparency3. Performance transparency4. DBMS transparency (only applicable to heterogeneous) Slide 26/32
  • 27. 12.6 Distributed Relational Database Design 1. Distribution TransparencyDistribution transparency: allows user to perceive database as single, logical entity.If DDBMS exhibits distribution transparency, user does not need to know:• fragmentation transparency: data is fragmented• Location transparency: location of data items• otherwise call this local mapping transparency• replication transparency : user unaware of replication of fragmentsNaming transparency : each item in a DDB must have a unique name.-One solution: create central name server - loss of some local autonomy. - central site may become a bottleneck. - low availability: if the central site fails.Alternative solution: prefix object with identifier of creator site, eachfragment and its copies. Then each site uses alias. Slide 27/32
  • 28. 12.6 Distributed Relational Database Design 2. Transaction TransparencyTransaction transparency: Ensures all distributed Ts maintain distributed database’s integrity and consistency.• Distributed T accesses data stored at more than one location.• Each T is divided into no. of subTs, one for each site that has to be accessed.• DDBMS must ensure the indivisibility of both the global T and each of the subTs. Slide 28/32
  • 29. 12.6 Distributed Relational Database Design 2. Transaction TransparencyConcurrency transparency: All Ts must execute independently and be logically consistent with results obtained if Ts executed in some arbitrary serial order. • Replication makes concurrency more complexFailure transparency: must ensure atomicity and durability of global T. • Means ensuring that subTs of global T either all commit or all abort.• Classification transparency: In IBM’s Distributed Relational Database Architecture (DRDA), four types of Ts: – Remote request – Remote unit of work – Distributed unit of work – Distributed request . Slide 29/32
  • 30. 12.6 Distributed Relational Database Design 3. Performance TransparencyDDBMS: - no performance degradation due to distributed architecture. - determine most cost-effective strategy to execute a request.Distributed Query Processor (DQP) maps data request into ordered sequence of operations on local databases. - Must consider fragmentation, replication, and allocation schemas.DQP has to decide: 1. which fragment to access 2. which copy of a fragment to use 3. which location to use.- produces execution strategy optimized with respect to some cost function.Typically, costs associated with a distributed request include: I/O cost;CPU cost, communication cost. Slide 30/32
  • 31. 12.7 Dates 12 Rules for DDBMS Date’s 12 Rules for DDBMSFundamental Principle: To the user, distributed system shouldlook exactly like a nondistributed system.1. Local Autonomy2. No Reliance on a Central Site3. Continuous Operation Ideals:4. Location Independence 9. Hardware Independence5. Fragmentation Independence 10. Operating System6. Replication Independence Independence7. Distributed Query Processing 11. Network Independence8. Distributed Transaction Processing 12. Database Independence Slide 31/32
  • 32. 12.8 Summary Summary12.1 Objectives 12.6 Transparency in a DDBMS12.2 Overview of Networking  - Distribution Transparency12.3 Introduction to DDBMSs  - Transaction Transparency Concepts  - Performance Transparency Advantages and Disadvantages 12.7 Date’s 12 Rules for DDBMs Homogeneous and Heterogeneous NEXT LECTURE:12.4 Functions and Architecture III Current Trends Functions of a DDBMS Part 2: Distributed DBMSs- Reference Architecture for a Advanced concepts - advanced concepts DDBMS/ Federated MDBS - protocols for distributed12.5 Distributed Relational Database Designdeadlock control Data Allocation - X/Open Distributed Transaction Fragmentation Processing Model - Oracle. Slide 32/32