Assembly
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Assembly

on

  • 154 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
154
Views on SlideShare
154
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Assembly Assembly Document Transcript

  •   $VVHPEO /DQJXDJH 3URJUDPPLQJ 'U $LPDQ + (O0DOHK &RPSXWHU (QJLQHHULQJ 'HSDUWPHQW  &2(.)830 2XWOLQH s :K $VVHPEO /DQJXDJH 3URJUDPPLQJ s 2UJDQL]DWLRQ RI  SURFHVVRU s $VVHPEO /DQJXDJH 6QWD[ s 'DWD 5HSUHVHQWDWLRQ s 9DULDEOH 'HFODUDWLRQ s ,QVWUXFWLRQ 7SHV ‡ 'DWD IORZ LQVWUXFWLRQV ‡ $ULWKPHWLF LQVWUXFWLRQV ‡ %LW PDQLSXODWLRQ LQVWUXFWLRQV ‡ )ORZ FRQWURO LQVWUXFWLRQV s 0HPRU 6HJPHQWDWLRQ
  •   &2(.)830 2XWOLQH ± &RQW s 3URJUDP 6WUXFWXUH s $GGUHVVLQJ 0RGHV s ,QSXW DQG 2XWSXW s 7KH VWDFN s 3URFHGXUHV s 0DFURV s 6WULQJ ,QVWUXFWLRQV s %,26 DQG '26 ,QWHUUXSWV  &2(.)830 0DFKLQH$VVHPEO /DQJXDJH s 0DFKLQH /DQJXDJH ‡ 6HW RI IXQGDPHQWDO LQVWUXFWLRQV WKH PDFKLQH FDQ H[HFXWH ‡ ([SUHVVHG DV D SDWWHUQ RI ¶V DQG ¶V s $VVHPEO /DQJXDJH ‡ $OSKDQXPHULF HTXLYDOHQW RI PDFKLQH ODQJXDJH ‡ 0QHPRQLFV PRUH KXPDQRULHQWHG WKDQ ¶V DQG ¶V s $VVHPEOHU ‡ &RPSXWHU SURJUDP WKDW WUDQVOLWHUDWHV RQHWRRQH PDSSLQJ
  • DVVHPEO WR PDFKLQH ODQJXDJH ‡ &RPSXWHU¶V QDWLYH ODQJXDJH LV PDFKLQHDVVHPEO ODQJXDJH
  •   &2(.)830 :K $VVHPEO /DQJXDJH 3URJUDPPLQJ s )DVWHU DQG VKRUWHU SURJUDPV ‡ &RPSLOHUV GR QRW DOZDV JHQHUDWH RSWLPXP FRGH s ,QVWUXFWLRQ VHW NQRZOHGJH LV LPSRUWDQW IRU PDFKLQH GHVLJQHUV s &RPSLOHU ZULWHUV PXVW EH IDPLOLDU ZLWK GHWDLOV RI PDFKLQH ODQJXDJH s 6PDOO FRQWUROOHUV HPEHGGHG LQ PDQ SURGXFWV ‡ +DYH VSHFLDOL]HG IXQFWLRQV ‡ 5HO VR KHDYLO RQ LQSXWRXWSXW IXQFWLRQDOLW ‡ +//V LQDSSURSULDWH IRU SURGXFW GHYHORSPHQW  &2(.)830 3URJUDPPHU¶V 0RGHO ,QVWUXFWLRQ 6HW $UFKLWHFWXUH s ,QVWUXFWLRQ VHW FROOHFWLRQ RI DOO PDFKLQH RSHUDWLRQV s 3URJUDPPHU VHHV VHW RI LQVWUXFWLRQV DQG PDFKLQH UHVRXUFHV PDQLSXODWHG E WKHP s ,6$ LQFOXGHV ‡ ,QVWUXFWLRQ VHW ‡ 0HPRU DQG ‡ 3URJUDPPHUDFFHVVLEOH UHJLVWHUV s 7HPSRUDU RU VFUDWFKSDG PHPRU XVHG WR LPSOHPHQW VRPH IXQFWLRQV LV QRW SDUW RI ,6$ ‡ 1RW SURJUDPPHU DFFHVVLEOH
  •   &2(.)830 2UJDQL]DWLRQ RI  3URFHVVRU &38 0HPRU $GGUHVV %XV 'DWD %XV   &380HPRU ,QWHUIDFH ELW &RQWURO %XV  &2(.)830 &38 5HJLVWHUV s )RXUWHHQ ELW UHJLVWHUV s 'DWD 5HJLVWHUV ‡ $; $FFXPXODWRU 5HJLVWHU
  •  $+ DQG $/ ‡ %; %DVH 5HJLVWHU
  •  %+ DQG %/ ‡ &; &RXQW 5HJLVWHU
  •  &+ DQG &/ ‡ '; 'DWD 5HJLVWHU
  •  '+ DQG '/ s 3RLQWHU DQG ,QGH[ 5HJLVWHUV ‡ 6, 6RXUFH ,QGH[
  • ‡ ', 'HVWLQDWLRQ ,QGH[
  • ‡ 63 6WDFN 3RLQWHU
  • ‡ %3 %DVH 3RLQWHU
  • ‡ ,3 ,QVWUXFWLRQ 3RLQWHU
  •   &2(.)830 &38 5HJLVWHUV ± &RQW s 6HJPHQW 5HJLVWHUV ‡ &6 &RGH 6HJPHQW
  • ‡ '6 'DWD 6HJPHQW
  • ‡ 66 6WDFN 6HJPHQW
  • ‡ (6 ([WUD 6HJPHQW
  • s )/$*6 5HJLVWHU ‡ =HUR IODJ ‡ 6LJQ IODJ ‡ 3DULW IODJ ‡ &DUU IODJ ‡ 2YHUIORZ IODJ  &2(.)830 )HWFK([HFXWH 3URFHVV s 3URJUDP &RXQWHU 3&
  • RU ,QVWUXFWLRQ 3RLQWHU ,3
  • ‡ +ROGV DGGUHVV RI QH[W LQVWUXFWLRQ WR IHWFK s ,QVWUXFWLRQ 5HJLVWHU ,5
  • ‡ 6WRUHV WKH LQVWUXFWLRQ IHWFKHG IURP PHPRU s )HWFK([HFXWH SURFHVV ‡ 5HDG DQ LQVWUXFWLRQ IURP PHPRU DGGUHVVHG E 3& ‡ ,QFUHPHQW SURJUDP FRXQWHU ‡ ([HFXWH IHWFKHG LQVWUXFWLRQ LQ ,5 ‡ 5HSHDW SURFHVV
  •   &2(.)830 )HWFK([HFXWH 3URFHVV ± &RQW    ,5 3&     0DLQ 0HPRU  &2(.)830 $VVHPEO /DQJXDJH 6QWD[ s 3URJUDP FRQVLVWV RI VWDWHPHQW SHU OLQH s (DFK VWDWHPHQW LV DQ LQVWUXFWLRQ RU DVVHPEOHU GLUHFWLYH s 6WDWHPHQW VQWD[ ‡ 1DPH RSHUDWLRQ RSHUDQG V
  • FRPPHQW s 1DPH ILHOG ‡ 8VHG IRU LQVWUXFWLRQ ODEHOV SURFHGXUH QDPHV DQG YDULDEOH QDPHV ‡ $VVHPEOHU WUDQVODWHV QDPHV LQWR PHPRU DGGUHVVHV ‡ 1DPHV DUH  FKDUDFWHUV LQFOXGLQJ OHWWHUV QXPEHUV DQG VSHFLDO FKDUDFWHUV "  # B ‡ 1DPHV PD QRW EHJLQ ZLWK D GLJLW ‡ ,I D SHULRG LV XVHG LW PXVW EH ILUVW FKDUDFWHU ‡ &DVH LQVHQVLWLYH
  •   &2(.)830 $VVHPEO /DQJXDJH 6QWD[ ± &RQW s ([DPSOHV RI OHJDO QDPHV ‡ &2817(5 ‡ #FKDUDFWHU ‡ 680B2)B',*,76 ‡  ‡ 'RQH" ‡ 7(67 s ([DPSOHV RI LOOHJDO QDPHV ‡ 7:2 :25'6 ‡ DEF ‡ $ ‡ <RX 0H  &2(.)830 $VVHPEO /DQJXDJH 6QWD[ ± &RQW s 2SHUDWLRQ ILHOG ‡ LQVWUXFWLRQ ‡ 6PEROLF RSHUDWLRQ FRGH RSFRGH
  • ‡ 6PEROLF RSFRGHV WUDQVODWHG LQWR PDFKLQH ODQJXDJH RSFRGH ‡ 'HVFULEHV RSHUDWLRQ¶V IXQFWLRQ HJ 029 $'' 68% ,1& ‡ $VVHPEOHU GLUHFWLYH ‡ &RQWDLQV SVHXGRRSHUDWLRQ FRGH SVHXGRRS
  • ‡ 1RW WUDQVODWHG LQWR PDFKLQH FRGH ‡ 7HOO WKH DVVHPEOHU WR GR VRPHWKLQJ s 2SHUDQG ILHOG ‡ 6SHFLILHV GDWD WR EH DFWHG RQ ‡ =HUR RQH RU WZR RSHUDQGV ‡ 123 ‡ ,1& $; ‡ $'' $; 
  •   &2(.)830 $VVHPEO /DQJXDJH 6QWD[ ± &RQW s &RPPHQW ILHOG ‡ $ VHPLFRORQ PDUNV WKH EHJLQQLQJ RI D FRPPHQW ‡ $ VHPLFRORQ LQ EHJLQQLQJ RI D OLQH PDNHV LW DOO D FRPPHQW OLQH ‡ *RRG SURJUDPPLQJ SUDFWLFH GLFWDWHV FRPPHQW RQ HYHU OLQH s ([DPSOHV ‡ 029 &;   PRYH  WR &; ‡ 'R QRW VD VRPHWKLQJ REYLRXV ‡ 029 &;   &; FRXQWV WHUPV LQLWLDOO  ‡ 3XW LQVWUXFWLRQ LQ FRQWH[W RI SURJUDP ‡  LQLWLDOL]H UHJLVWHUV  &2(.)830 'DWD 5HSUHVHQWDWLRQ s 1XPEHUV ‡  GHFLPDO ‡ % ELQDU ‡  GHFLPDO ‡ ' GHFLPDO ‡  LOOHJDO FRQWDLQV D QRQGLJLW FKDUDFWHU ‡ %'+ KH[DGHFLPDO QXPEHU ‡ %' LOOHJDO KH[ QXPEHU GRHV QRW HQG ZLWK ³+´ ‡ ))))+ LOOHJDO KH[ QXPEH GRHV QRW EHJLQ ZLWK ZLWK GLJLW ‡ ))))+ KH[DGHFLPDO QXPEHU s 6LJQHG QXPEHUV UHSUHVHQWHG XVLQJ ¶V FRPSOHPHQW
  •   &2(.)830 'DWD 5HSUHVHQWDWLRQ  &RQW s &KDUDFWHUV ‡ PXVW EH HQFORVHG LQ VLQJOH RU GRXEOH TXRWHV ‡ HJ ³+HOOR´ µ+HOOR¶ ³$´ µ%¶ ‡ HQFRGHG E $6&,, FRGH s µ$¶ KDV $6&,, FRGH + s µD¶ KDV $6&,, FRGH + s µ¶ KDV $6&,, FRGH + s /LQH IHHG KDV $6&,, FRGH $+ s &DUULDJH 5HWXUQ KDV $6&,, FRGH '+ s %DFN 6SDFH KDV $6&,, FRGH + s +RUL]RQWDO WDE KDV $6&,, FRGH +  &2(.)830 'DWD 5HSUHVHQWDWLRQ  &RQW s 7KH YDOXH RI WKH FRQWHQW RI UHJLVWHUV RU PHPRU LV GHSHQGHQW RQ WKH SURJUDPPHU s /HW $/ ))+ ‡ UHSUHVHQWV WKH XQVLJQHG QXPEHU  ‡ UHSUHVHQWV WKH VLJQHG QXPEHU  LQ ¶V FRPSOHPHQW
  • s /HW $+ + ‡ UHSUHVHQWV WKH GHFLPDO QXPEHU  ‡ UHSUHVHQWV WKH FKDUDFWHU µ¶ s /HW %/ + ‡ UHSUHVHQWV WKH XQVLJQHG QXPEHU  ‡ UHSUHVHQWV WKH VLJQHG QXPEHU 
  •   &2(.)830 9DULDEOH 'HFODUDWLRQ s (DFK YDULDEOH KDV D WSH DQG DVVLJQHG D PHPRU DGGUHVV s 'DWDGHILQLQJ SVHXGRRSV ‡ '% GHILQH EWH ‡ ': GHILQH ZRUG ‡ '' GHILQH GRXEOH ZRUG WZR FRQVHFXWLYH ZRUGV
  • ‡ '4 GHILQH TXDG ZRUG IRXU FRQVHFXWLYH ZRUGV
  • ‡ '7 GHILQH WHQ EWHV ILYH FRQVHFXWLYH ZRUGV
  • s (DFK SVHXGRRS FDQ EH XVHG WR GHILQH RQH RU PRUH GDWD LWHPV RI JLYHQ WSH  &2(.)830 %WH 9DULDEOHV s $VVHPEOHU GLUHFWLYH IRUPDW GHILQLQJ D EWH YDULDEOH ‡ QDPH '% LQLWLDO YDOXH ‡ D TXHVWLRQ PDUN ³"´
  • SODFH LQ LQLWLDO YDOXH OHDYHV YDULDEOH XQLQLWLDOL]HG s , '%  GHILQH YDULDEOH , ZLWK LQLWLDO YDOXH  s - '% " 'HILQH YDULDEOH - ZLWK XQLQLWLDOL]HG YDOXH s 1DPH '% ³&RXUVH´ DOORFDWH  EWHV IRU 1DPH s . '%    DOORFDWHV  EWHV   )) .
  •   &2(.)830 :RUG 9DULDEOHV s $VVHPEOHU GLUHFWLYH IRUPDW GHILQLQJ D ZRUG YDULDEOH ‡ QDPH ': LQLWLDO YDOXH s , ':  s - ':  s . ': $%&+ s / ': ³´   , )( )) - %& $ .   /  &2(.)830 'RXEOH :RUG 9DULDEOHV s $VVHPEOHU GLUHFWLYH IRUPDW GHILQLQJ D ZRUG YDULDEOH ‡ QDPH '' LQLWLDO YDOXH s , '' )($%+ s - ''   $% , ( ) )& )) - )) ))
  •   &2(.)830 1DPHG &RQVWDQWV s (48 SVHXGRRS XVHG WR DVVLJQ D QDPH WR FRQVWDQW s 0DNHV DVVHPEO ODQJXDJH HDVLHU WR XQGHUVWDQG s 1R PHPRU DOORFDWHG IRU (48 QDPHV s /) (48 $+ ‡ 029 '/ $+ ‡ 029 '/ /) s 352037 (48 ³7SH RXU QDPH´ ‡ 06* '% ³7SH RXU QDPH´ ‡ 0'* '% 352037  &2(.)830 '83 2SHUDWRU s 8VHG WR GHILQH DUUDV ZKRVH HOHPHQWV VKDUH FRPPRQ LQLWLDO YDOXH s ,W KDV WKH IRUP UHSHDWBFRXQW '83 YDOXH
  • s 1XPEHUV '%  '83 
  • ‡ $OORFDWHV DQ DUUD RI  EWHV HDFK LQLWLDOL]HG WR  s 1DPHV ':  '83 "
  • ‡ $OORFDWHV DQ DUUD RI  XQLQLWLDOL]HG ZRUGV s 7ZR HTXLYDOHQW GHILQLWLRQV ‡ /LQH '%    '83   '83 
  •  
  • ‡ /LQH '%                 
  •   &2(.)830 ,QVWUXFWLRQ 7SHV s 'DWD WUDQVIHU LQVWUXFWLRQV ‡ 7UDQVIHU LQIRUPDWLRQ EHWZHHQ UHJLVWHUV DQG PHPRU ORFDWLRQV RU ,2 SRUWV ‡ 029 ;&+* /($ 386+ 323 386+) 323) ,1 287 s $ULWKPHWLF LQVWUXFWLRQV ‡ 3HUIRUP DULWKPHWLF RSHUDWLRQV RQ ELQDU RU ELQDUFRGHG GHFLPDO %&'
  • QXPEHUV ‡ $'' 68% ,1& '(& $'& 6%% 1(* &03 08/ ,08/ ',9 ,',9 &%: &:' s %LW PDQLSXODWLRQ LQVWUXFWLRQV ‡ 3HUIRUP VKLIW URWDWH DQG ORJLFDO RSHUDWLRQV RQ PHPRU ORFDWLRQV DQG UHJLVWHUV ‡ 6+/ 6+5 6$5 52/ 525 5&/ 5&5 127 $1' 25 ;25 7(67  &2(.)830 ,QVWUXFWLRQ 7SHV ± &RQW s &RQWURO WUDQVIHU LQVWUXFWLRQV ‡ &RQWURO VHTXHQFH RI SURJUDP H[HFXWLRQ LQFOXGH MXPSV DQG SURFHGXUH WUDQVIHUV ‡ -03 -* -/ -( -1( -*( -/( -1* -1/ -& -6 -$ -% -$( -%( -1% -1$ -2 -= -1= -3 -&;= /223 /223( /223= /2231( /2231= &$// 5(7 s 6WULQJ LQVWUXFWLRQV ‡ 0RYH FRPSDUH DQG VFDQ VWULQJV RI LQIRUPDWLRQ ‡ 0296 0296% 0296: &036 &036% &036: 6&$6 6&$6% 6&$6: /2'6 /2'6% /2'6: 6726 6726% 6726:
  •   &2(.)830 ,QVWUXFWLRQ 7SHV ± &RQW s ,QWHUUXSW LQVWUXFWLRQV ‡ ,QWHUUXSW SURFHVVRU WR VHUYLFH VSHFLILF FRQGLWLRQ ‡ ,17 ,172 ,5(7 s 3URFHVVRU FRQWURO LQVWUXFWLRQV ‡ 6HW DQG FOHDU VWDWXV IODJV DQG FKDQJH WKH SURFHVVRU H[HFXWLRQ VWDWH ‡ 67& 67' 67, s 0LVFHOODQHRXV LQVWUXFWLRQV ‡ 123 :$,7  &2(.)830 *HQHUDO 5XOHV s %RWK RSHUDQGV KDYH WR EH RI WKH VDPH VL]H ‡ 029 $; %/ LOOHJDO ‡ 029 $/ %/ OHJDO ‡ 029 $+ %/ OHJDO s %RWK RSHUDQGV FDQQRW EH PHPRU RSHUDQGV VLPXOWDQHRXVO ‡ 029 L M LOOHJDO ‡ 029 $/ L OHJDO s )LUVW RSHUDQG FDQQRW EH DQ LPPHGLDWH YDOXH ‡ $''  $; LOOHJDO ‡ $'' $;  OHJDO
  •   &2(.)830 0HPRU 6HJPHQWDWLRQ s $ PHPRU VHJPHQW LV D EORFN RI  .
  • EWHV s (DFK VHJPHQW LV LGHQWLILHG E D VHJPHQW QXPEHU ‡ 6HJPHQW QXPEHU LV  ELWV   ))))
  •  s $ PHPRU ORFDWLRQ LV VSHFLILHG E DQ RIIVHW ZLWKLQ D VHJPHQW s /RJLFDO DGGUHVV VHJPHQWRIIVHW ‡ $)%K PHDQV RIIVHW K ZLWKLQ VHJPHQW $)%K s 3KVLFDO DGGUHVV VHJPHQW +  RIIVHW ‡ $)% K   $)%   $K ELW DGGUHVV
  • s 3KVLFDO DGGUHVV PDSV WR VHYHUDO ORJLFDO DGGUHVVHV ‡ SKVLFDO DGGUHVV $K $K $K  &2(.)830 0HPRU 6HJPHQWDWLRQ  &RQW s /RFDWLRQ RI VHJPHQWV ‡ 6HJPHQW  VWDUWV DW DGGUHVV  K DQG HQGV DW )))) ))))K ‡ 6HJPHQW  VWDUWV DW DGGUHVV  K DQG HQGV DW )))) )K ‡ 6HJPHQWV RYHUODS ‡ 7KH VWDUWLQJ SKVLFDO DGGUHVV RI DQ VHJPHQW KDV WKH ILUVW KH[ GLJLW DV  s 3URJUDP VHJPHQWV ‡ 3URJUDP¶V FRGH GDWD DQG VWDFN DUH ORDGHG LQWR GLIIHUHQW PHPRU VHJPHQWV QDPHO FRGH VHJPHQW GDWD VHJPHQW DQG VWDFN VHJPHQW ‡ $W DQ WLPH RQO IRXU PHPRU VHJPHQWV DUH DFWLYH ‡ 3URJUDP VHJPHQW QHHG QRW RFFXS HQWLUH . EWH
  •   &2(.)830 0HPRU 6HJPHQWDWLRQ  &RQW s 'DWD 6HJPHQW ‡ FRQWDLQV YDULDEOH GHILQLWLRQV ‡ GHFODUHG E '$7$ s 6WDFN VHJPHQW ‡ XVHG WR VWRUH WKH VWDFN ‡ GHFODUHG E 67$&. VL]H ‡ GHIDXOW VWDFN VL]H LV .EWH s &RGH VHJPHQW ‡ FRQWDLQV SURJUDP¶V LQVWUXFWLRQV ‡ GHFODUHG E &2'(  &2(.)830 0HPRU 0RGHOV s 60$// ‡ FRGH LQ RQH VHJPHQW GDWD LQ RQH VHJPHQW s 0(',80 ‡ FRGH LQ PRUH WKDQ RQH VHJPHQW GDWD LQ RQH VHJPHQW s &203$&7 ‡ FRGH LQ RQH VHJPHQW GDWD LQ PRUH WKDQ RQH VHJPHQW s /$5*( ‡ FRGH LQ PRUH WKDQ RQH VHJPHQW GDWD LQ PRUH WKDQ RQH VHJPHQW QR DUUD ODUJHU WKDQ . EWHV s +8*( ‡ FRGH LQ PRUH WKDQ RQH VHJPHQW GDWD LQ PRUH WKDQ RQH VHJPHQW DUUDV PD EH ODUJHU WKDQ . EWHV
  •   &2(.)830 3URJUDP 6WUXFWXUH $Q ([DPSOH 7,7/( 35*0 02'(/ 60$// 67$&. + '$7$ $ ':  % ':  680 ': " &2'( 0$,1 352&  LQLWLDOL]H '6 029 $; #'$7$ 029 '6 $;  &2(.)830 3URJUDP 6WUXFWXUH $Q ([DPSOH  DGG WKH QXPEHUV 029 $; $ $'' $; % 029 680 $;  H[LW WR '26 029 $; &+ ,17 + 0$,1 (1'3 (1' 0$,1
  •   &2(.)830 $VVHPEOLQJ 5XQQLQJ $ 3URJUDP s $VVHPEOLQJ D SURJUDP ‡ 8VH PLFURVRIW PDFUR DVVHPEOHU 0$60
  • ‡ 0$60 35*0$60 ‡ 7UDQVODWHV WKH DVVHPEO ILOH 352*$60 LQWR PDFKLQH ODQJXDJH REMHFW ILOH 352*2%- ‡ &UHDWHV D OLVWLQJ ILOH 352*/67 FRQWDLQLQJ DVVHPEO ODQJXDJH FRGH DQG FRUUHVSRQGLQJ PDFKLQH FRGH s /LQNLQJ D SURJUDP ‡ 7KH 2%- ILOH LV D PDFKLQH ODQJXDJH ILOH EXW FDQQRW EH UXQ ‡ 6RPH DGGUHVVHV QRW ILOOHG VLQFH LW LV QRW NQRZQ ZKHUH D SURJUDP ZLOO EH ORDGHG LQ PHPRU ‡ 6RPH QDPHV PD QRW KDYH EHHQ GHILQHG ‡ &RPELQHV RQH RU PRUH REMHFW ILOHV DQG FUHDWHV D VLQJOH H[HFXWDEOH ILOH (;(
  •  ‡ /,1. 352*  &2(.)830 $VVHPEOLQJ 5XQQLQJ $ 3URJUDP s 5XQQLQJ D SURJUDP ‡ 7SH WKH QDPH RI WKH SURJUDP WR ORDG LW DQG UXQ LW s 6LPSOLILHG SURFHGXUH ‡ 0O )O =L 352*$60 ‡ $VVHPEOHV DQG OLQNV WKH SURJUDP s 'HEXJJLQJ D SURJUDP ‡ 7R DQDO]H D SURJUDP XVH &2'( 9LHZ GHEXJJHU ‡ &9 352*
  •   &2(.)830 $GGUHVVLQJ 0RGHV s $GGUHVVLQJ PRGH LV WKH ZD DQ RSHUDQG LV VSHFLILHG s 5HJLVWHU PRGH ‡ RSHUDQG LV LQ D UHJLVWHU ‡ 029 $; %; s ,PPHGLDWH PRGH ‡ RSHUDQG LV FRQVWDQW ‡ 029 $;  s 'LUHFW PRGH ‡ RSHUDQG LV YDULDEOH ‡ 029 $/ L  &2(.)830 $GGUHVVLQJ 0RGHV  &RQW s 5HJLVWHU LQGLUHFW PRGH ‡ RIIVHW DGGUHVV RI RSHUDQG LV FRQWDLQHG LQ D UHJLVWHU ‡ 5HJLVWHU DFWV DV D SRLQWHU WR PHPRU ORFDWLRQ ‡ 2QO UHJLVWHUV %; 6, ', RU %3 DUH DOORZHG ‡ )RU %; 6, ', VHJPHQW QXPEHU LV LQ '6 ‡ )RU %3 VHJPHQW QXPEHU LV LQ 66 ‡ 2SHUDQG IRUPDW LV >UHJLVWHU@ s ([DPSOH VXSSRVH 6, K DQG >K@ K ‡ 029 $; 6, $; K ‡ 029 $; >6,@ $; K
  •   &2(.)830 $GGUHVVLQJ 0RGHV  &RQW s %DVHG ,QGH[HG DGGUHVVLQJ PRGHV ‡ RSHUDQG¶V RIIVHW DGGUHVV REWDLQHG E DGGLQJ D GLVSODFHPHQW WR WKH FRQWHQW RI D UHJLVWHU s 'LVSODFHPHQW PD EH ‡ RIIVHW DGGUHVV RI D YDULDEOH ‡ D FRQVWDQW SRVLWLYH RU QHJDWLYH
  • ‡ RIIVHW DGGUHVV RI D YDULDEOH SOXV RU PLQXV D FRQVWDQW s 6QWD[ RI RSHUDQG ‡ >UHJLVWHU  GLVSODFHPHQW@ ‡ >GLVSODFHPHQW  UHJLVWHU@ ‡ >UHJLVWHU@  GLVSODFHPHQW ‡ GLVSODFHPHQW  >UHJLVWHU@ ‡ GLVSODFHPHQW >UHJLVWHU@  &2(.)830 $GGUHVVLQJ 0RGHV  &RQW s %DVHG DGGUHVVLQJ PRGH ‡ ,I %; RU %3 XVHG s ,QGH[HG DGGUHVVLQJ PRGH ‡ ,I 6, RU ', XVHG s ([DPSOHV ‡ 029 $; : >%;@ ‡ 029 $; >:%;@ ‡ 029 $; >%;:@ ‡ 029 $; :>%;@ ‡ 029 $; >%;@: s ,OOHJDO H[DPSOHV ‡ 029 $; >%;@ ‡ 029 %; >$;@
  •   &2(.)830 $GGUHVVLQJ 0RGHV  &RQW s %DVHG,QGH[HG PRGH RIIVHW DGGUHVV LV WKH VXP RI ‡ FRQWHQWV RI D EDVH UHJLVWHU %; RU %3
  • ‡ FRQWHQWV RI DQ LQGH[ UHJLVWHU 6, RU ',
  • ‡ RSWLRQDOO D YDULDEOH¶V RIIVHW DGGUHVV ‡ RSWLRQDOO D FRQVWDQW SRVLWLYH RU QHJDWLYH
  • s 2SHUDQG PD EH ZULWWHQ LQ VHYHUDO ZDV ‡ YDULDEOH>EDVHBUHJLVWHU@>LQGH[BUHJLVWHU@ ‡ >EDVHUHJLVWHU  LQGH[BUHJLVWHU  YDULDEOH  FRQVWDQW@ ‡ YDULDEOH >EDVHBUHJLVWHU  LQGH[BUHJLVWHU  FRQVWDQW@ ‡ FRQVWDQW >EDVHBUHJLVWHU  LQGH[BUHJLVWHU  YDULDEOH@ s 8VHIXO IRU DFFHVVLQJ WZRGLPHQVLRQDO DUUDV  &2(.)830 375 2SHUDWRU s 8VHG WR RYHUULGH GHFODUHG WSH RI DQ DGGUHVV H[SUHVVLRQ s ([DPSOHV ‡ 029 >%;@  LOOHJDO WKHUH LV DPELJXLW ‡ 029 %H 375 >%;@  OHJDO ‡ 029 :25' 375 >%;@  OHJDO s /HW M EH GHILQHG DV IROORZV ‡ M ':  ‡ 029 $/ M LOOHJDO ‡ 029 $/ %WH 375 - OHJDO
  •   &2(.)830 ,QSXW DQG 2XWSXW s &38 FRPPXQLFDWHV ZLWK SHULSKHUDOV WKURXJK ,2 UHJLVWHUV FDOOHG ,2 SRUWV s 7ZR LQVWUXFWLRQV DFFHVV ,2 SRUWV GLUHFWO ,1 DQG 287 ‡ 8VHG ZKHQ IDVW ,2 LV HVVHQWLDO HJ JDPHV s 0RVW SURJUDPV GR QRW XVH ,1287 LQVWUXFWLRQV ‡ SRUW DGGUHVVHV YDU DPRQJ FRPSXWHU PRGHOV ‡ PXFK HDVLHU WR SURJUDP ,2 ZLWK VHUYLFH URXWLQHV SURYLGHG E PDQXIDFWXUHU s 7ZR FDWHJRULHV RI ,2 VHUYLFH URXWLQHV ‡ %DVLF LQSXWRXWSXW VVWHP %,26
  • URXWLQHV ‡ 'LVN RSHUDWLQJ VVWHP '26
  • URXWLQHV s '26 DQG %,26 URXWLQHV LQYRNHG E ,17 LQWHUUXSW
  • LQVWUXFWLRQ  &2(.)830 6VWHP %,26 s $ VHW RI SURJUDPV DOZDV SUHVHQW LQ VVWHP s %,26 URXWLQHV PRVW SULPLWLYH LQ D FRPSXWHU ‡ 7DONV GLUHFWO WR VVWHP KDUGZDUH ‡ +DUGZDUH VSHFLILF  PXVW NQRZ H[DFW SRUW DGGUHVV DQG FRQWURO ELW FRQILJXUDWLRQ IRU ,2 GHYLFHV s %,26 VXSSOLHG E FRPSXWHU PDQXIDFWXUHU DQG UHVLGHV LQ 520 s 3URYLGHV VHUYLFHV WR 26 RU DSSOLFDWLRQ s (QDEOHV 26 WR EH ZULWWHQ WR D VWDQGDUG LQWHUIDFH
  •   &2(.)830 6RIWZDUH /DHUV 6VWHP +DUGZDUH %,26 2SHUDWLQJ 6VWHP $SSOLFDWLRQ 3URJUDP 1RQVWDQGDUG LQWHUIDFH 6WDQGDUG LQWHUIDFH 6WDQGDUG LQWHUIDFH  &2(.)830 ,QSXW2XWSXW  &RQW s ,17 + XVHG WR LQYRNH D ODUJH QXPEHU RI '26 IXQFWLRQ s 7SH RI FDOOHG IXQFWLRQ VSHFLILHG E SXWWLQJ D QXPEHU LQ $+ UHJLVWHU ‡ $+  VLQJOHNH LQSXW ZLWK HFKR ‡ $+  VLQJOHFKDUDFWHU RXWSXW ‡ $+  FKDUDFWHU VWULQJ RXWSXW ‡ $+  VLQJOHNH LQSXW ZLWKRXW HFKR ‡ $+ $K FKDUDFWHU VWULQJ LQSXW
  •   &2(.)830 6LQJOH.H ,QSXW s ,QSXW $+  s 2XWSXW $/ $6&,, FRGH LI FKDUDFWHU NH LV SUHVVHG RWKHUZLVH  s 7R LQSXW FKDUDFWHU ZLWK HFKR ‡ 029 $+  ‡ ,17 +  UHDG FKDUDFWHU ZLOO EH LQ $/ UHJLVWHU s 7R LQSXW D FKDUDFWHU ZLWKRXW HFKR ‡ 029 $+  ‡ ,17 +  UHDG FKDUDFWHU ZLOO EH LQ $/ UHJLVWHU  &2(.)830 6LQJOH&KDUDFWHU 2XWSXW s ,QSXW $+  '/ $6&,, FRGH RI FKDUDFWHU WR EH RXWSXW s 2XWSXW $/ $6&,, FRGH RI FKDUDFWHU s 7R GLVSOD D FKDUDFWHU ‡ 029 $+  ‡ 029 '/ µ"¶  GLVSODLQJ FKDUDFWHU µ"¶ ‡ ,17 + s 7R UHDG D FKDUDFWHU DQG GLVSOD LW ‡ 029 $+  ‡ ,17 + ‡ 029 $+  ‡ 029 '/ $/ ‡ ,17 +
  •   &2(.)830 'LVSODLQJ D 6WULQJ s ,QSXW $+  '; RIIVHW DGGUHVV RI D VWULQJ s 6WULQJ PXVW HQG ZLWK D µ ¶ FKDUDFWHU s 7R GLVSOD WKH PHVVDJH +HOOR ‡ 06* '% ³+HOOR ´ ‡ 029 $+  ‡ 029 '; RIIVHW 06* ‡ ,17 + s 2))6(7 RSHUDWRU UHWXUQV WKH DGGUHVV RI D YDULDEOH s 7KH LQVWUXFWLRQ /($ ORDG HIIHFWLYH DGGUHVV
  • ORDGV GHVWLQDWLRQ ZLWK DGGUHVV RI VRXUFH ‡ /($ '; 06*  &2(.)830 ,QSXWWLQJ D 6WULQJ s ,QSXW $+  '; RIIVHW DGGUHVV RI D EXIIHU WR VWRUH UHDG VWULQJ ‡ )LUVW EWH RI EXIIHU VKRXOG FRQWDLQ PD[LPXP VWULQJ VL]H ‡ 6HFRQG EWH RI EXIIHU UHVHUYHG IRU VWRULQJ VL]H RI UHDG VWULQJ s 7R UHDG D 1DPH RI PD[LPXP VL]H RI  GLVSOD LW ‡ 1DPH '%  GXS ³ ´
  • ‡ 029 $+  ‡ /($ '; 1DPH ‡ ,17 + ‡ 029 $+  ‡ /($ '; 1DPH ‡ ,17 +
  •   &2(.)830 $ &DVH &RQYHUVLRQ 3URJUDP s 3URPSW WKH XVHU WR HQWHU D ORZHUFDVH OHWWHU DQG RQ QH[W OLQH GLVSODV DQRWKHU PHVVDJH ZLWK OHWWHU LQ XSSHUFDVH ‡ (QWHU D ORZHUFDVH OHWWHU D ‡ ,Q XSSHU FDVH LW LV $ s '$7$ ‡ &5 (48 '+ ‡ /) (48 $+ ‡ 06* '% µ(QWHU D ORZHU FDVH OHWWHU ¶ ‡ 06* '% &5 /) µ,Q XSSHU FDVH LW LV µ ‡ &KDU '% " µ ¶  &2(.)830 $ &DVH &RQYHUVLRQ 3URJUDP  &RQW s &2'( ‡ 67$5783  LQLWLDOL]H GDWD VHJPHQW ‡ /($ '; 06*  GLVSOD ILUVW PHVVDJH ‡ 029 $+  ‡ ,17 + ‡ 029 $+   UHDG FKDUDFWHU ‡ ,17 + ‡ 68% $/ +  FRQYHUW LW WR XSSHU FDVH ‡ 029 &+$5 $/  DQG VWRUH LW ‡ /($ '; 06*  GLVSOD VHFRQG PHVVDJH DQG ‡ 029 $+   XSSHUFDVH OHWWHU ‡ ,17 + ‡ (;,7  UHWXUQ WR '26
  •   &2(.)830 6WDWXV )ODJV 5HJLVWHU s &DUU IODJ &)
  •  &)  LI WKHUH LV ‡ D FDUU RXW IURP PRVW VLJQLILFDQW ELW PVE
  • RQ DGGLWLRQ ‡ D ERUURZ LQWR PVE RQ VXEWUDFWLRQ ‡ &) DOVR DIIHFWHG GLIIHUHQWO E VKLIW DQG URWDWH LQVWUXFWLRQV s 3DULW IODJ 3)
  •  3)  LI ‡ ORZ EWH RI UHVXOW KDV DQ HYHQ QXPEHU RI RQH ELWV HYHQ SDULW
  •                 &)3)$)=)6)2) 7),)')  &2(.)830 6WDWXV )ODJV 5HJLVWHU  &RQW s $X[LOLDU FDUU IODJ $)
  •  $)  LI WKHUH LV ‡ D FDUU RXW IURP ELW  RQ DGGLWLRQ ‡ D ERUURZ LQWR ELW  RQ VXEWUDFWLRQ s =HUR IODJ =)
  •  =)  ‡ LI WKH UHVXOW LV ]HUR s 6LJQ IODJ 6)
  •  6)  LI ‡ PVE RI UHVXOW LV  LQGLFDWLQJ WKDW WKH UHVXOW LV QHJDWLYH IRU VLJQHG QXPEHU LQWHUSUHWDWLRQ s 2YHUIORZ IODJ 2)
  •  2)  ‡ LI VLJQHG RYHUIORZ RFFXUV
  •   &2(.)830 +RZ 3URFHVVRU ,QGLFDWHV 2YHUIORZ s 8QVLJQHG RYHUIORZ ‡ RFFXUV ZKHQ WKHUH LV D FDUU RXW RI PVE s 6LJQHG RYHUIORZ RFFXUV ‡ RQ DGGLWLRQ RI QXPEHUV ZLWK VDPH VLJQ ZKHQ VXP KDV D GLIIHUHQW VLJQ ‡ RQ VXEWUDFWLRQ RI QXPEHUV ZLWK GLIIHUHQW VLJQV ZKHQ UHVXOW KDV D GLIIHUHQW VLJQ WKDQ ILUVW QXPEHU ‡ ,I WKH FDUULHV LQWR DQG RXW RI PVE DUH GLIIHUHQW s ([DPSOH ))))  ))))   )))(K 6)  3)  =)  &)  2)   &2(.)830 029 ,QVWUXFWLRQ s 6QWD[ 029 GHVWLQDWLRQ VRXUFH ‡ 'HVWLQDWLRQÅ VRXUFH s 7UDQVIHU GDWD EHWZHHQ ‡ 7ZR UHJLVWHUV ‡ $ UHJLVWHU DQG D PHPRU ORFDWLRQ ‡ $ FRQVWDQW WR D UHJLVWHU RU PHPRU ORFDWLRQ HVQRHVHV0HPRU /RFDWLRQ QRHVQRHV6HJPHQW 5HJLVWHU HVHVHVHV*HQHUDO 5HJLVWHU &RQVWDQW0HPRU /RFDWLRQ 6HJPHQW 5HJLVWHU *HQHUDO 5HJLVWHU
  •   &2(.)830 029 ,QVWUXFWLRQ ± &RQW s 029 LQVWUXFWLRQ KDV QR HIIHFW RQ IODJV s ([DPSOHV ‡ 029 '6 #'DWD LOOHJDO ‡ 029 '6 (6 LOOHJDO ‡ 029 >%;@  LOOHJDO ‡ 029 >',@ >6,@ LOOHJDO ‡ 029 $/ RIIVHW , LOOHJDO ‡ 029 >%;@ RIIVHW , LOOHJDO ‡ 029 >6,@ , LOOHJDO ‡ 029 '6 >%;@ OHJDO ‡ 029 $; >6,@ OHJDO ‡ 029 >%;@ '6 OHJDO  &2(.)830 ;&+* ,QVWUXFWLRQ s 6QWD[ ;&+* RSHUDQG RSHUDQG ‡ 2SHUDQGÅ RSHUDQG ‡ 2SHUDQGÅ RSHUDQG s ([FKDQJHV FRQWHQWV RI WZR UHJLVWHUV RU D UHJLVWHU DQG D PHPRU ORFDWLRQ s ;&+* KDV QR HIIHFW RQ IODJV QRHV0HPRU /RFDWLRQ HVHV*HQHUDO 5HJLVWHU 0HPRU /RFDWLRQ *HQHUDO 5HJLVWHU
  •   &2(.)830 $'' 68% ,QVWUXFWLRQV s 6QWD[ ‡ $'' GHVWLQDWLRQ VRXUFH  GHVWLQDWLRQ GHVWLQDWLRQ VRXUFH ‡ 68% GHVWLQDWLRQ VRXUFH  GHVWLQDWLRQ GHVWLQDWLRQVRXUFH s $'' DQG 68% LQVWUXFWLRQV DIIHFW DOO WKH IODJV HVQRHV0HPRU /RFDWLRQ HVHVHV*HQHUDO 5HJLVWHU &RQVWDQW0HPRU /RFDWLRQ *HQHUDO 5HJLVWHU  &2(.)830 ,1& '(& ,QVWUXFWLRQV s 6QWD[ ‡ ,1& RSHUDQG  RSHUDQG RSHUDQG ‡ '(& RSHUDQG  RSHUDQG RSHUDQG s 2SHUDQG FDQ EH D JHQHUDO UHJLVWHU RU PHPRU s ,1& DQG '(& LQVWUXFWLRQV DIIHFW DOO WKH IODJV s ([DPSOHV ‡ ,1& $; OHJDO ‡ '(& %/ OHJDO ‡ ,1& >%;@ LOOHJDO ‡ ,1& %WH 375 >%;@ OHJDO ‡ '(& , OHJDO ‡ ,1& '6 LOOHJDO
  •   &2(.)830 1(* LQVWUXFWLRQ s 6QWD[ 1(* RSHUDQG ‡ 2SHUDQGÅ  ± RSHUDQG s )LQGV WKH WZR¶V FRPSOHPHQW RI RSHUDQG s 2SHUDQG FDQ EH D JHQHUDO UHJLVWHU RU PHPRU ORFDWLRQ s 1(* LQVWUXFWLRQ DIIHFWV DOO IODJV s ([DPSOHV ‡ /HW $; )))K DQG , K ‡ 1(* $;  $;Å ‡ 1(* $+  $+Å ‡ 1(* ,  ,Å)  &2(.)830 &03 LQVWUXFWLRQ s 6QWD[ &03 RSHUDQG RSHUDQG ‡ 2SHUDQGRSHUDQG s 6XEWUDFWV RSHUDQG IURP RSHUDQG DQG XSGDWHV WKH IODJV EDVHG RQ WKH UHVXOW s &03 LQVWUXFWLRQ DIIHFWV DOO WKH IODJV HVQRHV0HPRU /RFDWLRQ HVHVHV*HQHUDO 5HJLVWHU &RQVWDQW0HPRU /RFDWLRQ *HQHUDO 5HJLVWHU
  •   &2(.)830 $'& DQG 6%% LQVWUXFWLRQ s 6QWD[ ‡ $'& GHVWLQDWLRQ VRXUFH  GHVWLQDWLRQ GHVWLQDWLRQVRXUFH&) ‡ 6%% GHVWLQDWLRQ VRXUFH  GHVWLQDWLRQ GHVWLQDWLRQVRXUFH&) s $FKLHYH GRXEOHSUHFLVLRQ DGGLWLRQVXEWUDFWLRQ s 7R DGG RU VXEWUDFW ELW QXPEHUV ‡ $GG RU VXEWUDFW ORZHU  ELWV ‡ $GG RU VXEWUDFW KLJKHU  ELWV ZLWK FDUU RU ERUURZ s ([DPSOH $GG WKH WZR GRXEOH ZRUGV LQ $ DQG % ‡ 029 $; $ ‡ 029 '; $ ‡ $'' % $; ‡ $'& % ';  &2(.)830 0XOWLSOLFDWLRQ s 8QVLJQHG PXOWLSOLFDWLRQ 08/ RSHUDQG s 6LJQHG PXOWLSOLFDWLRQ ,08/ RSHUDQG s ,I RSHUDQG LV D %WH ‡ 08/ RSHUDQG $;Å $/ RSHUDQG s ,I RSHUDQG LV D :RUG ‡ 08/ RSHUDQG ';$; Å $; RSHUDQG s 2SHUDQG FDQ EH D JHQHUDO UHJLVWHU RU PHPRU &DQQRW EH D FRQVWDQW s )ODJV 6) =) $) DQG 3) DUH XQGHILQHG s 2QO &) DQG 2) DUH DIIHFWHG
  •   &2(.)830 0XOWLSOLFDWLRQ ± &RQW s &) 2)  ‡ 8QVLJQHG PXOWLSOLFDWLRQ LI XSSHU KDOI RI UHVXOW LV  ‡ 6LJQHG PXOWLSOLFDWLRQ LI XSSHU KDOI RI UHVXOW LV D VLJQ H[WHQVLRQ RI ORZHU KDOI s ([DPSOH /HW $; ))))K DQG %; K ‡ 08/ %/ $;Å)(K   
  • &) 2)  ‡ ,08/ %/ $;Å)))(K   
  • &) 2)  ‡ 08/ $/ $;Å)(   
  • &) 2)  ‡ ,08/ $/ $;Å   
  • &) 2)  ‡ 08/ %; ';Å $;Å)))( &) 2)  ‡ ,08/ %; ';Å)))) $;Å)))( &) 2)   &2(.)830 $SSOLFDWLRQ ,QSXWWLQJ D 'HFLPDO 1XPEHU s ,QSXWWLQJ D GLJLW GHFLPDO QXPEHU 029 $+  UHDG ILUVW GLJLW ,17 + 68% $/ µ¶  FRQYHUW GLJLW IURP $6&,, FRGH WR ELQDU 029 %/  08/ %/  PXOWLSO GLJLW E  029 &/ $/ 029 $+   UHDG QG GLJLW ,17 + 68% $/ µ¶  FRQYHUW GLJLW IURP $6&,, FRGH WR ELQDU $'' $/ &/  $/ FRQWDLQV WKH GLJLW QXPEHU
  •   &2(.)830 'LYLVLRQ s 8QVLJQHG GLYLVLRQ ',9 RSHUDQG s 6LJQHG GLYLVLRQ ,',9 RSHUDQG s ,I RSHUDQG LV D %WH ‡ ',9 2SHUDQG  $; Å $;RSHUDQG ‡ $+ 5HPDLQGHU $/ 4XRWLHQW s ,I RSHUDQG LV D :RUG ‡ ',9 2SHUDQG  ';$; Å ';$;RSHUDQG ‡ '; 5HPDLQGHU $; 4XRWLHQW s 2SHUDQG FDQ EH D JHQHUDO UHJLVWHU RU PHPRU &DQQRW EH D FRQVWDQW s $OO IODJV DUH XQGHILQHG  &2(.)830 'LYLVLRQ  &RQW s 'LYLGH 2YHUIORZ ‡ ,I TXRWLHQW LV WRR ELJ WR ILW LQ VSHFLILHG GHVWLQDWLRQ $/ RU $;
  • ‡ +DSSHQV LI GLYLVRU PXFK VPDOOHU WKDQ GLYLGHQG ‡ 3URJUDP WHUPLQDWHV DQG GLVSODV ³'LYLGH 2YHUIORZ´ s ([DPSOH /HW '; K $; K DQG %; )))(K ‡ ',9 %; $;  ';  ‡ ,',9 %; $; )))( ';  s ([DPSOH /HW '; ))))K $; )))%K DQG %; K ‡ ,',9 %; $; )))( '; )))) ‡ ',9 %; ',9,'( 2YHUIORZ s ([DPSOH /HW $; )%K 
  •  DQG %/ ))K ‡ ',9 %/ $+ )% $/  ‡ ,',9 %/ ',9,'( 2YHUIORZ
  •   &2(.)830 $SSOLFDWLRQ 2XWSXWWLQJ D 'HFLPDO 1XPEHU s 2XWSXWWLQJ D GLJLW GHFLPDO QXPEHU LQ $; 029 %/  ',9 %/  JHWWLQJ OHDVW VLJQLILFDQW GLJLW $'' $+ µ¶  FRQYHUWLQJ /6 GLJLW WR $6&,, 029 '+ $+  VWRULQJ /6 GLJLW WHPSRUDULO 029 $+  ',9 %/  JHWWLQJ PRVW VLJQLILFDQW GLJLW $'' $+ µ¶  FRQYHUWLQJ 06 GLJLW LQWR $6&,, 029 '/ $+  GLVSODLQJ 06 GLJLW 029 $+  ,17 + 029 '/ '+  GLVSODLQJ OHDVW VLJQLILFDQW GLJLW ,17+  &2(.)830 /RJLF ,QVWUXFWLRQV s 7KH $1' 25 DQG ;25 LQVWUXFWLRQV SHUIRUP QDPHG ELWZLVH ORJLFDO RSHUDWLRQ s 6QWD[ ‡ $1' GHVWLQDWLRQ VRXUFH ‡ 25 GHVWLQDWLRQ VRXUFH ‡ ;25 GHVWLQDWLRQ VRXUFH  $1'     25     ;25   
  •   &2(.)830 /RJLF ,QVWUXFWLRQV  &RQW s $1' LQVWUXFWLRQ XVHG WR FOHDU VSHFLILF GHVWLQDWLRQV ELWV ZKLOH SUHVHUYLQJ RWKHUV ‡ $  PDVN ELW FOHDUV FRUUHVSRQGLQJ GHVWLQDWLRQ ELW ‡ $  PDVN ELW SUHVHUYHV FRUUHVSRQGLQJ GHVWLQDWLRQ ELW s 25 LQVWUXFWLRQ XVHG WR VHW VSHFLILF GHVWLQDWLRQV ELWV ZKLOH SUHVHUYLQJ RWKHUV ‡ $  PDVN ELW VHWV FRUUHVSRQGLQJ GHVWLQDWLRQ ELW ‡ $  PDVN ELW SUHVHUYHV FRUUHVSRQGLQJ GHVWLQDWLRQ ELW s ;25 LQVWUXFWLRQ XVHG WR FRPSOHPHQW VSHFLILF GHVWLQDWLRQV ELWV ZKLOH SUHVHUYLQJ RWKHUV ‡ $  PDVN ELW FRPSOHPHQWV FRUUHVSRQGLQJ GHVWLQDWLRQ ELW ‡ $  PDVN ELW SUHVHUYHV FRUUHVSRQGLQJ GHVWLQDWLRQ ELW  &2(.)830 /RJLF ,QVWUXFWLRQV  &RQW s (IIHFW RQ IODJV ‡ 6) =) 3) FKDQJH EDVHG RQ UHVXOW ‡ $) XQGHILQHG ‡ &) 2)  s ([DPSOHV ‡ &RQYHUWLQJ $6&,, GLJLW WR D QXPEHU ‡ 68% $/ K ‡ $1' $/ )K ‡ &RQYHUWLQJ D ORZHUFDVH OHWWHU WR XSSHUFDVH ‡ 68% $/ K ‡ $1' $/ ')K ‡ ,QLWLDOL]LQJ UHJLVWHU ZLWK  ‡ ;25 $/ $/
  •   &2(.)830 /RJLF ,QVWUXFWLRQV  &RQW s 127 LQVWUXFWLRQ ‡ SHUIRUPV RQH¶V FRPSOHPHQW RSHUDWLRQ RQ GHVWLQDWLRQ ‡ 6QWD[ 127 GHVWLQDWLRQ ‡ KDV QR HIIHFW RQ IODJV s 7(67 LQVWUXFWLRQ ‡ SHUIRUPV DQ $1' RSHUDWLRQ RI GHVWLQDWLRQ ZLWK VRXUFH EXW GRHV QRW FKDQJH GHVWLQDWLRQ ‡ LW DIIHFWV WKH IODJV OLNH WKH $1' LQVWUXFWLRQ ‡ XVHG WR H[DPLQH FRQWHQW RI LQGLYLGXDO ELWV s ([DPSOH ‡ 7R WHVW IRU HYHQ QXPEHUV ‡ 7(67 $/  LI =)  QXPEHU LV HYHQ  &2(.)830 6KLIW 5RWDWH ,QVWUXFWLRQV s 6KLIW ELWV LQ GHVWLQDWLRQ RSHUDQG E RQH RU PRUH ELW SRVLWLRQV HLWKHU WR OHIW RU WR ULJKW ‡ )RU VKLIW LQVWUXFWLRQV VKLIWHG ELWV DUH ORVW ‡ )RU URWDWH LQVWUXFWLRQV ELWV VKLIWHG RXW IURP RQH HQG DUH SXW EDFN LQWR RWKHU HQG s 6QWD[ ‡ 2SFRGH GHVWLQDWLRQ   IRU VLQJOHELW VKLIW RU URWDWH ‡ 2SFRGH GHVWLQDWLRQ &/  IRU VKLIW RU URWDWH RI 1 ELWV s 6KLIW ,QVWUXFWLRQV ‡ 6+/6$/ VKLIW OHIW VKLIW DULWKPHWLF OHIW
  • ‡ 6+5 VKLIW ULJKW ‡ 6$5 VKLIW DULWKPHWLF ULJKW
  •   &2(.)830 6KLIW 5RWDWH ,QVWUXFWLRQV  &RQW s 5RWDWH LQVWUXFWLRQV ‡ 52/ URWDWH OHIW ‡ 525 URWDWH ULJKW ‡ 5&/ URWDWH OHIW ZLWK FDUU ‡ 5&5 URWDWH ULJKW ZLWK FDUU s (IIHFW RQ IODJV VKLIW URWDWH LQVWUXFWLRQV
  •  ‡ 6) 3) =) FKDQJH EDVHG RQ UHVXOW ‡ $) XQGHILQHG ‡ &) ODVW ELW VKLIWHG ‡ 2)  LI VLJQ ELW FKDQJHV RQ VLQJOHELW VKLIWV  &2(.)830 6KLIW 5RWDWH ,QVWUXFWLRQV  &RQW s ([DPSOHV /HW $/ ))K ‡ 6+5 $/   $/ Å )K ‡ 6$5 $/   $/ Å ))K ‡ 6+/ $/   $/ Å )(K ‡ 6$/ $/   $/ Å )(K s ([DPSOHV /HW $/ %K DQG &/ K ‡ 6+/ $/   $/ Å K ‡ 6+/ $/ &/  $/ Å &K ‡ 6+5 $/   $/ Å K ‡ 6+5 $/ &/  $/ Å K ‡ 52/ $/   $/ Å K ‡ 525 $/   $/ Å K
  •   &2(.)830 0XOWLSOLFDWLRQ 'LYLVLRQ E 6KLIW s 0XOWLSOLFDWLRQ E OHIW VKLIW ‡ $ OHIW VKLIW E  ELW GRXEOHV WKH GHVWLQDWLRQ YDOXH LH PXOWLSOLHV LW E  s 'LYLVLRQ E ULJKW VKLIW ‡ $ ULJKW VKLIW E  ELW KDOYHV LW DQG URXQGV GRZQ WR WKH QHDUHVW LQWHJHU LH GLYLGHV LW E  s ([DPSOH 0XOWLSO VLJQHG FRQWHQW RI $/ E  ‡ 029 $+ $/ ‡ 029 &/  ‡ 6$/ $/ &/  $/  $/ ‡ $'' $/ $+ $/  $/  $/  $/  &2(.)830 )ORZ &RQWURO ,QVWUXFWLRQV s 8QFRQGLWLRQDO MXPS ‡ -03 ODEHO  ,3 Å ODEHO s &RQGLWLRQDO MXPS ‡ 6LJQHG MXPSV ‡ 8QVLJQHG MXPSV ‡ &RPPRQ MXPSV s 6LJQHG MXPSV ‡ -*-1/( MXPS LI JUHDWHU WKDQ RU MXPS LI QRW OHVV WKDQ RU HTXDO ‡ -*(-1/ MXPS LI JUHDWHU WKDQ RU HTXDO RU MXPS LI QRW OHVV WKDQ ‡ -/-1*( MXPS LI OHVV WKDQ RU MXPS LI QRW JUHDWHU WKDQ RU HTXDO ‡ -/(-1* MXPS LI OHVV WKDQ RU HTXDO RU MXPS LI QRW JUHDWHU WKDQ
  •   &2(.)830 )ORZ &RQWURO ,QVWUXFWLRQV  &RQW s 8QVLJQHG MXPSV ‡ -$-1%( MXPS LI DERYH RU MXPS LI QRW EHORZ RU HTXDO ‡ -$(-1% MXPS LI DERYH RU HTXDO RU MXPS LI QRW EHORZ ‡ -%-1$( MXPS LI EHORZ RU MXPS LI QRW DERYH RU HTXDO ‡ -%(-1$ MXPS LI EHORZ RU HTXDO RU MXPS LI QRW DERYH s 6LQJOH)ODJ MXPSV ‡ -(-= MXPS LI HTXDO RU MXPS LI HTXDO WR ]HUR ‡ -1(-1= MXPS LI QRW HTXDO RU MXPS LI QRW HTXDO WR ]HUR ‡ -& MXPS RI FDUU ‡ -1& MXPS LI QR FDUU ‡ -2 MXPS LI RYHUIORZ ‡ -12 MXPS LI QR RYHUIORZ  &2(.)830 )ORZ &RQWURO ,QVWUXFWLRQV  &RQW s 6LQJOHIODJ MXPSV ‡ -6 MXPS LI VLJQ QHJDWLYH ‡ -16 MXPS LI QRQQHJDWLYH VLJQ ‡ -3-3( MXPS LI SDULW HYHQ ‡ -13-32 MXPS LI SDULW RGG s -XPS EDVHG RQ &; ‡ -&;= s /RRS ,QVWUXFWLRQV ‡ /RRS ‡ /RRSQ]/RRSQH ‡ /RRS]/RRSH s $OO MXPS LQVWUXFWLRQV KDYH QR HIIHFW RQ WKH IODJV
  •   &2(.)830 %UDQFKLQJ 6WUXFWXUHV ,)7KHQ s ([DPSOH ,I $;   7KHQ 5HSODFH $; E ±$; (1',)  LI $;   &03 $;  -1/ (1'B,) WKHQ 1(* $; (1'B,)  &2(.)830 ,)7KHQ(OVH s ([DPSOH ,I $/  %/ 7KHQ 'LVSOD FKDUDFWHU LQ $/ (OVH 'LVSOD FKDUDFWHU LQ %/ (1',) HPWÃ6CÃ! 0ÃvsÃ6G127G 8HQÃ6GÃ7G EI7@Ã@GT@f 0‡ur HPWÃ9GÃ6G EHQÃ9DTQG6` @GT@f) HPWÃ9GÃ7G 9DTQG6`) DIUÃ! C @I9fDA)
  •   &2(.)830 &$6( s ([DPSOH &$6( $;  SXW ± LQ %;  SXW  LQ %; ! SXW  LQ %; (1'B&$6(  FDVH $; 8HQÃ6Yà EGÃI@B6UDW@ E@Ãa@SP EBÃQPTDUDW@ I@B6UDW@)ÃHPWÃ7Yà EHQÃ@I9f86T@ a@SP) HPWÃ7Yà EHQÃ@I9f86T@ QPTDUDW@) HPWÃ7Yà @I9f86T@)  &2(.)830 &$6( ± &RQW s ([DPSOH &$6( $/  GLVSOD µR¶  GLVSOD µH¶ (1'B&$6( 0Ãph†rÃ6G 8HQÃ6Gà 0à Ã") E@ÃP99 8HQÃ6GÃ" E@ÃP99 8HQÃ6GÃ! 0Ã!Ã#) E@Ã@W@I 8HQÃ6GÃ# E@Ã@W@I EHQÃ@I9f86T@ P99) HPWÃ9Gõ‚¶ EHQÃ9DTQG6` @W@I) HPWÃ9Gõr¶ 9DTQG6`) HPWÃ6CÃ! DIUÃ! C @I9f86T@)
  •   &2(.)830 %UDQFKHV ZLWK &RPSRXQG &RQGLWLRQV s ([DPSOH ,I µ$¶  FKDUDFWHU
  • DQG FKDUDFWHU  µ=¶
  • 7KHQ 'LVSOD FKDUDFWHU (1'B,) 0ÅrhqÃhÃpuh…hp‡r… HPWÃ6Cà DIUÃ! C 0ÃDsõ6¶ 12Ãpuh…hp‡r…ÃhqÃpuh…hp‡r…Ã12õa¶ÃUurÃ 8HQÃ6Gõ6¶ EIB@Ã@I9fDA 8HQÃ6Gõa¶ EIG@Ã@I9fDA 0Ãqv†ƒyh’Ãpuh…hp‡r… HPWÃ9GÃ6G HPWÃ6CÃ! DIUÃ! C @I9fDA)  &2(.)830 %UDQFKHV ZLWK &RPSRXQG &RQGLWLRQV s ([DPSOH ,I FKDUDFWHU µ¶
  • 25 FKDUDFWHU  µ<¶
  • 7KHQ 'LVSOD FKDUDFWHU (OVH WHUPLQDWH SURJUDP (1'B,) 0ÅrhqÃhÃpuh…hp‡r… HPWÃ6Cà DIUÃ! C 0ÃDsÃpuh…hp‡r…2µ’¶ÃPSÃpuh…hp‡r…Ã2õ`¶ÃUurÃ 8HQÃ6Gõ’¶ E@ÃUur 8HQÃ6Gõ`¶ E@ÃUur EHQÃ@GT@f Uur) HPWÃ6CÃ! HPWÃ9GÃ6G DIUÃ! C EHQÃ@I9fDA @GT@) HPWÃ6CÃ#8C DIUÃ! C @I9fDA)
  •   &2(.)830 /RRS ,QVWUXFWLRQV s /RRS 1H[W ‡ 'HF &[ ‡ ,I &;! -03 1H[W s /RRS]ORRSH 1H[W ‡ 'HF &[ ‡ ,I &;!
  • $1' =) 
  • -03 1H[W s /RRSQ]ORRSQH 1H[W ‡ 'HF &[ ‡ ,I &;!
  • $1' =) 
  • -03 1H[W  &2(.)830 )25 /223 s ([DPSOH )RU  WLPHV '2 'LVSOD µ ¶ (1'B,) 029 &;  029 $+  029 '/ µ ¶ 1H[W ,17 + /RRS 1H[W
  •   &2(.)830 :KLOH /RRS s ([DPSOH ,QLWLDOL]H FRXQW WR  5HDG D FKDUDFWHU :KLOH FKDUDFWHU ! &DUULDJH 5HWXUQ '2 &RXQW &RXQW   5HDG D FKDUDFWHU (1'B:KLOH 029 ';  029 $+  ,17 + :KLOHB &03 $/ '+ -( (QGB:KLOH ,1& '; ,17 + -03 :KLOHB (QGB:KLOH  &2(.)830 5HSHDW /RRS s ([DPSOH 5HSHDW 5HDG D FKDUDFWHU 8QWLO FKDUDFWHU LV EODQN 029 $+  5HSHDW ,17 +  XQWLO &03 $/ µ µ -1( 5HSHDW
  •   &2(.)830 $SSOLFDWLRQ RI /RRSH s ([DPSOH 6HDUFK IRU D QXPEHU LQ D 7DEOH 7DEOH '%  ;25 6, 6, 029 &;  1H[W ,1& 6, &03 7DEOH>6,@  /RRSQH 1H[W  &2(.)830 7KH 6WDFN s 2QH GLPHQVLRQDO GDWD VWUXFWXUH ‡ ,WHPV DGGHG DQG UHPRYHG IURP RQH HQG ‡ /DVWLQ ILUVWRXW s ,QVWUXFWLRQV ‡ 386+ ‡ 323 ‡ 386+) ‡ 323) s 386+ 323 KDYH RQH RSHUDQG ‡ ELW UHJLVWHU RU PHPRU ZRUG ‡ %WH RSHUDQGV DUH QRW DOORZHG ‡ &RQVWDQW RSHUDQGV DUH QRW DOORZHG
  •   &2(.)830 6WDFN ,QVWUXFWLRQV s 63 SRLQWV DW WKH WKH WRS RI WKH VWDFN s 67$&. + ‡ 63 LV LQLWLDOL]HG WR + s 386+ RSHUDQG ‡ 63 Å 63   ‡ >6363@ Å RSHUDQG s 323 RSHUDQG ‡ 2SHUDQG Å >6363@ ‡ 63 Å 63   s 386+) ‡ 63 Å 63   ‡ >6363@ Å IODJV UHJLVWHU s 323) ‡ )ODJV UHJLVWHU Å >6363@ ‡ 63 Å 63    &2(.)830 5HYHUVLQJ D 6WULQJ s 6WULQJ '% ³&2(´ 029 &;   &; FRQWDLQV OHQJWK RI VWULQJ ;25 %; %; 1H[W 029 $/ 6WULQJ>%;@ 386+ $; ,1& %; /223 1H[W 029 &;  ;25 %; %; 1H[W 323 $; 029 6WULQJ>%;@ $/ ,1& %; /223 1H[W
  •   &2(.)830 3URFHGXUHV s 3URFHGXUH 'HFODUDWLRQ 1DPH 352& WSH ERG RI WKH SURFHGXUH 5(7 1DPH (1'3 s 3URFHGXUH WSH ‡ 1($5 VWDWHPHQW WKDW FDOOV SURFHGXUH LQ VDPH VHJPHQW ZLWK SURFHGXUH
  • ‡ )$5 VWDWHPHQW WKDW FDOOV SURFHGXUH LQ GLIIHUHQW VHJPHQW
  • ‡ 'HIDXOW WSH LV QHDU s 3URFHGXUH ,QYRFDWLRQ ‡ &$// 1DPH  &2(.)830 3URFHGXUHV ± &RQW s ([HFXWLQJ D &$// LQVWUXFWLRQ FDXVHV ‡ 6DYH UHWXUQ DGGUHVV RQ WKH VWDFN ‡ 1HDU SURFHGXUH 386+ ,3 ‡ )DU SURFHGXUH 386+ &6 386+ ,3 ‡ ,3 JHWV WKH RIIVHW DGGUHVV RI WKH ILUVW LQVWUXFWLRQ RI WKH SURFHGXUH ‡ &6 JHWV QHZ VHJPHQW QXPEHU LI SURFHGXUH LV IDU ‡ ([HFXWLQJ D 5(7 LQVWUXFWLRQ FDXVHV ‡ 7UDQVIHU FRQWURO EDFN WR FDOOLQJ SURFHGXUH ‡ 1HDU SURFHGXUH 323 ,3 ‡ )DU SURFHGXUH 323 ,3 323 &6 s 5(7 Q ‡ ,3 Å >6363@ ‡ 63 Å 63    Q
  •   &2(.)830 3DVVLQJ 3DUDPHWHUV WR 3URFHGXUHV s % YDOXH XVLQJ 5HJLVWHUV s % DGGUHVV XVLQJ 5HJLVWHUV s 8VLQJ WKH VWDFN ‡ &RS 63 WR %3 ‡ $FFHVV SDUDPHWHUV IURP VWDFN XVLQJ %3 UHJLVWHU  &2(.)830 3URFHGXUH  ([DPSOH s 5HDG D QXPEHU Q IURP  DQG GLVSOD DQ DUUD RI Q [ Q VWDUV ³ ´ ‡ 1/ '% ´ ´ HPWÃ6Cà 0ÅrhqÃhÁˆ€ir… DIUÃ! C 6I9Ã6YÃACÃ0Ãp‚‰r…‡Ãˆ€ir…Ãs…‚€Ã6T8DDà HPWÃ8YÃ6Y HPWÃ7YÃ6Y Ir‘‡))ÃÃÃÃÃQVTCÃ8Y QVTCÃ7Y 86GGÃ9v†ƒyh’ QPQÃ8Y HPWÃ6CÃ( G@6Ã9YÃIG DIUÃ! C G‚‚ƒÃIr‘‡ 9v†ƒyh’ÃÃQ…‚pÃIrh… HPWÃ7QÃTQ HPWÃ8YÃb7Q!d HPWÃ6CÃ! HPWÃ9Gõ¶ Ir‘‡!) DIUÃ! C G‚‚ƒÃIr‘‡! S@UÃ! 9v†ƒyh’ÃÃ@I9Q
  •   &2(.)830 ,1287 ,QVWUXFWLRQV s 'LUHFW SRUW QXPEHU LV  ‡ ,1 $/ SRUW  $/ Å>SRUW@ ‡ ,1 $; SRUW  $/ Å>SRUW@  $+ Å>SRUW@ ‡ 287 SRUW $/  >SRUW@ Å$/ ‡ 287 SRUW $;  >SRUW@ Å$/ >SRUW@ Å$+ s ,QGLUHFW SRUW QXPEHU LV LQ '; ‡ ,1 $/ ';  $/ Å>';@ ‡ ,1 $; ';  $/ Å>';@  $+ Å>';@ ‡ 287 '; $/  >';@ Å$/ ‡ 287 '; $;  >';@ Å$/ >';@ Å$+  &2(.)830 6WULQJ ,QVWUXFWLRQV s )LYH FDWHJRULHV ‡ 0296 0296% 0296: ‡ &036 &036% &036: ‡ 6&$6 6&$6% 6&$6: ‡ /2'6 /2'6% /2'6: ‡ 6726 6726% 6726: s 6RXUFH LV DOZDV LQ '6>6,@ s 'HVWLQDWLRQ LV DOZDV LQ (6>',@ s ,I ')  6, DQG ', DUH LQFUHPHQWHG s ,I ')  6, DQG ', DUH GHFUHPHQWHG s 7R FOHDU GLUHFWLRQ IODJ &/' s 7R VHW GLUHFWLRQ IODJ 67'
  •   &2(.)830 6WULQJ ,QVWUXFWLRQV ± &RQW s 0296% ‡ (6>',@ Å '6>6,@ ‡ ', Å ', 6, Å6, LI ') 
  • ‡ ', Å ', 6, Å6, LI ') 
  • s 0296: ‡ (6>',',@ Å '6>6,6,@ ‡ ', Å ', 6, Å6, LI ') 
  • ‡ ', Å ', 6, Å6, LI ') 
  • s 0296 GHVWLQDWLRQ VRXUFH ‡ 5HSODFHG E HLWKHU 0296% RU 0296: GHSHQGLQJ RQ RSHUDQGV VL]H  &2(.)830 6WULQJ ,QVWUXFWLRQV ± &RQW s &036% ‡ '6>6,@  (6>',@ ‡ ', Å ', 6, Å6, LI ') 
  • ‡ ', Å ', 6, Å6, LI ') 
  • s &036: ‡ '6>6,6,@  (6>',',@ ‡ ', Å ', 6, Å6, LI ') 
  • ‡ ', Å ', 6, Å6, LI ') 
  • s &036 GHVWLQDWLRQ VRXUFH ‡ 5HSODFHG E HLWKHU &036% RU &036: GHSHQGLQJ RQ RSHUDQGV VL]H
  •   &2(.)830 6WULQJ ,QVWUXFWLRQV ± &RQW s 6&$6% ‡ $/  (6>',@ ‡ ', Å ', LI ') 
  • ‡ ', Å ', LI ') 
  • s 6&$6: ‡ $;  (6>',',@ ‡ ', Å ', LI ') 
  • ‡ ', Å ', LI ') 
  • s 6&$6 GHVWLQDWLRQ ‡ 5HSODFHG E HLWKHU 6&$6% RU 6&$6: GHSHQGLQJ RQ RSHUDQGV VL]H  &2(.)830 6WULQJ ,QVWUXFWLRQV ± &RQW s /2'6% ‡ $/ Å '6>6,@ ‡ 6, Å 6, LI ') 
  • ‡ 6, Å 6, LI ') 
  • s /2'6: ‡ $; Å '6>6,6,@ ‡ 6, Å 6, LI ') 
  • ‡ 6, Å 6, LI ') 
  • s /2'6 GHVWLQDWLRQ ‡ 5HSODFHG E HLWKHU /2'6% RU /2'6: GHSHQGLQJ RQ RSHUDQGV VL]H
  •   &2(.)830 6WULQJ ,QVWUXFWLRQV ± &RQW s 6726% ‡ (6>',@ Å $/ ‡ ', Å ', LI ') 
  • ‡ ', Å ', LI ') 
  • s 6726: ‡ (6>',',@ Å $; ‡ ', Å ', LI ') 
  • ‡ ', Å ', LI ') 
  • s 6726 GHVWLQDWLRQ ‡ 5HSODFHG E HLWKHU 6726% RU 6726: GHSHQGLQJ RQ RSHUDQGV VL]H  &2(.)830 &RSLQJ D 6WULQJ WR DQRWKHU '$7$ 6WULQJ '% ³+HOOR´ 6WULQJ '%  GXS "
  • &2'( 029 $; #'$7$ 029 '6 $; 029 (6 $; &/' 029 &;  /($ 6, 6WULQJ /($ ', 6WULQJ 5(3 0296%
  •   &2(.)830 &RSLQJ D 6WULQJ WR DQRWKHU LQ 5HYHUVH 2UGHU '$7$ 6WULQJ '% ³+HOOR´ 6WULQJ '%  GXS "
  • &2'( 029 $; #'$7$ 029 '6 $; 029 (6 $; 67' 029 &;  /($ 6, 6WULQJ /($ ', 6WULQJ 1H[W 0296% $'' ',  /223 1H[W