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  • Irrigation is an important part of root canal treatment because it assists in remove bacteria and debris .
  • Ideal irrigant should have all or most of this positive properties.
  • Effective aginst microorganisms which are difficult to eradicate from root canals, such as Enterococcus, Actinomyces, and Candida organisms

  • Bystro¨m A, Sundqvist G. Bacteriologic evaluation of the effect of 0.5 percent sodium hypochlorite in endodontic therapy. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1983.

    Chemomechanical reduction of the bacterial population in the root canal after instrumentation and irrigation with 1%, 2.5% and 5.25% NaOCL Siqueira Jr et al J Endod 2000.
  • One alternative approach to improve the effectiveness of hypochlorite irrigants in the root canal system could be to increase the temperature of low-concentration NaOCl solutions.
  • The unintentional injection of naocl into apical tissue due to wedging of irrigation needle or excessively high pressure in teeth with wide open foramen or root resorption .
  • Remain calm
  • becomes absorbed and gradually released from tooth structures such as dentin and cementum 
  • Couse higer conc can be dangerous
  • The citric acid component in MTAD effectively removed a smear layer. Under these conditions, BioPure MTAD was more aggressive in eroding dentin than EDTA. In another investigation, however, the addition of NaOCl was necessary to achieve dissolution of organic matter.
  • For this reasons removal of smear layer piror to obturation is very important as it allow for better disinfection of root canal system and better adaptation of root canal sealer
  • Instrumented canal wall after removal of smear layer by naocl + EDTA
  • Traditionally, irrigation has been performed with a plastic syringe and an open-ended needle into the root canal space.
  • Allow for irrigant flow back.
  • The recognition of the difficulty of apical canal irrigation has led to various innovative techniques to facilitate the penetration of solutions in the canal. One of these includes the :Gutta-percha Points
  • Note It does not deliver new irrigant to the canal but it facilitates the penetration and renewal of the irrigant in the canal.
  • Ultrasonic proved superior to syringe irrigation alone when the canal narrowed to 0.3 mm (size 30 instrument) or less. (Teplitsky et al. 1987)

Transcript

  • 1. IRRIGATION IN ENDODONTICS Dr.Mohamed Ali Alazrak BDS.MSc Tripoli Medical Center – Libya Azrakdent@gmail.com
  • 2. Introduction • Every root canal system has spaces that can not be cleaned mechanichally . • The only way to clean webs, fins and anastomoses is through effective use of irrigation solution. • in order to get the maximum efficiency from irrigant , irrigant must reach the apical portion of the canal .
  • 3. Anti microbial properties Tissue solvent. Flush debris. Lubricant. Eliminate the smear layer. Low toxicity level Properties of ideal irrigant solution
  • 4. COMMONLY USED IRRIGATING SOLUTIONS
  • 5. I.Chemically non active solution:  Water. Saline. Anesthesia.
  • 6. I.Chemically non active solution:  Anti microbial properties  Tissue solvent.  Flush debris.  Lubricant.  Eliminate the smear layer.  Low toxicity level
  • 7. II.Chemically active materials : • Alkalis : sodium hypochlorite • Antibacterial agents : chlorhexidin • Oxidizing agents: hydrogen prioxide • Chelating agents: EDTA ( ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid)
  • 8. Sodium hypochlorite (NaOcl) Clear ,pale green-yellow liquid with strong odor of chlorine . It is a potent antimicrobial agent, killing most bacteria instantly on direct contact. It also effectively dissolves necrotic and vital pulp tissue. The most advocated irrigant,inexpensive and readily available.
  • 9. Sodium hypochlorite (NaOcl) Anti microbial properties Tissue solvent. ( dissolve vital and non vital tissue) Flush debris. Lubricant.  Eliminate the smear layer.  Low toxicity level.
  • 10. Mechanism of action  Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) ionizes in water into Na and the hypochlorite ion, OCl, establishing an equilibrium with hypochlorous acid (HOCl).  Hypochlorous acid is responsible for the antibacterial activity; the OCl ion is less effective than the undissolved HOCl.  Hypochloric acid disrupts several vital functions of the microbial cell, resulting in cell death.
  • 11. Mechanism of action  At acidic and neutral pH, chlorine exists predominantly as HOCl, whereas at high pH of 9 and above, OCl predominates.
  • 12. Concentration  NaOCl is commonly used in concentrations between 0.5% and 5%.  According to several studies The lower and higher concentrations are equally efficient in reducing the number of bacteria in infected root canals. The time needed to inhibit bacterial growth and tissue dissolving effect of NaOcl irrigant are related to it is concentration ,but so is it is toxicity .
  • 13.  Increasing the temperature of hypochlorite irrigant to 600C, significantly increased its antimicrobial and tissue-dissolving effects. Temperature
  • 14. Limitation :  Unpleasant taste  Relative toxicity  Inability to remove smear layer
  • 15. Sodium hypochloride accident Immediate severe pain for 2- 6 minutes. immediate edema in adjacent soft tissue because of perfusion to the loose connective tissue. Extension of edema to a large site of the face such as cheeks, peri- orbital region, or lips. Ecchymosis on skin or mucosa as a result of profuse interstitial bleeding.
  • 16. Sodium hypochloride accident Management inform the patient about the cause and nature of the complication. Immediately irrigate with normal saline to decrease the soft-tissue irritation by diluting the NaOCl. Let the bleeding response continue as it helps to flush the irritant out of the tissues.
  • 17. Sodium hypochloride accident Recommend ice bag compresses for 24 hours (15-minute intervals)to minimize swelling. Recommend warm, moist compresses after 24 hours (15-minute intervals). pain control with strong analgesics for 3 to 7 days
  • 18. Sodium hypochloride accident Prophylactic antibiotic coverage for 7 to 10 days to prevent secondary infection or spreading of the present infection.
  • 19. Chlorhexidine (CHX)  Strong base, most stable in form of its salt …Chlorohexdin gluconate.  It possesses a broad-spectrum antimicrobial action and a relative absence of toxicity.  CHX lacks the tissue-dissolving ability.
  • 20. Anti microbial properties (broad spctrum antimicrobial agent )  Tissue solvent. Flush debris. Lubricant.  Eliminate the smear layer. Low toxicity level. Chlorhexidine (CHX)
  • 21. Mechanism of action  It penetrates the cell wall and attacks the bacterial cytoplasmic or inner membrane or the yeast plasma membrane.  In addtion chlorhexidin has property of substantivity (residual effect).
  • 22. Concentration  0.2% is concentration commonly used for chemically plaque control in oral cavity .  2% is concentration used as root canal irrigation.
  • 23. Limitation  Unable to dissolve remaining necrotic tissue.  Less effective on gram negative than on gram positive.  Unable to remove smear layer.
  • 24. Hydrogen Peroxide H2O2  It is a clear, colorless,odorless liquid.  H2O2 is active against viruses, bacteria, and yeasts.  It has been particularly popular in cleaning the pulp chamber from blood and tissue remnants, but it has also been used in canal irrigation.
  • 25. Hydrogen Peroxide H2O2 Anti microbial properties (broad spctrum antimicrobial agent )  Tissue solvent. Flush debris. Lubricant.  Eliminate the smear layer.  Low toxicity level.
  • 26. Mechanism of action  It is highly unstable and easily decomposed by heat and light.  it rapidly dissociate into H2O+O (water+nascent oxygen) . the liberated O has bacteriocidal effect but this effect is transient and diminishes in presence of organic debris .  The rapid release of O nascent oxygen on contact with organic tissue results in effervesce (bubbling) action which aid in mechanical debridement by dislodging dentin debris and necrotic tissue particles and floating them to the surface.
  • 27. Concentration  It is recommended to use in 3% conentration for endodontic irrigation.
  • 28. Advantages of using alternating 3% H2O2 with Naocl solution are : 1.Effervescent reaction (bubbles pushes debris mechanichally out of root canal) 2.Solvent action of sodium hypochrorite on organic debris. 3.Disinfection and bleaching effect by both solutions.
  • 29. Limitation  Unable to remove smear layer.  Always use Naocl last because Hydrogen peroxide release of nascent oxygen on contact with organic tissue which may build up pressure on closing tooth and causes pain . • Soft tissue emphysema may occur when hydrogen peroxide irrigant enforced beyond the apical foramen.
  • 30. MTAD  A mixture of tetracycline isomer, acid, and detergent. (doxycycline, citric acid, and the detergent Tween-80)
  • 31. Anti microbial properties (broad spctrum antimicrobial agent )  Tissue solvent. Flush debris. Lubricant.  Eliminate the smear layer. Low toxicity level.
  • 32. Advantges 1) it is an effective solution for removal of most of smear layer. 2) Antibactrial effect ( kill most significant bacterial strains i.e. E faecalis which has been shown to resist to many intracanal medicament and irrigants.). 3) It is biocompatible . 4) The high binding affinity of doxycycline present in MTAD for dentin allows prolonged antibacterial effect. (substantivity)
  • 33. Chelating Agents  EDTA (ethylene-diaminetetra-aceticacid) The basic purpose of chelating agent is lubrication ,emulsification and holding debris in suspension .
  • 34. Mechanism of action • EDTA functions by forming calcium chelate solution with calcium ions of dentin which make it more friable and thus dentin become easily to manipulate by instrumentation.
  • 35. EDTA  17% EDTA ( pH 7 )  EDTA has no antibacterial activity.  It effectively removes smear layer by chelating the inorganic component of the dentine.  Aid in mechanical canal shaping.
  • 36. The optimal working time of EDTA is 15 minutes, after which time no more chelating action can be expected.
  • 37. Smear Layer The smear layer is a layer of debris ,compromising both organic and inorganic components, found on canal walls after endodontic instrumentation, it is typically 1-2 um in thick . It is made up largely of particularly dentin debris removed by endodontic instrument during canal preparation but may also contains remnants of pulp tissue and microorganisms.
  • 38. Smear Layer Presence of smear layer on the canal walls potentially interfere with the adaptation of sealer against canal wall and may create avenue of leakage of microorganisms by act as substrate for microbial proliferation .
  • 39. Smear layer removal Can be accomplished by one of the following ways : 1) Use of chelating agents (17% EDTA) during the cleaning and shaping . Upon complete the root canal shaping soak the canal for 1 minute with liquid EDTA , then rinse the canal thoroughly with NaOcl . 2) After irrigation with NaOcl Soak the canal for a 5 minutes with MTAD as final irrigant. Dry canal with paper points, so the it is now ready for obturation .
  • 40. Irrigation technique and devices
  • 41. ① Plastic syringe with needles • Plastic syringes of different sizes (1–20 mL) are most commonly used for irrigation . • All syringes for endodontic irrigation must have a Luer-Lock design.
  • 42. Types of endodntic needles 1) Beveled needle: Needle with bevel if get lodged into canal there is a risk of forcing irrigant beyond the apex.
  • 43. Types of endodntic needles : 2) Monoject irrigating needle: Monoject endodontic needles to be the most efficient delivery system in which longer needles of a blunted, open-end system were inserted to the full length of the canal to ensure optimum cleaning. A larger volume of solution can be delivered by this method.
  • 44. 3) Max-i-Probe irrigating needle :  It has closed-end and side window.  This design allow for upward flushing action for better canal irrigation and also eliminates possibilities of irrigant to be pushed beyond the apical foramen.
  • 45. Irrigation method: It is strongly recommended that the needle lie passively in the canal and not engage the walls. A 27- or 30-gauge needle is preferred  The solution must be introduced slowly. The irrigating needle should be bent to allow easier delivery of the solution and to prevent deep penetration of the needle. Care must be taken with irrigants like sodium hypochlorite to prevent accidents.
  • 46. ② Gutta-percha Points agitation • use of apically fitting gutta-percha cone in an up-and-down motion at the working length. Although this facilitates the exchange of the apical solution, but the overall volume of fresh solution in the apical canal is likely to remain small.
  • 47. ③ EndoActivator • It is based on sonic vibration (up to 10,000 rpm) of a plastic tip in the root canal. The system has 3 different sizes of tips that are easily attached to the battery operated handpiece that creates the sonic vibrations.
  • 48. ③ EndoActivator • it allow more irrigant penetration and mechanical cleansing compared with needle irrigation, with no increase in the risk of irrigant extrusion through the apex.
  • 49. ④ Ultrasound • Ultrasound is sound energy with frequency above 25 KHZ. • Passive ultrasonic irrigation have shown to clean root canals or eliminate bacteria from the walls better than conventional methods.
  • 50. Mechanism of action • When a small file (size 10-20) is placed freely in the center of the canal following preparation and ultrsonic activation is given . The ulrtasonic energy passage through irrigating solution and exerts its (acoustic streaming effect ).
  • 51. Mechanism of action • This mechanichal energy warms the irrigant solution (NaOcl) and dislodge debris from canals. • The combination of activation and heating the irrigation solution is adjunct in cleaning the root canal system .
  • 52. ⑤ EndoVac • The EndoVac system is based on a negative-pressure approach whereby the irrigant placed in the pulp chamber is sucked down the root canal and back up again through a thin needle with a special design.
  • 53. Advantges : 1) the EndoVac system lowers the risks associated with irrigation close to the apical foramen . 2) good apical cleaning at the 1-mm level can be achieved by reversed flow of irrigants and a strong antibacterial effect when hypochlorite is used.
  • 54. Thank you Photo for Sabratha ancient city - Libya