• Who are the customers?
• How should we assess if the product is viable?
• Can we completely define the problem in terms that will
be useful to the technical design process?
• What are the new/novel features that we hope to exploit
to make our design better than the existing
competition and to build in flexibility to cater for future
• What is the best way to tackle the problem and how will
this be managed?
The Customer (Stakeholders)
● Sales Team
● How is the aircraft going to be judged?
A. W. Bishop of British Aerospace observed:
The message is clear – if everyone can agree beforehand on how to measure the effectiveness of the
design, then the designer has a much simpler task. But even if everyone does not agree, the designer
should still quantify his own ideas to give himself a sensible guide.
● Investors ==> Return on investment
● Civil aviation ==> Direct operating cost
● Military ==> Life cycle cost
Understanding the problem
● Has the problem been considered as
broadly as possible?
● Have you identified all the ‘real’ constraints
to the solution of the problem?
● Are all the constraints reasonable?
● Have you thoroughly examined all the non-
technical constraints to determine their
● What are the new technologies and other
innovations that will be incorporated into
● How will such features provide an
advantage over existing/competing
● How can the risk to the project be
● Initial Question:
● What is the problem to be addressed?
● What information is available?
● What data on previous and competitor aircraft designs
can be found?
● Do we need to take into account any specific issues?
● Can you write a complete aircraft operational
● What aircraft concepts might be considered?
● Which configuration?
● Initial sizing
● Aerodynamic and performance estimates
● Check validity
● Generate initial technical drawings
● Refine initial estimates and conduct parametric study
● Produce final drawings and perform SWOT analysis
● Finalize report and presentation
● There are many advantages to the team approach to
● Teaming brings together the strengths of a diverse group
● Team consensus usually results in a better product.
● Everyone on the team has a backup person to check his
● Sharing the task makes the job easier and more fun.
● Teaming allows each member to use his or her talents in
a more focused way.
● Teaming also has disadvantages:
● The success of the team may be limited by its weakest
● Some members may tend to procrastinate, delaying the
work of the entire team.
● Teaming makes it easier to blame problems on the least
liked or least productive member of the team.
● Personalities can get in the way of progress.
● The most energetic team members usually do more than
their fair share of the work.
● Read Chapter 11 of the textbook!
● Prepare a summary of the chapter in the form of a report
and a presentation on it and the following
● Prepare a task breakdown and Gantt chart for the project
● Prepare a document presenting how your meeting will be
managed (a template for agenda and minutes should be
● Assign Roles including titles and responsibilities of each