• 4 freedoms.
• GNU GPL (General Public License) license.
• open source vs. closed source.
• open source Examples
open source is an approach to design,
development, and distribution offering practical
accessibility to a product's source (goods and
The freedom to run the program, for any purpose
The freedom to study how the program works, and adapt
it to your needs (freedom 1). Access to the source code is a
precondition for this.
The freedom to redistribute copies so you can help your
neighbor (freedom 2).
The freedom to improve the program, and release your
improvements (and modified versions in general) to the
public, so that the whole community benefits (freedom 3).
Access to the source code is a precondition for this.
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It has 3 versions and it simply means that if you distribute
copies of such a program, whether for free or for a fee, you
Passon to the recipients the same freedoms that you received.
Make sure that they, too, receive or can get the source code.
Show them these terms so they know their rights.
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Created normally for use Created to satisfy a need in
by those who want to use it. the market.
The source code to open Source code for making the
software is available by all to software is kept a secret.
No guarantee of good Good documentation , legal
documentation or support. right against the company ,
getting help and support are
valid when you PAY .
Software packages have Has lower security than Open
had a better security. source.
SourceForge.net is a source code repository. It
acts as a centralized location for software
developers to control and manage open
source software development free of charge.
SourceForge.net is operated by SourceForge,
• VA Linux Systems, and VA Research, SourceForge Inc,
is the provider of the SourceForge Development
• The company is headquartered in Mountain View,
• Founded in 1993 as VA Research graduate student
Larry Augustin & James Vera.
• They were one of the first computer vendors to offer
Linux as a pre-installed operating system.
They put seven persons in a room, and they
said, quot;All right, write us SourceForge – we’ll
provide you with Mountain Dew and pizzaquot;.
The developers crafted code for several
weeks, not sure how big or small the finished
project would need be
When the site opened in November
1999, growth was respectable. At the
time, the term “open source” was known only
by those with a deep technical background.
Though the site offered various free
tools, only a small crowd of projects registered
by the end of the year.
• Home to a sprawling universe of open source developers.
• It’s an intense hive of software creators.
• It contains about 180,000 project and 2 million user, covering every
conceivable computing function.
• Just as important, SourceForge is the place to see and be seen
• Its developers chatting with developers, sharing their stuff,
watching each other build
• Its a global community of coder, just joining to give birth to that
next line of Java or PHP or Perl.
• Developers are there primarily for the joy and pleasure of coding.
• They want to make themselves more marketable; developing a high
profile project boosts your job offers.
• Contains the following features:
– code hosting
– Bug tracking
– web hosting
– Mailing List
• And in VCS (Version Controlling System) contains:
• It is the management of changes to documents,
programs, and other information stored as computer
files. It is most commonly used in software
development, where a team of people may be
changing the same files.
• Changes are usually identified by a number or letter
code, termed the quot;revision numberquot;. For example, an
initial set of files is quot;revision 1quot;. When the first change
is made, the resulting set is quot;revision 2quot;, and so on.
Each revision is associated with a timestamp and the
person making the change. Revisions can be compared,
restored, and with some types of files, merged.
The codebase for a project is typically stored in a
source control repository. A source code
repository is a place where large amounts of
source code are kept, either publicly or privately.
CVS (Concurrent Versions System) is a free software revision
control system. Version control system software keeps track
of all work and all changes in a set of files, and allows several
developers (potentially widely separated in space and/or
time) to collaborate. Dick Grune developed CVS in the 1980s.
CVS has become popular in the open source software world
and is released under the GNU General Public License.
Dick created CVS to be able to cooperate with his
students Erik Baalbergen and Maarten Waage on the
ACK (Amsterdam Compiler Kit) C compiler. The three
of them had vastly different schedules (one student
was a steady 9-5 worker, the other was irregular, and
he could work on the project only in the evenings).
Their project ran from July 1984 to August 1985. CVS
was initially called cmt, for the obvious reason that it
allowed us to commit versions independently.
• It is the main tool used to upload your
projects (Source Code) on the sourceforge.net
• You can use it in your programming projects
(Mail Server :D) within your team
• Used as a backup for your projects and
assignments to give you the ability to access
them from any where.
Tigris.org is an open source software
development community. It hosts software
development services such as web hosting,
mailing lists, issue tracking, and Subversion
revision control. It is hosted by CollabNet.
Subversion itself is hosted on Tigris. Tigris
competes with the more well-known
SourceForge, although it is primarily focused
on projects for collaborative software
• RubyForge is a collaborative software
development management system dedicated
to projects related Ruby programming
language. It was started in 2003 by Ruby
Central in an effort to help Ruby community
by providing a home for open source Ruby
• As of February 2009, it hosts more than 7,000
projects and has over 34,000 registered users.
JavaForge.com is a non profit and free open source
software development community with a hosting
portal for open source Java projects. It hosts
software development services such as Project
related Web hosting, Document
Management, Wiki, Forum, Online chat, Issue
tracking integrated with Subversion revision
control. It was launched by JavaLobby in
September 2005 as the first Java based and
Subversion supported free collaboration platform
for the open source world.
• What is Apache Foundation?
• What is the meaning of Apache?
• Apache license.
• What is Apache project?
• Apache Projects.
• What is HTTP request and response?
• Apache Tomcat.
• The Apache Software Foundation (ASF) is a non-profit
corporation to support Apache software projects, including
the Apache HTTP Server. The ASF was formed from the
Apache Group and incorporated in Delaware, USA, in June
• The Apache Software Foundation is a decentralized
community of developers. The software they produce is
distributed under the terms of the Apache License and is
therefore free software / open source software. The
Apache projects are characterized by a
collaborative, consensus-based development process and
an open and pragmatic software license. Each project is
managed by a self-selected team of technical experts who
are active contributors to the project.
Apache is a tribute to the Native American Indian tribe, a
tribe well known for its endurance and skill in warfare. ,
the original FAQ on the Apache Server project's website,
from 1996 to 2001, that quot;The result after combining was
a patchy. And till now, we don‘t know which explanation
is the most correct. So, both explanations are
• The history of Apache starts with Robert McCool, was
involved with the National Center for Supercomputing
Applications server, known simply as NCSA HTTPd.
McCool left NCSA in mid-1994, the development of httpd
stalled, leaving variety of patches improvements
circulating e-mails. Behlendorf collecting patches to be
applied to the last version of NCSA. The initial of Apache
are available primarily as a series of patches. Hence,
initially, name Apache, as it was quot;a patchy serverquot;. At
least, so the legend goes. The Apache , consisting of 8
individuals, traded patches on a mailing list set up for
• This is a free software license but it is incompatible
with the GPL because it has a specific requirement
that is not in the GPL; it has certain patent
termination cases that the GPL does not require. We
don't think those patent termination cases are
inherently a bad idea, but nonetheless they are
incompatible with the GNU GPL.
• However, version 3 of the GPL includes a provision
which allows it to be compatible with licenses that
have patent retaliation clauses, including the Apache
• Apache is the name of the software that
allows you to run a web service on a UNIX .
Apache is very popular and provides access
to most web sites on the INTERNET recent
Netcraft of Web around the world placed
Apache Powered sites at over 50 percent of
the . Part of the reason for this may be that it
is freely available, reliable and to set up and
configure, and it can provide most of the
requirements for web site.
• Tomcat As a Servlet Container.
• Servlet Container.
• A Java Technology uses to create a Dynamic Servers Pages:
– That's mean the server be dynamic such that it support requests
from the user and responses it.
– Ex. on dynamic servers: YAHOO email Registration the browser
send your data to the server & it checked in its data base then
send it to the browser
• JSP compiler: is a program that parses Java Server Pages
(JSPs), and transforms them into executable Java Servlets.
– A program of this type is usually embedded into an application
server and run automatically the first time a JSP is accessed, but
pages may also be pre-compiled for better performance, or
compiled as a part of the build process to test for errors.
• Servlets are Java programming language
objects that dynamically process requests and
construct responses. The Java Servlet API
allows a software developer to add dynamic
content to a Web server using the Java
platform. The generated content is commonly
• A Servlet container is a specialized web server
that supports Servlet execution. It combines
the basic functionality of a web server with
certain Java/Servlet specific optimizations and
extensions – such as an integrated Java
• Tomcat is a Servlet Container developed by
the Apache Software Foundation (ASF).
Tomcat implements the Java Servlet and the
Java Server Pages (JSP) specifications from Sun
Microsystems, and provides a quot;pure Javaquot;
HTTP web server environment for Java code to