“ Waste” as defined by Toyota’s president, Fujio Cho, is “anything other than the minimum amount of equipment, materials, parts, and workers (working time) which are absolutely essential to production”
“ Reduction of Waste”
Reducing Waste in all aspects of your operations is key to maintaining the edge needed to compete in the global economy. The Toyota Production System teaches that waste, “muda” is one of the evils that should be avoided.
To eliminate product defects, they must be discovered and corrected as soon as possible. If a defect cannot be readily fixed, any worker can halt the entire line by pulling a cord (called Jidoka).
Toyota operators are assigned primary responsibility for basic maintenance since they are in the best position to detect signs of malfunctions.
To reduce inventory holding costs and lead times, Toyota developed the pull production method wherein the quantity of work performed at each stage of the process is dictated solely by demand for materials from the immediate next stage.
Toyota treats its suppliers as partners, as integral elements of Toyota Production System (TPS).
Jidoka , in the production context means not allowing defective parts to go from one work station to the next. It specifically refers to machines or the production line itself being able to stop automatically in abnormal conditions (for example, when a machine breaks down or when defective parts are produced). This Automation allows machines to run autonomously, as they will stop when a problem occurs.
Jidoka is also used when individual people encounter a problem at their work station. They are responsible for correcting the problem - if they cannot, they should stop the line rather than let the defective part do.
Jidoka prevents the production of defective products, eliminates overproduction and focuses attention on understanding the problem and ensuring that it never recurs. It is a quality control process that applies the following four principles:
1. Detect the abnormality.
3. Fix or correct the immediate condition.
4. Investigate the root cause and install a countermeasure.
The purpose of automation is that it makes possible the rapid or immediate address, identification and correction of mistakes that occur in a process. Automation relieves the worker of the need to continuously judge whether the operation of the machine is normal; their efforts are now only engaged when there is a problem alerted by the machine.
For instance rather than waiting until the end of a production line to inspect a finished product, automation may be employed at early steps in the process to reduce the amount of work that is added to a defective product.
A worker who is self-inspecting their own work, or source-inspecting the work produced immediately before their work station is encouraged to stop the line when a defect is found.
Once the line is stopped a supervisor or person designated to help correct problems gives immediate attention to the problem the worker or machine has discovered. To complete Jidoka , not only is the defect corrected in the product where discovered, but the process is evaluated and changed to remove the possibility of making the same mistake again.
A tool of visual management, originating from the Japanese for "Lamp". Lights placed on machines or on production lines to indicate operation status. Commonly color-coded are: - Green : normal operations - Yellow : changeover or planned maintenance - Red : abnormal, machine down Often combined an audible signal such as music or an alarm
When a problem arises and is communicated via the "andon - problem display board (A type of visual control that displays the current state of work i.e., abnormal conditions, work instructions, and job progress information. It is one of the main tools of Jidoka) operators can confidently continue performing work at another machine, as well as easily identify the problem cause and prevent its recurrence.
The American Production and Inventory Control Society (APICS) has the
following definition of JIT:
“ A philosophy of manufacturing based on planned elimination of all waste and continuous improvement of productivity. It encompasses the successful execution of all manufacturing activities required to produce a final product, from design engineering to delivery and including all stages of conversion from raw material onward. The primary elements include having only the required inventory when needed; to improve quality to zero defects; to reduce lead time by reducing setup times, queue lengths and lot sizes; to incrementally revise the operations themselves; and to accomplish these things at minimum cost."