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This is an Australian Aborigine “Dreamtime”
story. “Dreamtime” refers to a particular time
period…can you guess WHAT time ...
This story is about Gulaga, which is our mother mountain, our
sacred mountain. It's about her two sons Najanuga and
Barran...
Hunter-Gatherers: A Case Study
The Australian Aborigines
• Definitions
– Indigenous: native to a particular place
– “The A...
1. Dreamtime Ancestors
As you read the next
“Dreamtime” story,
consider these
questions:
1. What is the
“Dreamtime”?
2. Wh...
Dreamtime Story: Eaglehawk and
Crow (1/4)
Long, long time ago Eaglehawk, it was his turn to go hunting.
So Eaglehawk had a...
Dreamtime Story: Eaglehawk and
Crow (2/4)
So anyway, Eaglehawk just handed the baby to Crow and said,
"Okay, when we come ...
Dreamtime Story: Eaglehawk and
Crow (3/4)
So after, when Eaglehawk came back late in the afternoon,
Crow ran back into the...
Dreamtime Story: Eaglehawk and
Crow (4/4)
So Eaglehawk he started yelling, "My baby, Crow killed my baby", so all
his othe...
Why tell the Dreamtime stories?
My name is Beryl Carmichael and my traditional name is
Yungha-dhu.
I belong to the Ngiyaam...
Why tell the Dreamtime stories?
The stories that we are passing and talking on today, we are
hoping that, some way, it wil...
2. Tools
• Why is it necessary that Aboriginal tools be
multi-use?
a. Woomera and spear – what are they?
How are they used?
b. Boomerang
• Why is it useful in Aborigine culture?
• How is it used?
c. “Dilly Bag”
• What is it? How is it
used?
d. Shield
• How many different uses can YOU think
of for a spear?
Aborigine lecture 1
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Aborigine lecture 1

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  • The Dreaming tells of the journey and the actions of Ancestral Beings who created the natural world. The Dreaming is infinite and links the past with the present to determine the future. It is the natural world, especially the land or county to which a person belongs, which provides the link between the people and The Dreaming. Dreaming stories carry the truth from the past, together with the code for the Law, which operates in the present. Each story belongs to a long complex story. Some Dreaming stories discuss consequences and our future being. ================================ Storytelling is an integral part of life for Indigenous Australians. From an early age, storytelling plays a vital role in educating children. The stories help to explain how the land came to be shaped and inhabited; how to behave and why; where to find certain foods, etc. Gathered around the camp fire in the evening, on an expedition to a favourite waterhole, or at a landmark of special significance, parents, Elders or Aunts and Uncles use the stories as the first part of a child's education. Then, as children grow into young adults, more of the history and culture is revealed. Adults then take responsibility for passing on the stories to the following generations. In this way, the Stories of the Dreaming have been handed down over thousands of years. These are stories of the history and culture of the people, handed down in this way since the beginning of time, since the Dreamtime. ============================================ Custodianship Because the "Stories of the Dreaming" have been handed down through the generations, they are not 'owned' by individuals. They belong to a group or nation, and the storytellers of that nation are carrying out an obligation to pass the stories along. The Elders of a nation might appoint a particularly skilful and knowledgeable storyteller as 'custodian' of the stories of that people. With the discouragement and 'unofficial' banning of the telling of traditional stories, which continued well into the twentieth century, many stories were 'lost'. The custodians passed away without being able to hand the stories on. This was particularly so in the south-east region of Australia. Today's custodians are keen to spread the stories as widely as possible. It is part of the overall effort to ensure that young people build and retain a sense of who they are. Storytelling, while explaining the past, helps young Indigenous Australians maintain dignity and self-respect in the present. Present-day custodians of stories play a vital role in Indigenous communities.
  • The expression 'Dreamtime' is most often used to refer to the 'time before time', or 'the time of the creation of all things', while 'Dreaming' is often used to refer to an individual's or group's set of beliefs or spirituality. For instance, an Indigenous Australian might say that they have Kangaroo Dreaming, or Shark Dreaming, or Honey Ant Dreaming, or any combination of Dreamings pertinent to their 'country'. However, many Indigenous Australians also refer to the creation time as 'The Dreaming'. What is certain is that 'Ancestor Spirits' came to Earth in human and other forms and the land, the plants and animals were given their form as we know them today. These Spirits also established relationships between groups and individuals, (whether people or animals) and where they traveled across the land, or came to a halt, they created rivers, hills, etc., and there are often stories attached to these places. Once their work was done, the Ancestor Spirits changed again; into animals or stars or hills or other objects. For Indigenous Australians, the past is still alive and vital today and will remain so into the future. The Ancestor Spirits and their powers have not gone, they are present in the forms into which they changed at the end of the 'Dreamtime' or 'Dreaming', as the stories tell. The stories have been handed down through the ages and are an integral part of an Indigenous person's 'Dreaming'.
  • The expression 'Dreamtime' is most often used to refer to the 'time before time', or 'the time of the creation of all things', while 'Dreaming' is often used to refer to an individual's or group's set of beliefs or spirituality. For instance, an Indigenous Australian might say that they have Kangaroo Dreaming, or Shark Dreaming, or Honey Ant Dreaming, or any combination of Dreamings pertinent to their 'country'. However, many Indigenous Australians also refer to the creation time as 'The Dreaming'. What is certain is that 'Ancestor Spirits' came to Earth in human and other forms and the land, the plants and animals were given their form as we know them today. These Spirits also established relationships between groups and individuals, (whether people or animals) and where they traveled across the land, or came to a halt, they created rivers, hills, etc., and there are often stories attached to these places. Once their work was done, the Ancestor Spirits changed again; into animals or stars or hills or other objects. For Indigenous Australians, the past is still alive and vital today and will remain so into the future. The Ancestor Spirits and their powers have not gone, they are present in the forms into which they changed at the end of the 'Dreamtime' or 'Dreaming', as the stories tell. The stories have been handed down through the ages and are an integral part of an Indigenous person's 'Dreaming'.
  • The expression 'Dreamtime' is most often used to refer to the 'time before time', or 'the time of the creation of all things', while 'Dreaming' is often used to refer to an individual's or group's set of beliefs or spirituality. For instance, an Indigenous Australian might say that they have Kangaroo Dreaming, or Shark Dreaming, or Honey Ant Dreaming, or any combination of Dreamings pertinent to their 'country'. However, many Indigenous Australians also refer to the creation time as 'The Dreaming'. What is certain is that 'Ancestor Spirits' came to Earth in human and other forms and the land, the plants and animals were given their form as we know them today. These Spirits also established relationships between groups and individuals, (whether people or animals) and where they traveled across the land, or came to a halt, they created rivers, hills, etc., and there are often stories attached to these places. Once their work was done, the Ancestor Spirits changed again; into animals or stars or hills or other objects. For Indigenous Australians, the past is still alive and vital today and will remain so into the future. The Ancestor Spirits and their powers have not gone, they are present in the forms into which they changed at the end of the 'Dreamtime' or 'Dreaming', as the stories tell. The stories have been handed down through the ages and are an integral part of an Indigenous person's 'Dreaming'.
  • The expression 'Dreamtime' is most often used to refer to the 'time before time', or 'the time of the creation of all things', while 'Dreaming' is often used to refer to an individual's or group's set of beliefs or spirituality. For instance, an Indigenous Australian might say that they have Kangaroo Dreaming, or Shark Dreaming, or Honey Ant Dreaming, or any combination of Dreamings pertinent to their 'country'. However, many Indigenous Australians also refer to the creation time as 'The Dreaming'. What is certain is that 'Ancestor Spirits' came to Earth in human and other forms and the land, the plants and animals were given their form as we know them today. These Spirits also established relationships between groups and individuals, (whether people or animals) and where they traveled across the land, or came to a halt, they created rivers, hills, etc., and there are often stories attached to these places. Once their work was done, the Ancestor Spirits changed again; into animals or stars or hills or other objects. For Indigenous Australians, the past is still alive and vital today and will remain so into the future. The Ancestor Spirits and their powers have not gone, they are present in the forms into which they changed at the end of the 'Dreamtime' or 'Dreaming', as the stories tell. The stories have been handed down through the ages and are an integral part of an Indigenous person's 'Dreaming'.
  • Characteristic of hunter-gatherer societies: can’t have a lot of possessions (need to carry everything)
  • Hunters all over the world have used spears but the 'woomera', a type of spear thrower, is a unique Aboriginal invention. A woomera is a simple lever that acts to increase the speed at which a spear is thrown, and thus increase the distance it travels. Made of wood, a woomera acts as an extension of the thrower's arm.
  • Aboriginal technology takes some effort out of hunting. What's the problem? Thousands of years before Australian Federation, the indigenous people of this land were collecting food and hunting to survive. Aboriginal Australians have invented a number of labour-saving technologies that make hunting easier. These devices make sure the energy gained from eating food is greater than the energy used in hunting for it. There are also two types of boomerang, returning and non-returning. T he returning boomerang is used for catching birds. The aborigines would drape nets between a clump of trees and when a flock of birds flew overhead the natives would throw their boomerangs over the top of the birds. The boomerangs were thrown in such a way that they would hover over the birds, as a hawk would, and the birds would panic and swoop down into the nets. Hey presto, dinner! The aborigines also use this type of boomerang in the sport of throwing. T he non-returning boomerang was used in hunting but was mainly used in warfare as it could be thrown further and struck its target with greater force.
  • MULTI-USE: Gathering food (honey, berries), can be made watertight with wax, holding bones in religious ceremonies, brought on hunts (carry food, water) Woven and dyed dilly bags are commonly used for hunting and the containment of personal possessions, whereas painted bags are more commonly the domain of ceremony. These bags, however, have a break in the painted bands towards the back end of the bag, (as often woven ridges of more sculpted bags are also broken at the back) to allow a smooth surface which is the area in contact with the wearer’s body. The close weave is indicative of honey-collecting bags made for hunting sugar bag or wild/bush honey. In addition to a tight weave, the embedding of wax into the base ensures a 'fluid-tight' vessel.
  • MULTI-USE: defense/offense in battle Defense/offense in hunting Dragging heavy items (no wheeled carts!) – example: dragging carcass of animal just killed
  • Transcript of "Aborigine lecture 1"

    1. 1. This is an Australian Aborigine “Dreamtime” story. “Dreamtime” refers to a particular time period…can you guess WHAT time period? Do Now: READ the story and ANSWER both these questions: 1. What is the “Dreamtime”? [make an educated guess – do your best!] 2. How is this an example of a creation story? Be specific!
    2. 2. This story is about Gulaga, which is our mother mountain, our sacred mountain. It's about her two sons Najanuga and Barranguba. Barranguba is Montague Island, that's what the white people call it. Barranguba is the older son of Gulaga. Gulaga had two sons- Barranguba and Najanuga and Barranguba was the oldest. Just like the older son or older brother who gets sick of living near their mother, he moves away. So Barranguba asked his Mum could he move away from her side for a bit and he went out into the sea to watch the actions of all the fishes and whales. The little brother, he saw the big brother going out and he said to Gulaga 'Mum, mum, can I go out too? I'm big. I'm grown up, can I go out and watch the fish and the whales?' She said, 'No, son. You are too little. If I let you go out there, you'd get swallowed up by Gadu, the sea. I'll put you down near my foot, so I can watch you and you can watch your brother out in the ocean.' She put him down where he is now and that's where he stayed, to watch the actions of his brother while under the eye of his mother. We call that little mountain `mummy's little boy', because he's always with his mum.
    3. 3. Hunter-Gatherers: A Case Study The Australian Aborigines • Definitions – Indigenous: native to a particular place – “The Aborigines are indigenous to Australia, having lived there for more than 50,000 years.”
    4. 4. 1. Dreamtime Ancestors As you read the next “Dreamtime” story, consider these questions: 1. What is the “Dreamtime”? 2. Why is Dreamtime storytelling so important to the Aborigines?
    5. 5. Dreamtime Story: Eaglehawk and Crow (1/4) Long, long time ago Eaglehawk, it was his turn to go hunting. So Eaglehawk had a little baby, and he asked Crow, he went over to his neighbour Crow and asked Crow if he'd look after his baby while he went hunting, because food was getting much scarcer now and they had to go much further and further away from the camp. So Eaglehawk, he went to Crow and asked him. Crow didn't want to look after the baby, he said "No, no I don't want to look after the baby, he's crying too much, he'll cry all the time and disturb the camp". But Eaglehawk said, "No, he'll be right, Crow". He said, "You take him away and you sit down there and talk to him, or sing to him and he'll quieten down". Crow was still reluctant to take the baby, he said, "No, I don't want to look after the kid".
    6. 6. Dreamtime Story: Eaglehawk and Crow (2/4) So anyway, Eaglehawk just handed the baby to Crow and said, "Okay, when we come back, whatever meat we get we'll bring it back and we'll share it with you". Crow had to be satisfied with that and Eaglehawk just went off with his young men and of course they had to go a long, long way from the camp. But Crow, after he got the baby, he took it into his gunyah, his hut, and he sat down there with the baby and he was singing to it and talking to it, but the baby wouldn't stop crying. Just kept on crying and crying and crying. So Crow was getting really annoyed, no way he could stop the baby. So Crow went out and he got his boondie-his hitting stick-and banged the little fella with the hitting stick and killed him. Then he got the baby and he put it up the back of his camp, right in the back of the gunyah. He put all the leaves around it, and a bit of bark and a kangaroo skin. He had a kangaroo skin, a cloak, so he put that over the baby. And anyway, everything was quiet then so Crow went away from his camp and started doing what he wanted to do then.
    7. 7. Dreamtime Story: Eaglehawk and Crow (3/4) So after, when Eaglehawk came back late in the afternoon, Crow ran back into the camp and he was sitting at the doorway and he was making out he was singing to the baby. Crow's sitting there and Eaglehawk came up to him and said "I've come to pick my baby up now Crow. He's very quiet, you must have sung him to sleep. And Crow said, "Yeah, he's right in the back of the gunyah there, he's right in the back of the camp. He's sound asleep. Don't wake him, leave him there. Eaglehawk said, "No, I'll take him home now and look after him". So when Eaglehawk walked into the camp, the gunyah, to get his baby, he noticed that everything was really still and too still around him. So once Eaglehawk walked into the back of the camp and picked the baby up, Crow took off and he ran out and hid in the mallee, the thick scrub.
    8. 8. Dreamtime Story: Eaglehawk and Crow (4/4) So Eaglehawk he started yelling, "My baby, Crow killed my baby", so all his other hunters came up to him with their spears and he said, "Go after him. Chase him into the thick mallee and get him. We'll kill him". So they ran after Crow, but he got right into the centre of the mallee and they couldn't find him. So Eaglehawk said, "We'll set a light to the mallee and we'll burn him out. He's got to be punished for what he did to my baby." So they set a light to the mallee, and they went right back, away from the fire and they're sitting right out there, waiting for all the smoke to go away. And then they saw this bird flying out of the smoke, at the end of the smoke this black bird came out. And Eaglehawk said, "That's him. That's Crow. He's been punished now, his spirit turned into a black bird." And today, Eaglehawk and Crow still carry on the fight after that. They're birds today and they still carry on the fight. Crow will still go up to Eaglehawk's nest and try to pick at his babies, the eyes of his babies. And in the air when Eaglehawk's circling for food, Crow will go after him again and try to pick at him. So they still carry on the fight after what happened when they were people years ago.
    9. 9. Why tell the Dreamtime stories? My name is Beryl Carmichael and my traditional name is Yungha-dhu. I belong to the Ngiyaampaa people, come from the Ngiyaampaa nation and the area we're in now belongs to Eaglehawk and Crow. I'm a storyteller as well and all the stories have been handed down to me by my people. I am now custodian of about twenty-eight stories. The stories are a wonderful and a valuable tool, an education tool in teaching our children. The 'Dreamtime' stories as they are referred to today, we didn't know that there was such names for them. Because when the old people would tell the stories, they'd just refer to them as 'marrathal warkan' which means long, long time ago, when time first began for our people, as people on this land after creation. We have various sites around in our country, we call them the birthing places of all our stories. And of course, the stories are embedded with the lore that governs this whole land. The air, the land, the environment, the universe, the stars.
    10. 10. Why tell the Dreamtime stories? The stories that we are passing and talking on today, we are hoping that, some way, it will help our people-and our children, our young people in particular-to get a better understanding about the lore that governs our lives today. No matter what we do, there is always guidance there for us and the guidance comes through in the stories. And the direction that we are giving to our young people on how we expect them to grow up. How to listen to the old people, but also, never to be disobedient. We must never be disobedient; we must always obey the instructions of our old people and people in authority; always do the right thing; never be greedy; never be a thief and so on. So all these little things are embedded in the stories to our children. That's why the stories are so powerful as an education tool when we're teaching our young kids. We must always refer back to the stories because they're the ones that's going to give them the guidance that they need today.
    11. 11. 2. Tools • Why is it necessary that Aboriginal tools be multi-use?
    12. 12. a. Woomera and spear – what are they? How are they used?
    13. 13. b. Boomerang • Why is it useful in Aborigine culture? • How is it used?
    14. 14. c. “Dilly Bag” • What is it? How is it used?
    15. 15. d. Shield • How many different uses can YOU think of for a spear?
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