Yield losses dou to wheat rusts and powdery

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Yield losses dou to wheat rusts and powdery

  1. 1. Wheat yield losses due to rusts and powdery mildew presented By Dr. M. Abdelkader
  2. 2. Rust diseases of wheat and powdery mildew causes significant yield -. lossesThe damage caused depends upon the severity and time of infection - . resulting into yield reductionEstimates yield losses of cereals caused by rusts since 1918 are - maintained by the United States Department of Agriculture Research Service Cereal Disease Laboratory in St. Paul,. MinnesotaWheat stripe rust in the CWANA countries causing severe yield losses - . more than 70% in 2010leaf rust can cause grain yield losses higher than 50% in severe - . epidemics.In Australia stem rust cause losses up to 37% in 1992-In 1995 wheat stripe rust caused yield losses ranged from 14 to 26% in-. delta region in Egypt, while the national loss was about 10%Wheat rusts under the Egyptian condition was the main cause to - discarded some varieties such as Giza 139,144,150 sakha. 8, 69, Gemmiza-1 and 5
  3. 3. Disease infection leads to Missingmplete damage to the economic - plants (damping –off, part ( loose smut wilt( al damage to the economic part - No (covered smut yield age to the other parts (down - mildew, powdery mildew, leaf spot and rusts
  4. 4. Yield losses estimation(Total yield ( yield per plot-.(Single plant (gm-.(Kernel weight (gm- 1000-Test weight- Yd Loss % =1- ------- x100 YhWhere: Yd = yield of diseased plants(.Yh = yield of healthy plants (Calpouzos et al., 1976
  5. 5. Factors Affecting Yield Losses(.Varietal susceptibility (S-Ms-Mr-R- 1(. Time of disease appearance (which growth stage- 2Environmental conditions( temperature and- 3(.relative humidity For good experimental yield losses .Using fungicides to protect the control plots- 1.Inoculation at different dates- 2.Inoculation with different inoculum level- 3.Host predisposition- 4
  6. 6. Why we do estimate Yield loss To estimate the EconomicSignificance of the disease To determine the economic By Threshold at which the To evaluate the genetic Relating the disease control measurement is Level of resistance in infection applied A variety To yield loss
  7. 7. Relationship between stem rust severity, wheat.growth stage, and percentage of yield loss Boot Flower Milk Early Late Ripe % dough dough Yield loss - - - - trace 5 0.0 - - - trace 5 10 0.5 - - trace 5 10 25 5.0 - trace 5 10 25 40 15.0 trace 5 10 25 40 65 50.0 5 10 25 40 65 100 75.0 10 25 40 65 100 100 100.0(Roelfs (1992
  8. 8. Relationship between leaf rust severity, wheat.growth stage, and percentage of yield loss Pre- Jointing Boot to Flowerin Milk Early %tillering heading g dough Yield loss - - trace 10 25 40 1 - trace 10 25 40 40 3 trace 10 25 40 65 65 10 10 25 40 65 100 100 20 25 40 65 100 100 100 35 40 65 100 100 100 100 50 100 100 100 100 100 100 95(Chesters (1946
  9. 9. infected One pustule seeds Healthy seeds One pustule 100 grain samplesspores 10000 spores 3000
  10. 10. Yield Losses due to stem rust infection grain weight 1000 grain weight 1000 2009/2010 2010/2011 Cultivar Disease (Inf. (gm Prot. Reduction Disease (Inf. (gm Prot. Reduction severity ((gm % severity ((gm %Sakha 8 S5 27 .40 40.40 0.321 S 20 39.11 43.17 9.4Giza 160 S 20 38.19 42.47 10.07 S 20 28.07 34.58 18.82Giza 164 S5 38.46 40.83 5.8 S 10 30.38 34.33 11.50Gemmiza 3 Tr S 40.05 40.26 0.521 S5 50.35 o4.52 0.363
  11. 11. Yield Losses due to leaf rust infection grain weight 1000 grain weight 1000 2009/2010 2010/2011 Cultivar Disease (Inf. (gm Prot. Reduction Disease (Inf. (gm Prot. Reduction severity ((gm % severity ((gm %Gemmeiza-7 S 80 43.238 48.656 11.135 S 80 40.119 48.328 17.138Gemmeiza-10 S 70 40.258 45.047 10.631 S 80 37.238 45.656 18.240Gemmeiza-11 S 70 52.059 54.328 4.176 S 70 51.332 54.257 5.391Sakha-93 S 80 41.895 47.776 9.815 S 80 39.477 46.089 14.346
  12. 12. Yield Losses due to stripe rust infection grain weight 1000 grain weight 1000 2009/2010 2010/2011 Cultivar Disease (Inf. (gm Prot. Reduction Disease (Inf. (gm Prot. Reduction severity ((gm % severity ((gm %Gemmeiza-5 S 30 32.00 41.677 23.21 S 20 46.72 51.12 8.6Sakha-8 S 50 27.123 42.5 36.18 S 40 37.36 43.55 14.21Sakha-69 S 40 28.79 42.460 32.19 S 30 31.332 45.257 30.07Giza-160 S 80 25.541 42.776 39.112 S 50 32.7 42.54 23.13
  13. 13. Yield Losses due to Powdery mildew infection Cultivar grain weight 1000 2010/2011 Disease (Inf. (gm (Prot. (gm %Reduction %severity Gemmeiza-7 40 34.11 37.733 9.59 Gemmeiza-10 90 28.373 34.07 16.72 Sakha-93 50 34.09 37.77 9.73 Giza-160 60 26.893 31.2o 13.81
  14. 14. How to reduce wheat yield losses Planting Resistant Varieties.Agriculture Practes Yr 9 Ug99 New races Yr27 . Sowing Dates-1 . Sowing Density-2 .Irrigation- 3 Tolerant Varieties-1 fertilization-4 Slow Rusting Varieties-2
  15. 15. Thank You
  16. 16. Rust diseases of wheat and powdery mildew causes significant yield -. lossesThe damage caused depends upon the severity and time of infection - (. resulting into yield reduction (S. Ahmad et al., 2010Estimates of yield losses of cereals caused by rusts since 1918 are - maintained by the United States Department of Agriculture Research Service Cereal Disease Laboratory in St. Paul,(. Minnesota (Chen et al., 2004Wheat strip rust in the CWANA countries causing severe yield losses - . more than 70% in 2010leaf rust can cause grain yield losses higher than 50% in severe -(. epidemics (German et al. 2007. In Australia stem rust cause losses up to 37% in 1992-In 1995 wheat strip rust caused yield losses ranged from 14 to 26% in - delta region in Egypt, while the national loss was about 10%(. (El- Daoudi et al., 1996Wheat rusts under the Egyptian condition was the main cause to - discarded some varieties such as Giza 139,144,150 sakha. 8, 69, Gemmiza-1 and 5

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