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Final version Final version Presentation Transcript

  • Indirect objectPrepared by: Mohamed AITMADANI YOUSSEF Dr. Youssef Tamer Prof. Jennifer Evans:
  • Outline Definition Sentences with indirect object: two patterns Sentences with indirect object in discourse Problems that ESL/ EFL students have with IO Exercise Activity
  • DefinitionAn indirect object is a word or a groupof words that tells to whom or to whatsomething has been done. View slide
  • I. Sentences with IO: two patterns View slide
  • Prepositional pattern Inthis pattern the IO (the goal) comes after the DO (the theme) and it is preceded by the preposition to.
  •  An Example for illustration: DO Preposition IOI sent an email to the teacher.
  • there are kind of verbs that have IO preceded by other prepostions like: Verbs that have IO preceded by the preposition for. I call a taxi for my friend.
  • Sentences with for dative verbs can have two meanings:1. The subject performs the action indicated by the verb as a favor for the IO.2. The subject performs the action because the IO can not do it.
  • Verbs that have IO preceded by the preposition of such as ask and require. We asked a question of the child.
  • Dative movement pattern Indirect object occurs between the verb and the direct object and the preposition is omitted. I gave the book to Brahim. I gave Brahim the book.
  • Factors that restrict the possible patternSentences with IO can accept the two patterns or just one of them.There are several factors thatdetermine which pattern is the mostsuitable.
  • The first factorAnimacy of subject and indirect object
  • for both patterns to work, the subject and the indirect object should be ananimate.But if this is not the case, sentencescan generally take only one pattern.
  • e.g The rain brought disaster to the farmer. The rain brought the farmer disaster. incorrect
  • However, it is possible to find sentenceswith both patterns in which the subject or theindirect object is an inanimate.But the verb in this case has not an actionmeaning.
  • e.g The justices give a literal interpretation to the constitution.(prepositional pattern) The justices give the constitution a literal interpretation.(dative movement pattern)
  • The second factor The effect of verb meaning
  • Verbs that ordinarily take two patterns may insome cases be possible only with one pattern.e.g I owe five bucks to larry. Two patternsI owe larry five bucks.
  • I owe my progress to my father one pattern
  • The third factor Verbs that are restricted to one pattern
  •  Verbs that are only or usually appear withdative movement pattern.Some verbs like allow, bet, forgive, envy, andothers appear only in the dative movementpattern: No one envies you that task. No one envies that task to you.
  •  Verbs that appear only in thepreposional pattern.Not all to dative verbs and for dative verbscan take the dative movement pattern.Thosethat don’t are restricted to the prepositionalpattern.
  • Common verbs that appear only in theprepositional pattern:To dative verbs for dative verbsConfess,admit,declare,deliver,contribute, answer,cash,capture,create,eat;repeatStrate,donate, and many others. Select,correct,fix, and many others.
  • The fourth factor Pronominal direct object
  • Both the DO and the IO can be pronouns.When the DO is a pronoun used in placeof an NP with a definite article, thesentence cannot occur in the dativemovement pattern Iman gave the CD to Idriss. Iman gave Idriss it.
  • This does not hold if the DO is a pronounsuch as one or some used in place of NPwith an indefinite article. Aziz sent a presentation to his classmates. Aziz sent his classmates one.
  • It also does not hold if the DO is ademonstrative pronoun used to replace anNP with a demonstrative determiner. Tofik gave that t-shirt to Jawad. Tofik gave Jawad that.
  • Excercise For each sentence, decide what pronoun corresponds to the underlined NP and indicate whether that pronoun could replace the NP. 1. He loaned her a watch. 2. She handed him the flowers. 3. He lent her some gloves. 4. Ali passed him the salt. 5. I give her those pictures.
  • Answers 1. He loaned her a watch.(one. Yes) 2. She handed him the flowers.(them. No) 3. He lent her some gloves.(some. Yes) 4. Ali passed him the salt.(it. No) 5. I give her those pictures.(those. Yes)
  • II. Sentences with indirect object in discourse
  • Sentences with IO occur in dailyconversation.And the choice of the suitable patternis determined by two informationstructuring principles:
  • Sentences with indirect object indiscourse 1. The Given-new contract and IO This states that given or mentioned information should appear before new Information.
  • Sentences with indirect object indiscourse use DO was given prepositional pattern use IO was given dative movement pattern
  • E.gSusan: I can’t figure out what to get John for his birthday. Any idea?Ann: give him a CD. You know how much he likes music.
  • Sentences with indirect object indiscourse 2. End weight A long, complex, heavy NP should not appear in the middle of a clause  Mrs. Jennifer gave the list of the students who are selected to attend the conference to us.
  • Sentences with indirect object indiscourse  Mrs. Jennifer gave us the list of the students who are selected to attend the conference.
  • Sentences with indirect object indiscourse End weight and avoidance of ambiguity We move the long DO to the end to avoid ambiguity.  The man bought a rocking chair that Frank had spent all summer restoring for his mother.
  • Sentences with indirect object indiscourse We don’t know whether Frank restore the chair for his mother or that the man bought it for his mother. But if we say:  The man bought his mother a rocking chair that Frank had spent all summer restoring.
  • Sentences with indirect object indiscourse End weight and verbs that don’t take Dative Movement. The problem raises when we have a complex NP as a DO of a verb that don’t take dative movement pattern.
  • Sentences with indirect object indiscourse As a solution many writers choose to move the long direct object NP to the end of the Sentence.  Hassan demonstrated the method for fixing a carburetor that Hamza taught him to his friend.
  • Sentences with indirect object indiscourse  Hassan demonstrated to his friend the method for fixing a carburetor that Hamza taught him. prep + IO + DO
  • Excercise For each discourse choose (A) or (B) as a completion and explain your choice. Example: do you see Hayda? A . I have just sent him a message. B . I have just sent a message to him. Answer: A; because it puts the old information before the new one. 1. I want to attend the birthday party of Mr.Omar so I decided to: A . buy him a t-shirt. B . buy a t-shirt for him.
  • Excercise 2. There were two items on the table a package and a letter.where are They? A .I sent Hamza the package and Salwa the letter. B . I sent the package to Hamza and the letter to Salwa. 3. Fred wanted to make a good impression on his first date with Susan so he decided to: A .bring her some flowers. B .bring some flowers to her
  • Answers 1. (A) because it puts given information (him) before the new one (message). 2. (B) since it puts the already mentioned information before the new one. 3. (A) because it puts the old information (her) before the new one (some flowers).
  • Problems that EFL/ESL have withIO Students are influenced by thier L1 when they move from one pattern to the other.
  • E.gIn Arabic we say: ‫.اشتريت الحلوى لحمزة‬ I bought the sweet for Hamza.(correct)‫.اشتريت لحمزة الحلوى‬ I bought for Hamza the sweet.(incorrect)
  • Tell and say(German)in English, the verb tell takes two pattern; while say take only theprepositional pattern. But students whose mother tongue is Germanmay use the verb sagen (say) not only in the sense of say but also inthe sense of tell.They are influenced by the structure of their language and come upwith sentences like:a. He said me her name. Incorrectb. He said to her she should come.c. He told to Judith, ’’i am coming’’.
  • The activity
  •  Read the text carefully and find out the mistakes (indirect object) and correct them. Amals’s accident was on Monday. Her classmates wanted to give a hand of help to her but they didn’t know what to do. “I know what we can do” said Zakaria. “We can collect some money for her.” “Good idea.” Replied Mohamed. Another student says “I will send her a message to know whether we have the possibility to visit her or no.” “If it is not possible to visit her we will send her our wishes for recovery with one girl who is living in the same resident.” The next day Nadia started to gather the gifts. When she finished she gave her them. And she brought good news about Amal to her classmates.
  •  Her classmates wanted to give her a hand of help… We can collect her some money. she gave them to her.