PETROLEUM PROCESSING by Ahmed Soliman Analytical Chemist Gas Processing Center (GPC) Qatar University.Gasna workshops for teachers
Timeline1- Introduction about crude oil.Evaluation ,hydrocarbon types and petroleum products.2-Natural gas Natural gas value chain Resources of Natural Gas3- Natural gas processing (GTL, LNG , etc.4- Acid gas Removal unit.5-Air Pollution, Climate Change.
How is oil and gas formed ?Millions of years ago, the remains ofplants and animals decayed and built upin thick layers. This decayed matter fromplants and animals is called organicmaterial. Over time, the mud and soilchanged to rock. Pressure and heatchanged some of this organic materialinto coal, some into oil (petroleum), andsome into natural gas .
crude oil (H2 and Carbon)Hydrocarbons – compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen. hydrocarbons Aromatic aliphatic CnH2n-6 Alkanes Alkenes Alkynes CnH2n+2 CnH2n CnH2n N&I Paraffin Olefins Naphthenes
TYPICAL PARAFFINSExample of Examples of straight chain paraffin molecule (Butane) and branchedsimplest paraffin molecule (Isobutane) with same chemical formula (C4H10):HC molecule(CH4): METHANE BUTANE (C4H10) ISOBUTANE (C4H10) (CH4)
TYPICAL NAPHTHENESExample of typical single- Examples of naphthene with samering naphthene: chemical formula (C6H12) but different molecular structure:CYCLOHEXANE (C6H12) METHYL CYCLOPENTANE (C6H12)
TYPICAL AROMATICS.Example of simple aromatic Examples of simple double-ring aromaticcompound: compound: BENZENE (C6H6) NAPTHALENE (C10H8)
TYPICAL ALKENES (OLEFINS) (not present in crude oil, form during cracking)Simplest Alkene Typical Alkenes with the same chemical formula(C2H4): (C4H8) but different molecular structures:ETHYLENE (C2H4) 1-BUTENE (C4H8) ISOBUTENE (C4H8)
Elements and compounds found in crude oilCarbon - 84%Hydrogen - 14%Sulfur - 1 to 3% (hydrogen sulfide, sulfides, disulfides, elemental sulfur)Nitrogen - less than 1% (basic compounds with amine groups)Oxygen - less than 1% (found in organic compounds such as carbon dioxide, phenols, ketones, carboxylic acids)Metals - less than 1% (nickel, iron, vanadium, copper, arsenic) Salts - less than 1% (sodium chloride, magnesium chloride, calcium chloride) Gasna workshops for teachers
Evaluation of crude oilPetroleum consists primarily of paraffins andnaphthenes, with a smaller amount of aromaticsand asphaltics.The exact chemical composition analyze bymany laboratory equipment.Example :1- fingerprint by GC Simidis for Carbon no ,Nitrogen and Sulfur. 2- Viscosity 3- Density to calculate API. 4- RSH 5- heavy metal 6- Total Sulfur
Classification of crude oil by API gravity . American petroleum Institutes API , low specific gravity, lighter oil larger yields of gasoline and light petroleum products. Degrees API Gravity API = (141.5 / SG) - 131.5 SG = Specific Gravity at 60oF °C = (°F − 32) × 5⁄9 Crude Price = 100.77 + 0.296*(°API) – 0.931*(%Sulfur)
Distillation Comparison—Heavy Sour CrudeLow API Gravity 100% 90% 18% 80% 21% 70% 19% 18% 22% 25% 31% 60% 29% 50% 24% 22% 30% 40% 26% 30% 20% 10% 0% Bitumen Cold Lake Lloyd Blend Merey 17 Maya Arab Heavy Blend Resid Vac Gas Oil Distillate Naphtha
PRODUCTS OF PETROLEUM REFINING FRACTION BOILING RANGE USESnaphta 60-100 0 C solvent, processed into gasolinegasoline (liquid) 40-205 0 C motor fuelkerosene (liquid) 175-325 0 C fuel for jet enginesgas oil or diesel 250-350 0 C diesel fuel, heatingdistillate (liquid) oillubricating oil 300-370 0 C motor oil, grease,(liquid) other lubricantsheavy gas or fuel 370-600 0 C İndustrial fuel,oil (liquid) processed further (cracking stock)residuals (solid) larger than 600 0 C Coke, asphalt, tar, waxes processed further
COMMON REFINERY FRACTIONSNatural gas Intermediate Distillates Residues Gas oils Lubricating oils Diesel oils Heavy fuel oilsLPG Fuel oils Asphalts CokeLight Distillates Heavy DistillatesMotor gasolines Heavy mineral oils naphtas Lubricating oilsJet fuel Waxes (candles, sealing,Karosine insulating)Light gas oils
Components in crude oilComponents in crude oil Bp DegCarbon no Bp Deg C Carbon no Bp Deg C Carbon no C 1 -161 11 196 30 449 2 -89 12 216 40 522 3 -42 13 235 50 575 4 -0.5 14 253 60 615 5 36 15 270 70 647 6 69 16 287 80 675 7 98 17 302 90 700 8 126 18 316 100 720 9 151 19 329 120 750 10 174 20 343
Octane NumberThe octane number of gasolineis a measure of its resistance to knock.The octane number is determined bycomparing the characteristics of agasoline to iso octane (2,2,4-trimethylpentane) and heptane.
Natural gas value chain typical products or customers Chemical Fertilizers Conversion NGL Derivatives Methanol Gas Middle distillates to Liquids GTL Waxes (lpg ,naphta and Gas diesel )Exploration Power Generation Households Gas Pipeline Restaurants/Hotels DistributionProduction Transmission Light Industry Heavy Industry LNG Terminal CNG Cars Trucks Liquefaction Shipping LNG Buses 25
Uses of Natural GasNatural gas is an important fuel and a raw material inmanufacturing .
Resources of Natural Gas Natural Gas (NG):A mixture of C1 to C3 hydrocarbons (mainly CH4) + small amounts of N2, CO2 and H2S . Found in gas reservoirs with no oil present (non-associated gas) Associated Gas (AG):Present in contact with and/or dissolved in crude oil and is coproduced with it.
Dry natural Gas: It is a gas that does not contain an appreciable amount of condensable hydrocarbons. Wet natural Gas is a mixture of hydrocarbons that contain amount of liquid or condensable compounds heavier than ethane. Wet gas produced from a reservoir.
Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)- produced as a by-product of natural gas processing, associated gas or during refining and processing operations of petroleum.- Mainly contains propane and butane- Used mainly as a fuel and basic raw material for petrochemical industry.
Sour Natural Gas:- Contains amounts of hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide.- Needs to remove the acid gases mainly by absorption in amines or caustic solutions
Natural gas processing GTL LNG Power generation (Boilers) Fertilizers-- Urea and ammonia Steel Petrochemical -ethylene
GTLGas to Liquids (GTL) takes natural gas and converts it to low-sulphur environmentally friendly diesel, naphtha, and LPG.
largest supplier of LNG. Qatar holds the world’s third largest natural gas reserves . is the single largest supplier of liquefied natural gas (LNG).
What Is LNG? Natural gas has been used extensively,and safely in homes and industries. LNG is natural gas cooled to –160C of to aliquid which occupies1/600 of the volume of gas. Transport of LNG is safe and is at atmospheric pressure . LNG is neither toxic nor carcinogenic; but vaporsare flammable .
Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) Gas Production liquefactionLNG Shipping Degasification Market
Reasons for Removing CO2 and H2SCarbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, and other contaminants are oftenfound in natural gas streams. CO2 when combined with watercreates carbonic acid which is corrosive. CO2 also reduces the BTUvalue of gas and in concentrations of more that 2% or 3 % the gas isunmarketable.H2S is an extremely toxic gas that is also corrosive to equipment.Amine sweetening processes remove these contaminants so that thegas is marketable and suitable for transportation.
Amine Gas Sweetening SolutionsAmine gas sweetening is a proven technology that removes H2S andCO2 from natural gas and liquid hydrocarbon streams throughabsorption and chemical reaction. Each of the amines hasadvantages to specific treating problems.MEA (Monoethanolamine)MDEA (Methyldiethanolamine)DEA (Diethanolamine)
ACID GAS REMOVAL by Amines WATER SWEETENED GAS WASH TO DEHYDRATION COLUMN ACID GAS Amine SULFINOL SW ABSORBER REGENERATOR Rich Amine FUEL GAS FLARE SOURFEED GAS STEAM 16 trays Amine DIPA Lean Amine MDEA GAS ACID GAS FUEL GAS SOUR FLARE SW RICH Amine LEAN Amine
Lean LNG and Rich LNG High Heating value (HHV) -> energy contentComposition of Lean LNGCH4 90 %volC2 5 %C3, IC4,Nch4 and trace C5Rich LNG CH4 95 %vol C2 3 % C3 trace
Simple Comparison betweenNatural gas and Crude Oil
Barrel of oil equal 42 gallon equal 156 L 42-gallon barrel of oil is 5.8 million Btu, or British thermal units. 8.34 Btu of energy will raise 1 gallon of water by 1 degree Fahrenheit. about 1,334 Btu are needed to raise a temperature of one gallon water from 40 f to 200 f .°C = (°F − 32) × 5⁄9
Price of one barrel crude oil 100$.Price of 5,800 cubic feet N.G 10 $one barrel crude oil produce products and cangive 5.8 million BTU5.800 cubic feet of natural gas give 5.8 millionBTU
Refinery or GTLone barrel crude oil (100$) givepetroleum products equivalent to thesame petroleum products from 5,800cubic feet N.G (10 $)by GTLadditional to environmental case .
Natural gas skills for KIDS.is a fuel thats used to heat buildings, cook food, dry clothes, heatwater, and even to help produce electricity.dont confuse it with the gasoline that runs your car. Gasoline is aliquid, while natural gas is...you guessed it...a gas!RSH added to LPG.Experiment about How N.G (biogas) forms. c1.co2Just tow plastic bottles , 2 balloons same size and shape ,one cup ofsoil , one cup of amix of vegetable and grass , tow measuring cupsand tape . Then make analysis.
What Can We Do about GlobalWarming? Concept -1 We can slow the rate of climate change by increasing energy efficiency, relying more on renewable energy resources, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Example :- generate electricity by sun energy –Recycling- dont cut down trees in the forest (photosynthesis) Concept -2 Governments can tax greenhouse gas emissions, and cooperate internationally.