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    Chapter2 Chapter2 Presentation Transcript

    • 1 Chapter 2Chapter 2 Material HandlingMaterial Handling
    • 2 IntroductionIntroduction  Definition – the movement, storage, protection and control of material (MHIA).  The purpose is to handle safely, efficiently, at low cost, on time, accurately, and without damage to the material.  Advantages – safer operating condition, lower cost, better utilization and better performance of material handling systems.
    • 3 ExamplesExamples  Movement – industrial trucks and robots.  Storage – rack, drawer, bins.  Protection – wooden pallet, pallet box, tote box.  Control – bar codes, magnetic stripes, radio frequency tags.
    • 4 Position of MHPosition of MH Automation and control technologies in the production system
    • 5 Equipments of MHEquipments of MH Categories of the equipment includes: 1. Transport. 2. Storage. 3. Unitizing. 4. Identification.
    • 6 TransportTransport Used to move material inside a factory. 1. Industrial trucks – non-powered and powered. 2. Automated guided vehicles – battery-powered and automatically steered. 3. Rail guided vehicle – self-propelled and independently operating. 4. Conveyors – move material over fixed paths in large quantities. 5. Cranes and hoists – horizontal travel and vertical lifting for heavy loads. Manually or powered operating.
    • 7 Industrial TrucksIndustrial Trucks  The non-powered types are often referred as hand trucks because they are pushed or pulled by human workers  Quantities of material moved and distances are relatively low  Classified as either two-wheel or multiple-wheel  Examples of non-powered industrial are shown in Figure 1
    • 8 F o u r w h e e l d o lly Two-wheel truck Four wheel dolly Hand-operated low- lift pallet truck Figure 1
    • 9  Powered truck are self-propelled to relieve the worker of manually having to move the truck  Three common types are used in factories and warehouse are walkie trucks, fork lift truck and towing tractor
    • 10 Walkie truck Fork lift truck Towing tractor
    • 11 Automated Guided VehicleAutomated Guided Vehicle SystemsSystems  An automated guided vehicle system (AGVS) is a material handling system that uses independently operated, self-propelled vehicles guided along defined pathways  The pathways for AGVS is unobtrusive  An AGVS is appropriate where different materials are moved from various load points to various unload points  Suitable for automating material handling in batch production and mixed production
    • 12 Three types of AGV : (a) driveless automated guided train, (b) AGV pallet truck, (c) Unit load carrier
    • 13 Monorails and other rail guidedMonorails and other rail guided vehiclesvehicles  Monorail is the motorized vehicles that are guided by a fixed rail system  Are typically suspended overhead from the ceiling  Rail guided vehicles pick up electrical power from an electrified rail  Electrified overhead monorails are used to move large components and subassemblies in its manufacturing operations
    • 14 Conveyor SystemConveyor System  Conveyors are used material must be moved in relatively large quantities between specific locations over a fixed path  The fixed path is implemented by a track system, which may be in-the-floor, above-the-floor or overhead  Divide into two categories : (1) powered (2) non-powered  Examples of powered conveyors are shown in Figure 3 and Figure 4
    • 15 Roller conveyor Belt (flat) conveyorSkate wheel conveyor Figure 3
    • 16 Overhead trolley conveyor Cart-on-track conveyor In-floor towline conveyor Figure 4
    • 17 Cranes and HoistCranes and Hoist  Cranes are used for horizontal movement of materials in a facility, and hoists are used for vertical lifting.  A hoist is a mechanical device that can be used to raise and lower loads  Cranes include a variety of material handling equipment designed for lifting and moving heavy loads using one or more overhead beams for support  Types of cranes : bridge cranes, gantry cranes and jib cranes
    • 18 Jib crane with hoist (a) Bridge crane (b) Gantry crane A hoist
    • 19 StorageStorage  To store materials for a period of time.  To permit access when required.  Storage performance is measured according to the capacity, density, accessibility and throughput.  There are bulk storage, rack systems, bins, drawer storage and automated storage systems.
    • 20 High density bulk storage provides low accessibility and bulk storage with loads arranged to form rows and blocks for improved accessibility
    • 21 Pallet rack system for storage of unit loads on pallet
    • 22 Drawer storage
    • 23 A u n it lo a d a u t o m a t e d s t o r a g e / r e t r ie v a l s y s t e m
    • 24 A horizontal storage carousel
    • 25 UnitizingUnitizing  Containers used to hold individual items for protection.  Equipment used to load and package the containers.  Examples: wooden pallet, pallet box and tote box.
    • 26 IdentificationIdentification  To collect the data in material handling automatically.  There are three basic components: encoder data, machine reader and decoder.  Examples of technologies: bar codes, magnetic stripes, radio frequency tags and machine vision.
    • 27 Stationary moving beam bar code scanner located along a moving conveyor
    • 28 Material Handling SystemMaterial Handling System There are some considerations before design the system as follows: 1. Material characteristics. 2. Flow rate, routing, and scheduling. 3. Plan layout.
    • 29 Principle of MHPrinciple of MH  The purpose is to be applicable in the analysis, design and operation of MH system. 1. Planning 2. Standard 3. Work 4. Ergonomic 5. Unit load 6. Space utilization 7 System 8. Automation 9. Environment 10. Life cycle cost
    • 30 AUTOMATIC DATAAUTOMATIC DATA CAPTURECAPTURE  Automatic data capture (ADC) also known as automatic identification and data capture (AIDC).  Refers to the technologies that provide direct entry of data into a computer or other microprocessor controlled system without using a keyboard.  Used to collect data in material handling and manufacturing applications
    • 31  Material handling :  shipping and receiving, storage, sortation and order picking  Manufacturing :  Monitoring the status of order processing, work- in-process and worker attendance.
    • 32 Component of ADC Consists of three component : Encoded data  A code is a set of symbols or signals representing alphanumeric characters  When data are encoded, the characters are translated into a machine-readable code  A label or tag containing the encoded data is attached to the item that is to be later identified
    • 33 Machine reader or scanner  This device reads the encoded data, converting them to alternative form, usually an electrical analog signal Decoder  This component transforms the electrical signal into digital data and finally back into original alphanumeric characters
    • 34 Categories of ADC Can be divided into six : Optical  Use high-contrast graphical symbols that can be interpreted by an optical scanner  Include bar codes, optical character recognition and machine vision Magnetic  Encode data magnetically, similar to recording tape  Include magnetic stripe and magnetic ink character recognition
    • 35 Electromagnetic : Radio frequency Smart card  Refers to small plastic cards (the size of credit card) imbedded with microchips capable of containing large amounts of information Touch techniques : Touch screen and button memory Biometric  To identify humans or interpret vocal commands of human  Include voice recognition, fingerprint analysis and retinal eye scans
    • 36 Most widely used in industry : 1. Bar codes 2. Radio frequency 3. Magnetic stripe 4. Optical character recognition 5. Machine vision