Chapter 2Chapter 2
Material HandlingMaterial Handling
Definition – the movement, storage, protection and
control of material (MHIA).
The purpose is to handle safely, efficiently, at low
cost, on time, accurately, and without damage to the
Advantages – safer operating condition, lower cost,
better utilization and better performance of material
Movement – industrial trucks and robots.
Storage – rack, drawer, bins.
Protection – wooden pallet, pallet box, tote box.
Control – bar codes, magnetic stripes, radio
Position of MHPosition of MH
Automation and control technologies in the production
Equipments of MHEquipments of MH
Categories of the equipment includes:
Used to move material inside a factory.
1. Industrial trucks – non-powered and powered.
2. Automated guided vehicles – battery-powered and
3. Rail guided vehicle – self-propelled and
4. Conveyors – move material over fixed paths in
5. Cranes and hoists – horizontal travel and vertical
lifting for heavy loads. Manually or powered
Industrial TrucksIndustrial Trucks
The non-powered types are often referred as hand
trucks because they are pushed or pulled by human
Quantities of material moved and distances are
Classified as either two-wheel or multiple-wheel
Examples of non-powered industrial are shown in
F o u r w h e e l d o lly
lift pallet truck
Powered truck are self-propelled to relieve the
worker of manually having to move the truck
Three common types are used in factories and
warehouse are walkie trucks, fork lift truck and
Automated Guided VehicleAutomated Guided Vehicle
An automated guided vehicle system (AGVS) is a
material handling system that uses independently
operated, self-propelled vehicles guided along
The pathways for AGVS is unobtrusive
An AGVS is appropriate where different materials
are moved from various load points to various
Suitable for automating material handling in batch
production and mixed production
Three types of AGV : (a) driveless automated guided train,
(b) AGV pallet truck, (c) Unit load carrier
Monorails and other rail guidedMonorails and other rail guided
Monorail is the motorized vehicles
that are guided by a fixed rail
Are typically suspended overhead
from the ceiling
Rail guided vehicles pick up
electrical power from an electrified
Electrified overhead monorails are
used to move large components
and subassemblies in its
Conveyor SystemConveyor System
Conveyors are used material must be moved in
relatively large quantities between specific locations
over a fixed path
The fixed path is implemented by a track system,
which may be in-the-floor, above-the-floor or
Divide into two categories :
Examples of powered conveyors are shown in
Figure 3 and Figure 4
Cranes and HoistCranes and Hoist
Cranes are used for horizontal movement of
materials in a facility, and hoists are used for vertical
A hoist is a mechanical device that can be used to
raise and lower loads
Cranes include a variety of material handling
equipment designed for lifting and moving heavy
loads using one or more overhead beams for
Types of cranes : bridge cranes, gantry cranes and
Jib crane with hoist
(a) Bridge crane
(b) Gantry crane
To store materials for a period of time.
To permit access when required.
Storage performance is measured according to the
capacity, density, accessibility and throughput.
There are bulk storage, rack systems, bins, drawer
storage and automated storage systems.
High density bulk storage provides low
accessibility and bulk storage with loads
arranged to form rows and blocks for improved
Pallet rack system for storage of unit loads on pallet
A u n it lo a d a u t o m a t e d s t o r a g e / r e t r ie v a l s y s t e m
A horizontal storage carousel
Containers used to hold individual items for
Equipment used to load and package the containers.
Examples: wooden pallet, pallet box and tote box.
To collect the data in material handling
There are three basic components: encoder data,
machine reader and decoder.
Examples of technologies: bar codes, magnetic
stripes, radio frequency tags and machine vision.
Stationary moving beam bar code scanner located along
a moving conveyor
Material Handling SystemMaterial Handling System
There are some considerations before design the
system as follows:
1. Material characteristics.
2. Flow rate, routing, and scheduling.
3. Plan layout.
Principle of MHPrinciple of MH
The purpose is to be applicable in the analysis,
design and operation of MH system.
5. Unit load
6. Space utilization
10. Life cycle cost
AUTOMATIC DATAAUTOMATIC DATA
Automatic data capture (ADC) also known as
automatic identification and data capture (AIDC).
Refers to the technologies that provide direct entry
of data into a computer or other microprocessor
controlled system without using a keyboard.
Used to collect data in material handling and
Material handling :
shipping and receiving, storage, sortation and
Monitoring the status of order processing, work-
in-process and worker attendance.
Component of ADC
Consists of three component :
A code is a set of symbols or signals
representing alphanumeric characters
When data are encoded, the characters are
translated into a machine-readable code
A label or tag containing the encoded data is
attached to the item that is to be later identified
Machine reader or scanner
This device reads the encoded data, converting
them to alternative form, usually an electrical
This component transforms the electrical signal
into digital data and finally back into original
Categories of ADC
Can be divided into six :
Use high-contrast graphical symbols that can be
interpreted by an optical scanner
Include bar codes, optical character recognition
and machine vision
Encode data magnetically, similar to recording
Include magnetic stripe and magnetic ink
Electromagnetic : Radio frequency
Refers to small plastic cards (the size of credit
card) imbedded with microchips capable of
containing large amounts of information
Touch techniques : Touch screen and button
To identify humans or interpret vocal commands of
Include voice recognition, fingerprint analysis and
retinal eye scans
Most widely used in industry :
1. Bar codes
2. Radio frequency
3. Magnetic stripe
4. Optical character recognition
5. Machine vision