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English 080

  1. 1. tilll KITAB AL SALAAT rf r r(!ir of PRAYFR) (]ON1PILED BY: N A ] I J I I iI 1 A A D A ] V J
  2. 2. ,aaaaaa ,a.laaaa aaaaaa t,aaaa ,ataata aaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaa aiaaaa aaaaaa a,tataa a,taaaa KITAB aataaa aaaaaa aaiaaa aaaaaa aaaaaa ,aaaaaa a)aaaa aaaaaa aataaaAL- SALAAT aaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaa ,taaaaa aaaaaa taaaaa aaaaaa (THE BOOK OF PRAYER) aaaaaa aaaaaa aafaaa aaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaa COMPILED aaaaaa BY: ,taaaaa aaaataNATHIFJAMA ADAM aaaaaa aaataa ,aaa+aa aaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaa aaaa,ta aaaaaa aaataa aaaaaa aaaaaa ,taataa aaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaea aaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaa liitfi
  3. 3. COOPERATIVE OFFICE FOR CALL AND GUIDANCE UNDER SUPERVISIONPRESIDENCY ISLAMIC RESEARCH OF IFTA AND PROPAGATION P.O. Box: (20824) RIYADH 11465 - TEL.4030251 FAX. &30142 Permission No. ll73lM On 22/2/t4ll H This book may not be reproduced without prior written permission from the office
  4. 4. PREF A C EPRAISE to "Allah 6Wn "who ordained beAs Salaat (Prayer) an act of worship ason His servants, and may the utmostpeaceand blessings of Allah(SWT) beu p o n H i s p r o p h et h o ta u g h tth e U mmah w(Muslim nation) how best to performtheprayer.I do not intendtowrite a longpreface, I butmerelywish to makea briefexplanation ofmy re a s o n so r un d e rta ki n th i s w o rk.l t is f gnatural that by virtue of its importance,many bookshave in the pastbeenwrittenon the Sa/aatby different muslims indifferent parts of the world - may Allah6WD reward them all for their efforts.A n d ,w h i l e a l a r gen u mb e ro f th e w o rkssof a r ca r r i e d o u t o n S a l a a h a ve g e n e rally t been well appreciated, is however no it s ec r e t a l s o t h a t ma n y b o o ks o n this subject suffer serious shortcomings
  5. 5. which notably may be summarised asfollows:(1 ) Apparent lack of subjectcomprehensiveness mostbooks. in While,certainly, no single writer cancomprehend subject aswide as Salaat, abut it is true that many books on thissubjectonly make scantytouch on it.(2) The unfortunateexistencein many ofthe books of various matters such asrecitations,supplicationsand even actspurported to be part of the prayer butwhich cannotbe correctlytraced having tobeen recited and/.or performed by thePro p h e t ( P B U H )o r e ve n b y h i s ri g htlyg u i d e dC a l i p h s(su cce sso rs).(3 )T h ea b s e n ce f a rra n g e me na n do r der o tin most bookswith regardto the variousmatters relatingto the prayer.(4) The virtual absencein most booksof 2
  6. 6. TRANSLITERATION o the various tsupplicationswhich a person needs torecite in the course of the Prayer.Needlessto say, but, the importanceoftransliteration the non-Arabic to speakingMus lim sc a n n o tbe o ve r-e mp h a si se d .It is in view of the foregoing that thethough t o f c o m p i l i n ga mo re a p p ro p ri a tetreatiseon I lat arose to me and it is bythe graceoI Allah 6Wf ) that it is now ino u r ha n d sa l t h o u g hI a m q u i te co n sci o uso f h o w u n e q u a lI a m to a su b j e ctsu ch a sthis on e t o w h i c h a ma n o f mu ch g re a tercapab i l i t i e sh a n myse l f w a s re q u i re d .I ta m, h o w e v e r , u s ta i n e d yth e co n vi cti on s bthat the readers will overlook mY shortcomings and treat them with indulgence.In compiling this treatise, lhaveendea v o u r e t o t ou ch o ve r a l mo sta l l th e d
  7. 7. importantaspectsof the prayerand there is perhapsno other book which providessuch an elaborateaccountof the subjecta l t h o u g h ,a s me n ti o n e de a rl i e r,S alaat isju s t s u c h a w i d e su b j e ctth a t e ve n thist re a t i s e i s s ti l l i n w a n t o f mu ch otherin f o r m a t i o n n th e sa meb u t w h i ch ,Insha o- A l l a h , s h a l lb e ta ke ni n to a cco u n ti n thenext reproduction. How far I have succeeded this work is in not for me to say but it is my sincerehope that it will, lrshaAllah,go a long way in f u l fi l l i n gt h e g a p sa n dsh o rtco mi n gfound s in other books written so lar on the subject. The book,howevercannotand, is not meant to be a substituteto the otherworks on the .g/aaf but ratherc o m p l e m e n ti ve . a n w h i l e , n i s to er r Me maand this work may not necessarily free bef rom errors whether tech n icaI,t y p o g r a p h i c a lr o th e rw i seH e n ce I m ake o . ,
  8. 8. a k in d a p p e a l t o a l l th o se w h o ma Ydiscoversomethingincorrectin this workto communicate the same to thep u b lis h e r s o r d u e co rre cti o n n th e n e xt f ir e -p rin t .C ompi l i n g s u c h a w o rk, d i d n o t o n l Yrequire my referenceto a wide range ofb o o k s i n c l u d i n gt he H o l y Ou ra n , H a d i thb o o k sa n d F i q h( j uri sp ru d e n ce )o o ksb u t bals o t o s e e k t h e h e l p o f o th e r l e a rn e dmu s lim b r e t h r e nan d i n th i s re g a rd ,mya p p re c i a t i o n o e s to S h e i kh H a mo u dM. gA l la h i m a n d b r o t he r b d a l l aK a rsh e o th A bo f Riya d h- m a y t h e A l mi g h tyA l l a h l e ss bt h e mf o r t h e i rc o n t i n u o uc o u n s e l l i na n d s g a d v ic e . Si m i l a r l y,th i s w o rk w o u l d n o t hav eb e e nc o m p l e te a di t n o t b e e nfo r th e ht ire less e f f o r t s o f b ro th e r Mu h a mme d AmeenCaveof the Co-operative ice for off Ca ll an d G u i d a n ce , i ya d hw h o n o t o n l y R did the system data entering but even h e lpe ds o m u c h i n th e f i n a l p ro o f-re a d i ng
  9. 9. - may Allah reward him for h i s s h a r eofcontributionin this work.N AT H I F . AD A M JR I Y A D H2 1 s t M a y , 1 9 9 1 ,In this Book the words (SWT) insertedafter the name of Allah stand for,,SUBHANAHU WA TAALA" WhiChme a n s "T h e Gl o ri fi e d ,th e Mo st H igh";while, the words (PBUH) inserted afterthename of the Prophet standfor " pEACEBEU P O NH I M " . 6
  10. 10. AS-SALAAT (PRAYER)INTRODUCTIONSalaat (PraYer) is one of the mainobfigations which "Attah 6Wn" hasordainedon His servants. is the first act ltof worship decreedon the Muslim Nation(Ummah) bY "Allah 6Wn " and wasordained on the night of the Prophets(PB U H l a s c e n s i o n th e se ve nh e a ve n s. to ltis t h e s e c o n do f th e fi ve p i l l a rso f l sl amafter the proclamationof the "Shahada"(the words of witness)I t is e n j o i n e d on th e Mu sl i ms a s anobfigatoryact by" Allah 6wffas can benoted from the following verses of theH o l yO u r a n :,ESTABLISHREGULAR PRAYERSATTHE SUruS DECLINE TILL THE DARKNESS OF THE NIGHT, AND THE (OuraMORNTNG PRAYER""" n 17:781 I
  11. 11. In another verse "Allah 6Wn" says:..AND ESTABLISH REGULAR PRAYERSAT THE TWO ENDS OF THE DAY AND ATTHE APPROACHES OF THE NIGHT.( O u r a n1 1 : 1 1 4 ! .T h e i m p o r t a n ceo f th e S a l a a t h a s alsobeen explicitly expressed by AllahsMe s s e n g e r PB U H ), s ca n b e n o te dfr om ( at h e f o l l o w i n gsa yi n g s:"What lies between a perfect man anddisbelief is the leaving of prayer". (Relatedb y l m a m sA h m e d a n d M u s l i m )Th e P r o p h e t P B U H ) l so sa i d : ( a"The obligation which separates us fromthem (the non-believers)is the prayer andhe w h o r e n o u n ce s i t b e co me s a "disbeliever. (Relatedby lmams Ahmedand Muslim)
  12. 12. The abovequotedOuraniccommandsby"Altah ,Swffand the honouredsayingso f t he Pr o p h e ( PB U Hcl e a rl yi n d i ca te e t ) thimp o r t a n c e o f Sa l a a t su ch th a t i t i sunanimously agreed bY all Muslims c hol a r s h a t r e n o u n ci n gt i s re g a rd e d n t i aa c t of d i s b e l i e ( Ku fr). fT HEV I R T U ES F P R A Y E R OSala a t P r a y e r p erfo rme d e n u i n e l y i th ( ) g wh u mil i t ya n d s u b mi ssi o n " A l l a h(S Wf) " toh a s u n l i m i t e d i r tu e s n db e n e i ts.l t i s th e v a fn o b le s t x p r e s s io n f fa i th a n d th e su re st e oway of thanking "Allah 6wfyfor Hisunlim i t e d f a v o urs. l t i s th e w a y toobtaining Allahs mercy, generosity,k in d n e s s ,b l e s s in g sa n d a su re w a y toparadise."Allah (SWf)" says in the HolyOuran:PROSPEROUS INDEED ARE THEBELIEVERSWHO ARE HUMBLE IN THEIRPRAYERS". (Ouran 23:1 -2l, 3
  13. 13. It is a deliverance on the Day ofJudgementfor thosewho usedto observeit well. The Prophet(PBUH) says:"The first thing that the servant of "Allah(SWT)"will be calledto accounlfor on theDay of Judgementwill be the prayer;andif it was goodthe personsdeedswill havebeen good,but if it was bad,the personsdeeds will have been bad". (Reported bylmambhukari)Prayer purifiqp the soul, refines thec h a r a c t e r a n d i n cu l ca te s i n ma n theexcellentvirtues of truthfulness,honestyand modesty. keepsone who performsit ltfrom falsehood and from all forbiddenactions as is categorically confirmed bythe following verse of the Holy Our,an:"...VERILY, PRAYER REFRAINSFROMINDECENCY AND EVIL..."(Ouran 29:45) 4
  14. 14. W UDH U( AB L U T ION )Prio r to e n t e r i n g S a l a a t,th e p e rso n i sr e q u i r e d t o u n d e r t ak e a c e r t a i npurification procedure known as"Wudhu"wit h o u t w h i c h ,t h e p e rso n s ra ye r o u l d p wnot be acceptablein the sight of "Allah(S WT ) . "A l l a h , t h e A l mi g h tY sa Y s: ,,O YE WHO BELIEVE. WHEN YEPREPARE FOR PRAYER, WASH YOURFACES AND YOUR ARMS TO THEELBOWS; RUB YOUR HEADS (WITHWATER); AND (WASH) YOUR FEET TOT H EA N K L E S . . . " u r a n5 : 6 ) (OA n d t h e P r o p h e t(P B U H ), i d : sa Prayer without ablution /s invalid".(Reportedby lmam Muslim)
  15. 15. C O N D I T I O N S OR T H E P E R F OR M ANCE F oF w U D H U ( A B L U T |ON )Th e r e a r e v a ri o u sco n d i ti o n s q u i redto rebe f u l f i l l e di n th e p e rfo rma n ce f Wudhu owh i c h a r e a s fo l l o w s: 1. Ac c e p t a n ce f th e l sl a mi cF a i th . o2. Sa n i t ya n d co n sci o u sn e ss.3 . I n t e n t i o n( A n n i ya h ) p e rfo rmWudhu toas a n a c t o f wo rsh i p .4. Purifying oneself from urine,exc r e m e n a n d a l l o th e rki n do f i mp u rities tbe f o r ep e r f o r mi n g d h u . Wu5 . E n s u r i n gt h e p u ri ty o f th e w a te r to beu s e df o r t h e Wu d h u6. E n s u r i n gt ha t w a te r i s n o t p re ventedf ro m r e a c h i n g e p a rtso f th e b o d yw hich thneed to be washed in the performance of 6
  16. 16. the wudhu.7 . Be i n g c o n s c i o u s a n d ke e P i n g th eWudhuin mind.ES SE N T I AA C T SOF WU D H U L1. Wa s h i n gt h e e n ti refa ce o n ce .2 . W a s h i n ge a c ha r m o n c e .3 . W i p i n gt h e e n t i r eh e a do n c e .4. Wa s h i n gt h e f ee t u p to th e a n kl e s5 . En s u r i n gt h a t th e a b o ve 4 a cts a reperf or m e d n t h e g i ve n se q u e n ce . i 6. Performing the Wudhu acts cont in u o u s l ya n d w i th o u t u n n e ce ssar y l e t - u p su n t i l c o m P l e t i o n .
  17. 17. VOLUNTARY ACTS OF WUDHUBesides the above essential acts ofWudhu, there are alsosomevoluntarybutrecommended acts in the Wudhuprocedure.These are as follows:a. InvokingAllah (SWT)at the start of theWudhu.b. Washingof both handsuptothe wrists.c . R i n s i n gt h e mo u n thw i th w a te r.d. Sniffing of water in and out of thenostrils.e. Passingof water outsideand insideoft h e e a r l o b e s.H O W T H EW U D H UI S P E R F O R M E DThe essential and voluntary actsdiscussedaboveshall now be integratedto demonstratehow the prophet(PBUH) 8
  18. 18. used to performWudhu:1 . Ma k i n gt h e i n t e n ti o n p e rfo rmWu d h u toas an act of sincerehomageand worshipfor the pleasure of Allah 6Wn Theintentionneednot be utteredbut it shouldbe k ep t i n m i n d d u ri n g th e th e Wu d h u 2. fnvokin Atlah (SWT)at the start of the gW udh u b Y s a Yi n g: ISM ILLAHI -R -RAHM AN I -R-RAHIIM ". - B (ln t h e n a m e o f A l l a h , Mo st Gra ci o usMost Merciful). 3. Wa s h i n gt h e ha n d su p toth e w ri sts for t hree t i m e s , w hi l e ru b b i n g th e m a n d letting the water reach between the fingers. 4 . Rin s i n gt h e m o u th w i th w a te r th ri ce preferably using the "Miswak" (tooth stick),tooth brush, or f ingersto brushthe t eet h a n d t h e g u m. R e g a rd i n g the 9
  19. 19. importanceof the Miswak, the prophet ( P B U Hs a i d : ) "lf it had not been too great a burden on my Ummah, I would have ordered them to use the "Miswak, at every Wudhu.,, (R e p o r t e d y l ma m Ma fi k) b 5 . C l e a n i n g he n o stri l sb y sn i ffi n gwater t in a n d o u t f o r th re e ti me s.6 . W a s h i n g t h e e n ti re fa ce th ri ce usingboth hands from the top of the foreheaddown to the bottom of the chin and fromear to ear.7. W a s h i n gt h e a rmsth re eti me s u p to theup p e r e n d o f th e e l b o w s;ri g h t a rm fir st,a n d t h e n , t h e l e ft a rm. A rms sh o u ld berL O b e O h i l e th e y a re b e i n gw a sh e d. w8 . W e t t i n g b oth h a n d s a n d p a ssi n g thesame over the head starting from abovet h e f o r e h e a d o w nto th e n a p e(th eb a ck d of l0
  20. 20. t h e n e c k )a n d f r o m th e re , re tu rn i n gb o thh ands u p t o a b o v eth e fo re h e a d .9 . Fro m t h e h e a d , w i th o u t w e tti n g th eh ands a g a i n , t he P e rso n w i P e s th ee a rlob e su s i n gt h e fo re fi n g e rs w i p eth e , toi n n e r p a r t o f t h e l o b e sa n d th e th u mb sfo rth e ou t s i d ep a r t .1 0 . Wa s h i n gb o t h fe e t u p toth e a n kl e s r fothree times or more if necessarY,b e g in n i n gw i t h t he ri g h t fo o t a n d th e nwit h th e l e f t f o o t. B o th fe e t sh o u l d b er u b b e dw h i l e t h e y a re b e i n gw a sh e da n dwat er s h o u l d f r ee l y p a ss b e tw e e n th etoes . I M P O R T A NP O I N T S N W U D H U T O a . M u c h v i r t u e i s a t t a c h e dt o W u d h u whic h i s p r o p e rl yp e rfo rme da s ca n be not ed f r o m t h e fo l l o w i n g sa yi n g o f th e P r o p h e( P B U H ) : t 1l
  21. 21. "A person who performs Wudhu properly will have his sins removed from hisbody, so much that the sins are removed even from underneath his nails,,. (Reportedby lmamMuslim)b . H a v i n g c o mp l e te d th e Wu d h u , theperson may recite the "SHAHADA,,i.e.the words of witness and the supplicationf o r c o n c l u d i ng e Wu d h u a s fo l l o ws: th.,ASH-HADU ANLAA ILAHA ILLA-LAAHUWA ASH-HADU ANNA MIJHAMMADANABDUHU WA RASUULUHU...-ALLAHUMMA IJALNII M INAT.AWABIINWA IJALNII MINA.L MUTADAHIRIIN...wh i c h m e a n s"l bear witness that there is no god butAllah and that Muhammad is His servantand messenger...OLord, make me amongthose who return to you in repentanceandof those who are undefited., t2
  22. 22. Rega r d i n g t h e vi rtu e o f th e a b o ves u p p l i c a t i o nt,h e l e a d e r o f th e fa i th ful,Uma r l b n - u l Kh a tta b (ma y A l l a h b epleased with him) reportedthe Prophet(P BU H ) s s a Yi n g : a"tf anyone Performs the Wudhucompletely and then saYs":" l testify that there is no god but Allahalone, He hasno partner; and I testify thatMuhammad is His servant andmessenger, the eight gates of Paradisewilt be opened for him and may enter bywhichever of the gates he wishes""( R e l a t e d Yl m a m M u s l i m ) . b c. When Performing Wudhu, it is recommended to let the water reach beyond the area required to be washed (e . g . , h e n w a sh i n gth e a rms th e p e rs on w may wash beyondthe elbows or beyond t he a n k l e sw h e n w a sh i n gth e fe e t)Great v irt u e h a s b e e n a tta ch e dto th i s fa ct, as l3
  23. 23. can be notedfrom the followingsayingof t h e Pr o p h e t pB U H ): ( "My nation (tJmmah) will be called(distinguised) on the Day of Judgement asa people with bright faces and limbs fromthe effect of their Wudhu practices. Therefore, anyone of you who wishes toincrease his brightness may do so (bywashing beyond the required areaswhenperforming W"udhu).,. (Reported by lmamsBukhari and Muslim)d. The person is required to avoid use ofwater more than what is necessary.e . M u c h i m p o rta n ce h a s b e e n a tta chedt o t h e p e r f o r m a n ceo f tw o ra ka a tsa fterperformin Wudhuas can be notedfrom the gf o l l o w i n g c o n v e r s a t i o nb e t w e e n t h eProphet (PBUH) and Bilat, the firstMua d h i n( m a yA l l a h b e p l e a se d i th h im ) : w t4
  24. 24. "O Bilal! tell me which of your acts is mostmeritorious since ioining lslam, f or I heardthe sound of your shoesin Paradiseaheadof me?Bilal replied: I do not have any action moreme rito r i o u s t h a n th a t w h e n e ve r Iperformed Wudhu (purification) duringthe day or night, I each time offered aprayer as much as Allah has destined forme" . ( R e p o r t e d y l ma ms B u kh a ri a nd b Muslim)WIPING OVER THE SOCKSa. lf someones"Wudhu", gets nullified,t hen , w h e n p e rfo rmi n g a su b se q u entWu d h u , i t i s a ll o w e d to w i P e o ve r thes oc k sw i t h w e t h a n d s,i n ste a d f w a sh i ng obot hf e e t o n c o n d i ti o n a t th e so cks e r e th w put o n a f t e r w a sh i n gth e fe e t i n th e fi r st W u d h u o r b e f o r e h e s a m ei s n u l l i f i e d . t b . A t r a v e l l e rm a y a v a i l h i m s e l fo f t h i s l5
  25. 25. privilege continuously for three consecutivedays and nights (72 hours), but a residentmay do so for only one day and one night continuously(24 hours). HO WW I PI N G E R H ES OC K S D ONE OV T ISWiping is done accordingto the traditionof the Prophet(PBUH), follows: asAfter removingthe shoes,wet hands arepassed only over the upper surface ofsockswithout the needto wipe the bottomparts.WH E N T H EW I PIN GP R IV IL E GE E A SES CT h e w i p i n g p r i vi l e g eb e co me si n va l i dinthe eventthat one or moreof the followingcasesoccur:1. W h e n t h e m a xi mu m mi n g sa l l o w e d ti asdis c u s s e d a r l ie rl a p se . e 16
  26. 26. 2. The moment the socksare removed.3 . Wh e n a n y o f th e ca se s re q u l rl n g"G hus l " o c c u r .MA TT E R S W H I C H IN V A L ID A T E T H EWUDHUThe person will remain in a state ofWu d h u u n t i l a n y of th e fo l l o w i n gma tte r sis committed:1 . Pass i n go f e x cre me n t, ri n e o r w i n d uWhen s o m e o n e p a sse s u ri n e a n d /o rexcrement, it becomes mandatoryuponsuch a personto removethe foulnessofthes e t h i n g s b e f o re p e rfo rmi n gWu d h u.Pu re w a t e r s h ou l d b e u se d fo r th i sp u rp o s e ,b u t i n c a se , i t i s n o t a va i l a bleafter earnestsearchfor it, the personmayresort to the use of certain dry objects,such as stones, dry woods and tissuep a p e rt o r e m o v e e f i l th .T h i s i s kn o w nas th "lstijmaar" . Odd numbersof the objectto 17
  27. 27. be used is preferred, such as 3, S, etc.The person should ensure that no drops of ur i n e o r s t a i n s o f fo u l n e ss a re l eft on his,/herbody or clothes.However,in the case of personsafflictedwi t h p e r m a n e n t w e tti n g o r p e rmanentp a s s i n go f w i n d , o r o f w o me n w h o ar esufferingfrom prolongedflows of blood,s u c h p e r s o n s a re re q u i re d to p e r for mWudhu only once beforethe start of eachpr a y e r a n d t he i r Wu d h u w o u l d re mainv a l i d e v e n i f th e a b o ve p ro b l e ms m ayo c c u r l a t e r i n th e co u rseo f th e p ra yer .2. E a t i n go f c ame l sme a t.3 . Sl e e p i n gi n w h i ch th e p e rso n l o ssesc o n s c i o u s n ess.4. L o s s o f c o n sci o u sn e ss su l ti n gfr om reinsa n i t y , a i n ti n g ,e tc. f l8
  28. 28. 5. Touching of the sexual organsi n t e n t i o n a l l yd i r e ctl ya n d u n cl o th e d . ,6. After washing a dead person(corpse)7 . R e n o u n c i n o f l s l a m i cF a i t h . gGHUSL (TOTALBATH)Ghusl in lslam means the bathing of theentire body with water. Proof of ftstegitimacy is embodiedinthe Holy Auranas follows:,....AND IF YE ARE IN A STATE OFCEREMONIALIMPURITY, BATHE YOURWHO L EB O D Y . . .."(Ou ra n5 :6 )OCCASIONS WHEN GHUSL ISREO U I R ED AN OB L IGA T ORA C T AS Y G husl i s r e q u i r eda s a n o b l i g a to ry ct i n a l9
  29. 29. the following cases:1. After the discharge semenas a result ofof stimulation whether awake or asleep(i.e.in a wet dream). Thisstateis known inArabic as"JUNUB".lf , alter the dream nowetness is traced in ones clothing,bathingis not obligatory.However, case inwetness is found but without recallingany dream, performing Ghusl isobligatory.2. After sexual intercourse(or the merecoming together of the two organs of ama n a n d a w o ma n , e ve n th o u g h ther ema y b e n o a c tu a le j a cu l a ti o np e rfo rm ing )G h u s l i s r e q u i re d .3. Followinga period of menstruation, awo m a n i s r e q u i re dto p e rfo rmGh u s l.4. At the end of 40 daysafter childbirth,awo m a n i s r e q u i re d p e rfo rmGh u sl. to 20
  30. 30. 5. When a disbelievernewly embracesf s lam , s u c h a p e rso n i s re q u i re d top e rf o r mG h u s l .6 . W h e n a M u s l i md i e s ,G h u s li s r e q u i r e dfor him/her.O C C A S I O N SF O R W H I C H G H U S L I SPREFERREDG hus l i s r e c o m m e n d e dn th e fo l l o w i ng icases:1 . B e f o r e g o i ng to Ju ma h (F ri dayCong r e g a t i o n a ye r). I Pra2 . B e f o r e g o i n g to E i d P ra ye rs(Mu sl i mannu a lf e a s t p r a ye rs).3. Before undertaking Umrah or Hajj( P i l g r i m a gte M a k k a h ) . o4. Up o n w a s h i n ga co rp se . cco rd i n g (A tomanys c h o l a r st,he p e rfo rma n ce f Gh u s l o 2l
  31. 31. is preferredfor a person who washes acorpse).E S S E N T I AR E O U I R E M E N T S G H U S L L OFT h e r e a r e t w o e sse n ti a l re q u i re m entswhich need to be f ulfilledfor Ghuslto bevalid. These are as follows:1. In t e n t i o n o p e rfo rm u sli s n e ce ssar y t Ghbec a u s ei t i s th e d i vi d i n g l i n e b e tweena c t s p e r f o r m eda s a me re cu sto m anddeeds which are rewardable acts ofwo r s h i p .H o w e ve r, e i n te n ti o n s o n lyby th iheart and need not be uttered.2 . T h e e n t i r e b o d y sh o u l d b e w a shed.Wa t e r s h o u l d r e a cha n d fl o w fre e l yoverevery part of the body.H O W G H U S LI S P E R F O R M E DBesides the above two essentialr e q u i r e m e n t s ,t h e r e a r e a l s o o t h e r 22
  32. 32. v olu n t a r ya c t s r e co mme n d e d r Gh u s l. foBoth the essentialand the voluntaryactsare now integrated herebelow tod e mo n s t r a t eh o w th e P ro p h e t (P B UH)us edt o p e r f o r mth e Gh u sl .a. I nte n db y h e a rtto p e rfo rmGh u sl .b . Wa s h b o t h h an d s u p to th e w ri sts fort h r e et i m e s .c . Wa s h t h e s e x o rg a n sp ro p e rl y.d . P e r f o r m u d h ua s u s u a l ( i n h e m a n n e r W ta l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d )e x c e p t , t h a t t h ewa s h i n go f t h e f e e tw o u l db e d e l a ye d n til ula t e r w h e n a l l th e re st o f th e b o d y isbathed.e . P o u r w a t e r o ve r th e h e a d th re e ti mes,massaging he hair to allow water to tre a c h i t s r o o t s .f . Pou rw a t e r l i b e ra l l y ve rth e e n ti reb o dy, o 23
  33. 33. b e g i n n i n g i t h th e ri g h tsi d ea n dth e n ,the wleft side ensuringthat no part of the bodyis untouched by water such as thea rm p i t s , i n s i d e th e e a rl o b e s,i n si d e thenavel, between the fingers and toes, etc.g . F i n a l l y m o vea l i ttl efu rth e rfro mw her e ,you were and wash your feet, beginningwith your right foot and then, the left.Notes:1 . A w o m a n w i l l p e r f o r mG h u s lj u s t a s aman does, except,that if she has plaitedh a i r ,s h e n e e dno t u n d oi t. S h eo n l yn eedsto throw three handfuls of water over herhea d .2. T h e p e r s o n ma y a fte r co mp l e ti n g theGhusl recite the supplication forc on c l u d i n g h u slw h i ch sh o u l db e re cited Gouts i d et h e t o i le t,/b a th ro o mn d w h i c h is athe same as the one recited afterc o m p l e t i n n On r;O *u
  34. 34. A CT S F O R B I D D E N O P E R S ON S T WH OA RE R E O U I R E D O P E R F OR M U S L T GHPersons requiring to perform Ghusl areforbiddento undertake certainacts.Theseare as follows:1. Any type of prayerwhether obligatoryor v o l u n t a r y .2. Circumambulating the Kaabah(Tawaf).3 . To u c h i n go r ca rryi n gth e H o l y Ou ra n.However, the prohibition doesnot applytoot he r b o o k s wh i ch co n ta i n Ou ra nicpas sa g e s u c h a s co mme n ta ri e s f the s oHoly Ouran or works of lslamicju risp r u d e n c e .4 . R e c i t i n gh e H o l yO u r a n . t5 . Sta y i n gi n s i deth e Mo sq u e . 25
  35. 35. ME N S T R U AT ION A ID H } (HThis refers to the periodicaldischargeofb lo o d b y w o me n i n th e i r sta te o f h ealthand i s e a s i l y di sti n g u i sh a b l e w o m en tof ro m p o s t - c h i l d b i rth l e e d i n g . bP O S T - C H t L D B t RB L E E D T N(G t F A S ) TH NS u c h b l e e d i n gu su a l l yo ccu rsto w o menaf t e r c h i l d b i r t h n d ma y co n ti n u e i thout a wf ix e d d u r a t i o n ,a l th o u g h i n so me ca ses,t h e r e m a y n ot o ccu r b l e e d i n g a t all.However, the strengthof the teachings onof the Prophet (PBUH), a womane x p e r i e n c i n g st-ch i l d b i rthl e e d i n g po b hasa m a x i m u mc on fi n e me n t e ri o do f a bout pforty (4O) daysafter which, she is requiredt o m a k eG h u s l a n dco mme n ce e r l sl am ic hduties. lf, however, the blood does notceaseafter 40 days,most scholarsare ofthe opinion that the woman shouldc on t i n u ew i t h he r re g u l a rl sl a mi cd u ties.
  36. 36. ACTS FORBIDDEN TO WOMENEX PE R I EN C I N G N S T R U A T ION N D ME APO S T - C H I L D B IR T H E E D IN G BL1. A ll a c t s m e nti o n e dh e re i n b e fo rea s ,f o rb id d e n o p e r so n sre q u i ri n gGh u sla re tals o p r o h i b i t e dto w o me n e xp e ri e n cingmenstruation and post-childbirthbleeding.2. A w o m a n c a n n o t e n g a g ei n a se xu alin t e rc o u r s e .T h e c o m p a n i o ns f th e P ro p h e t(P B U H) , oasked him about this and "Allah (SWT)"rev ea l e d h e f o l l o w i n gOu ra n i cve rse : tTHEY ASK THEE CONCERNINGWOMENS COU,9SES. Y: THEYARE A S/HURT AND A POLLUTION..SO KEEPAWAY FROM WOMEN IN THEIRCOURSES,AND DO NOT APPROACHTHEM UNTIL THEY ARE CLEAN......(O u r a n2 : 2 2 2 1 27
  37. 37. However,all scholarsare of the opiniont ha t a h u s b a n dma y to u ch a n y p a rt o f hiswifes bodyabovethe naveland/ or belowthe knees. This fact, is based on theconfirmations the Prophets of wives,thatwh e n t h e P r o p h e t(P B U H ) i sh e d ro be wwit h t h e m d uri n g th e i r p e ri o d s, theywo u l d p u t s o m e th i n go ve r th e i r p ri vateparts.AT-TAYAMMUM(ABLUTION USINGTHEEARTH)"At-Tayammum" is a means of usingthes oi lt o w i p e o n esfa cea n d h a n d sw i th theintentionof preparingoneselfto performprayer.Proofof its legitimacyis found int h e H o l y O u r an a s fo l l o w s:,"...^ND IF YE ARE ILL. OR ON AJOURNEY, OR ONE OF YOU COMETHFROM OFFICES OF NATURE. OR YEHAVE BEENIN CONTACTWITH WOMEN.AND YE FIND NO WATER. THEN TAKE 28
  38. 38. FOR YOURSELVES CLEAN SAND OREARTH, AND RUB THEREWITH YOURFACES AND HANDS, FOR ALLAH DOESBLOT OUT SINSAND FORGIVES AGAINAND AGAIN." (Ouran4:431T h e P r o p h e t P B U H ), l so sa i d : ( a"All of the earth has been made a pureplace of prayer for me and my "Ummah"( Na t io n ) .W h e n e ve r a p e rso n fro m mynat io n w a n t s t o p ra y, h e h a s so me th i ngwit h w h i c h t o p u ri fy h i mse l f...th aits th ee a rt h ". ( R e p o r t ed y l ma m A h ma n d ) bINSTANCES WHEN AT-TAYAMMUM ISPE RM I T T EDAt-Tayammum is permitted only onspecificinstancesas follows:1. Where the personcannotf ind water ort h e am o u n t o f w ate r i s n o t su ffi ci e n t r foWudhu. However,beforeperformingAT- 29
  39. 39. Tayammum, the personis required look tofor water earnestly from any possiblesource.2 . W h e n a p e rso n i s i n j u re d o r i l l andbelieves that the use of water will worsenh i s , / h e r o n di ti o nth e n ,A t-T a ya mm um c , isallowed.3 . W h e n w a t e r i s to o co l dsu chth a t i t m ayha r m t h e pe rso n , A T -T a ya mmum isall o w e di f t h e u se r ca n n o tfi n d me ansofhe a t i n gt h e w a te r.4. W h e n w a t er i s n e a rb y, u tth e p e rsonis bnot able to fetch it due to fear for his,/herlif e , f a m i l y an d w e a l th , (e .g .fro m ane n e m y e i t h er b e a st o r h u ma n i n thev ic i n i t y ) t h e n, A t-T a ya mmu m ma y beperformed.5. W h e n t h e re i s n o t e n o u g hw a te r andon e i s f o r c e dto sa vew h a t i s a va i l a ble fordrinking and/or cooking, then, At- 30
  40. 40. Ta y a m m u mi s a l l o w e d .THE E A R T H S O T L IT O E U S E DF ORA T - ( BTAYAMMUMT h is s h o u l db e p u re e a rtho r so i l a n d ca nbe sand, stone or gypsumwhich produced us t wh e n h i t w i t h th e h a n d s.HOW TO PERFORMAT-TAYAMMUM1 . Th e p e r s o ns h o u l dfi rst i n te n db y h e a rtt o perfo r mAt - T a ya mmu m.2 . T h e p e r s o nt h e n stri keth e so i l w i th th ep alms o f b o t h h a nd s.3 . Th e p e r s o nt h e n w i p e s th e fa ce u si n gbothpalms.4 . Th e r e a f t e r , h e p e rso n u se s th e l e ft tpalm to w i p e o v er th e b a ck o f th e ri g h th a n d u p t o t h e w r i st, a n d th e n , u se s th er ight p a l mt o w i p e o ve rth e b a cko f th e l e ft 3t
  41. 41. hand upto the wrist.Notes:1 . l f a n y d u s t cl i n g s to th e h a n d s uponstriking the earth, it should be blown outfirst beforewiping the face and the handsto avoid the dust.2. Only one strikeon the earth is sufficientfor wiping both the face and hands.3. For persons who are required top e r f o r m G h u sl , b u t a re u n a b l e to findwater,then, At-Tayammumas discussedwould suffice.MATTERS WHICH NULLIFY AT-TAYAMMUMP u r i f i c a t i o nby A t-T a ya mmu m h a s thes a m e v a l i d ity a s Wu d h u a n d Ghuslperformed with water, but becomesinvalidated the following cases: in 32
  42. 42. 1 . A l l a c t i o n sa n d c o n d i t i o n sh a t n u l l i f y tWu d h u a l s o n u l l i fyA t-T a ya mmu m.2. lf after performing At-Tayammum,wa t e r i s f o u n d f or Wu d h u o r Gh u sl .THE TIMINGS OF THE OELIGATORYPRAYERSlslam has prescribed specified time limitsfor each obligatoryprayer as can be notedfrom the following verse of the HolyAuran:"Prayer is enjoined on believers at statedt ime s "( O u r a n :1 0 3 ) 4And i n a n a u t h e n ti cp ro p h e ti c yi n gi t is sac onf i r m e dt h a t so me o n eo n ce a ske dtheprop h e t( P B U H ) b o u t th e b e st a cti o n in athe sight ol Allah 6WD and the prophetre p lie d : 33
  43. 43. " Off ering prayer at its prescribedt ime . . . . . . . "( R e p o rtey l ma m B u kh a ri ) bdT h u s ,t h e a r r i v a lo f th e ti me fo r p ra ye ri s af und a m e n t a lc o n d i ti o nfo r p e rfo rmi ngitand i f , t h e r e f o re a p ra ye ri s i n te n ti o nally ,performedbefore or after its designatedt ime i t s h a l ln o t b e a cce p ta b l i n th e si ght eof Atlah 6Wn. However, Personswho ma y f o r g e t( w i th o u ti n te n ti o n )to e rfor m pany o f t h e o b li g a to ryp ra ye rsw i th i n itsord a i n e dt i m e o r w h o a re o ve rta ke nby s lee p ,t h e n s u ch p e rso n s o u l dp e rfor m sh t h e p r a y e ra s s o o n a s th e y re me mb erit and / o r a s s o o na sth e yw a ke u p f ro mtheir s lee p .We s h a l l n o w e n u me ra teth e d i ffe r entt imi n g s o f t h e fi ve o b l i g a to ry ra ye rs: p -1. F A J R( D a w n )P R A Y E R l ts ti me b e ginsa t d a w n w h e n m o rn i n gl i g h tf i rsta p p ear si n t h e h o r i z o n n dc o n t i n u e s n t i l t h es u n a uris e s .
  44. 44. 2. DHUHR (Nonn) PRAYER- lts timebegin sw h e n t h e su n re a ch e si ts h i g h estpoin t i n t h e s k y a n d co n ti n u e su p to thetime of Asr Prayer.3. AS R ( Af t e r no o n ) R A Y E R- l ts ti m e Pbegin sw h e n t h e sh a d o w o f a n o b j e ctisequa lt o i t s o w n l e n g th , l u sth e l e n g thof pit s n o o n t i m es h a d o wa n d co n ti n u e s n til us unse t .4. MAGHRI8 (Sunset)PRAYER tts time -s t a r t s r o m s u n s e t n dc o n t i n u e s n t i l t h e f a ue n d o f t w i l i g h t . T w i l i g h t i s th e re d n e sswhic h r e m a i n s n th e h o ri zo n fte rsu n set. i a -5 . I S H A( Ev e n i n gP R A Y E R l tsti mesta rts )wh e n t h e t w i l i gh t d i sa p p e a rs n d ac o n t i n u e su p t o m i d - n i g h t .M i d - n i g h ti nthis case may not necessarily bein t e r p r e t e t o m e a n1 2 :OO cl o ck u t may d o bbe c o n s t r u e da s th e mi d -ti me b e tw e en 35
  45. 45. s u n s e t a n d t he a p p e a ra n ce f th e odawn.ADHAAN (CALLTO PRAYER)The "Adhaan" is a call to inform othersinspecif words that the time lor a icpa r t i c u l a r r a ye rh a s b e g u n .l t i s a call to pt he c o n g r e g ati o n n d i s a n e xp re ssion a oft he l s l a m i c r a cti cel.t i s re q u i re d s a n act p af or a l l t h e O b l i g a to ry ra ye rs. PT H E VI R T U ES A D H A A N OFT h e g r e a t n e ss f th e vi rtu e w h i ch l s lam oa t t a c h e st o t h e " A d h a a n " a n d th e onewho performs it i.e. the "Muadhin", canb e n o t e d f r o m th e fo l l o w i n gve rseo f theH o l yO u r a n : 36
  46. 46. "WHO IS BETTERIN SPEECH THAN ONEWHO CALLS (THE PEOPLE) TO ALLAHAND WORKS RIGHTEOUSIVESS.,,( O u r a n 1: 3 3 ) 4T h e m o t h e r o f t he fa i th fu l , A i sh a (ma yA lla h b e p l e a s e d th h e r)co n fi rme d a t wi tht his v e r s e c o n c e rn s a n d re fe rs to th eMu a d h i n a n d w a s re ve a l e d n n o o th er ore a s o nt h a n f o r t he Mu a d h i n .A n d , fr o m t h e p r o p h e ti ctra d i ti o n s, b u AHurairah reported that the Prophet( P B U H )s a i d : ,"lf the people knew the reward in theAdhaan and the f irst row of the prayer andthat they could not get it (the reward)saveby drawing lots, they would draw |ots....."( N a r r a t e db y l m a m B u k h a r i ) And, in another saYing the ProPhet (PBUH), aid: s l7
  47. 47. "The "Muadhins" will on the Day ofJudgement have the longest necks(re f l e c t i n gt h ei r e xcl u si vee mi n e n c e) ".(R e p o r t e d y lma m Mu sl i m) bHOW T H EA D H A A N IS P E R F OR MEDPr e f e r a b l yt,h ere sh o u l db e a n a p p o intedMu a d h i na t e a chMo sq u e h o w i l l ca llthe wpeople to prayer when the time of apa r t i c u l a r r a ye ri s d u e .l n p e rfg rmi ng p theAdhaan, the Muadhrn would stand facingthe directionof the "Aibbh" (the sacredmo s q u ei n M a kka h ). e w o u l d th e n raise Hbo t h h a n d su ptoh i s e a rsa n d sa y i n a loudv o i c et h e f o l l o w i n gw o rd s:1. ALLAHU AKBAR Allah rs thegreatest.(to repeated4 times) be2. ASH-HADU ANLA ILAHA ILLALLAAH-I testify that there is no god but Altah. (tobe r e p e a t e d ti me s) 2
  48. 48. 3. ASH.HADU ANNA MUHAMMADANRASUULULLAAH - ltestifythatMuhammad is Allahs messenger. (to berepeated2 times)4. HAYYAALAS SALAAT - Come fast toprayer. (to be repeated 2 times). TheMuadhin, when reciting this turns thef ac e s l i g h t l yt o t he ri g h t si d e .5. HAYYAALAL FALAAH - Come fast tosuccess. (to be repeated 2 times). TheMuadhin, when reciting this turns thef a c e s l i g h t l yt o t he l e ft si d e .6. ALLAHU AKBAR - Allah is the greatest.(t o be r e p e a t e d ti me s) 27. LAA ILAHA ILLALLAAH - There is nogod but Allah. (to be recitedonce)No t e : l n t h e Ad ha a n ,fo r e F a j r (D a w n) thpray e r ,t h e f o l l o w i n g w o rd s a re re ci tedt wic e a f t e r H a y y a a l aF a l a a h : l 39
  49. 49. "ASSALATU KHEIRUM MINA NAWM.(to be recited two times)whichmeans- for"Salaat is better than sleep".WH A T S O M E ON ES U P P L IC A T EU PON SHE AR I N G H E A D H A A N TIt is preferredpractice that when a personhears the Adhaan, he should repeatthewo r d s t h e Mu a d h i n ca l l s o u t, e xcept,wh e n h e s a y s " H a a ya a l a l S a l a a t andH a y y aa l a l F a l a a h " , h e l i s t e n e r s h o u l d tinsteadsay:"LA HOWLA WALA AUWATA ILABILLAH", which means -"There is no power and strength exceptbyAllah". 40
  50. 50. THE SUPPLICATION AFTER THEADHAANUpon the completionof the Adhaan, it isrecommendedthat the listener recitest he f o l l o w i n gs u pp l i ca ti o n :ALL AH U M M A R A B B A H A D H IH IDDAWATI - TAMMAH. WASALATILAAIMAH. ATI MUHAMMADANALWASILATA WAL FADHILATA,WAA B AT H U H U MA A A MU M MA H .MUDA N - A L L A D H II WA A D T A H U ".whic h m e a n s-"O Allah, Lord of this complete call and ofthe prayer to be held, grant Muhammadthe most favoured and excellent positionin the Paradiseand raise him to the praiseworthy place that You have promisedhim".I t is h i g h l y r e c omme n d e d re ci te the toabove s u p p l i c a ti o n t th e e n d o f e ve ry a 4l
  51. 51. Adhaan and in this regard the Prophet( P B U Hs a i d : )"....it becomes obligatory upon me tointercede for him (person reciting thesupplication) on the Day of Judgement".(R e p o r t e d y l ma m B u kh a ri ) bToAMAH(SECONDCALL TO PRAYER)"lqamah" is the secondcall to the prayera n d i s s a i d i n si d eth e Mo sq u ea t th e s tar to f t h e c o n g r e g a ti o n ap ra ye r.l t g o es as lfollows:l. ALLAHUAKBAR (repeated two times)2. ASH-HADU ANLA ILLAHA ILA LAAH.(on c e )3. ASH-HADU ANNA MUHAMMADARRASULUL-LAAH.(once)4. HAYYAALAS-SALAAL (once) 42
  52. 52. (once)5. HAYYAALAL-FALAAH.6. AAD AAMATIS-SALAAT. (rePeatedtwo times)7. ALLAHUAKBAR.(repeated two times)8. LAA ILAAHA ILA-LAAH. (once)Notes:a . lt is r e c o m m e n d e d a t a b ri e f ti me thgappi n g b e m ai n ta i n e d b e tw e e n th e" A d h a a n "a n d t h e " l q a m a h "t o a l l o wt h ec ongr e g a t i o no ge t re a d yfo r th e sa l a a t. tb . lt i s p r e f e r r e dth a t th e " l q a ma h " i sp e r f o r m e d y t h e s a m ep e r s o n M u a d h i n ) b (who p e r f o r m e d he " A d h a a n " . tc . lt i s d i s l i k e dfo r a n yo n eto l e a veth emo s q u e o n c e t h e " A d h a a n " i s ma d e,u n less f o r u r g e n t re a so n (s) u t w i th a bdet er m i n a t i o no re tu rnfo r th e p ra ye r. t 43
  53. 53. d. lt is prohibited offervoluntaryprayers toaft e r l q a m a h h a s b e e n ca l l e d o u t. ThePr o p h e t P B U H ) ys: ( sa"When lqamah is called out, no prayer ispermissible except the obligatory one".(R e p o r t e d y l ma m Mu sl i m) be. l f a p e r s o n mi sse s a p ra ye r d ue too v e r s l e e p i n go r fo r g e t f l n e s s , t h e n , ubefore starting the missed prayer thepe r s o ni s r e qu i re dto co me u p w i th bothA d h a a n a n d l q a ma h ,However,if a personmissesa number ofpra y e r s ,i t i s pre fe rre d a t h e co mes up thw i t h o n l yo n e " A d h a a n "f o r a l l t h em i s s e dp ra y e r s , u t t o co me u p w i th a se p ar ate b" l q a m a h "f o r e a c hs a l a a t . t. Where a person misses thec on g r e g a t i o na p ra ye r a t th e mo sque, ls uc ha p e r s o n, e fo re rti n g p ra yis at b sta tolib e r t y t o e i t h e r p e rfo rm o r o mi t the M
  54. 54. A d h a a n a n d t h e l q a ma h .H o w e ve r,i f hedecides to Perform the Adhaan, it ispreferredthat he does it in a low voicesoas not to attract the attention of othersout si d e .g. lt is not obligatory women to perform ont he A d h a a na n d l q a ma hb u t i f th e yw i shtoperfo r mt h e s a m e th e re i s n o h a rm.PE R F O R M AN COF T H E S A I A A T EAfter introducing the salaat andd is cu s s i n g i t s p re -re q u i si te s, e shall wnow t u r n t o ma tte rs p e rta i n i n gto itsac t u a lp e r f o r m a n ce . CONDITIONS FOR THE PRAYER (SH U R U U D - L -S A IA T ) Th e r e a r e a n u mb e ro f co n d i ti o n s h ich w n e e d t o b e f u l fi l l e dfo r th e p ra ye rto be v a l i d .T h e s ea r e a s f o l l o w s : 45
  55. 55. 1. A c c e p t a n ce o f l sl a mi c F a i thd is b e l i e v e r a r e n o t re q u i re d e sta b lish s toSafaat until they believein "Attah6WD"and b e a rw i t n e s sth a t th e re i s n o g o d butAlla h a n d b e a rwi tn e ssth a t Mu h a mm adis Hi s s e r v a n ta n d me sse n g e r.2. Anniyah - this in Arabic means theintention by heart to perform thep a rt i c u l a r r a y e r. p -3. Cleanliness this includescleanlinesso f t h e b o d y , t h e cl o th e s a n d th e p l acewhere the prayer is to be performed.4. Purification - this refers to theperformance Wudhu(or Ghuslwhere it ofis re q u i r e d ) p ri o r to u n d e rta ki n gthepraye r .5. Concealing of the Private parts - for ama n , i t i s e s s e nti a th a t h e b e co ve re d l atleastf r o m t h e n a ve l toth e kn e e sa l l ro u nd,wh ile , i n t h e c a seo f a w o ma n , h e r b o dy 46
  56. 56. should be totally coveredexceptfor thef a c e a n d w r i s t s.6. Facingthe "Aiblah" - this meansthat aperson when prayingmust face towardst h e d i r e c t i o n o f th e sa cre d mo sq u e in"Makkah". Where a personis not able tolo c a t e t h e d i r ecti o nb y h i mse l f/h e rself,the person may ask another personwho may know the direction of the Aibbh. Ho w e v e r , f n o o n e i s i n si g h tto g u i d eto it h e r i g h t d i r ecti o n , th e n , th e p e rson s ho u l d d e c i d e fo r h i mse l f,/h e rse land f make the best guess of the correct direction of the Aiblah, and accordingly, p e r f o r mt h e p r aye ri n th a t d i re cti o n ven e t ho u g h t h e g u e ss ma yb e i n co rre ct. The prayer performed would still be a c c e p t a b l e l n s h a A l l a h ) i n vi e w o f the ( f o llo w i n gv e r s eo f th e H o l YOu ra n . "Whichever direction ye turn there is the P re s e n c e f A l l a h ," (Ou ra n2 :1 1 5 l o
  57. 57. 7. Timing - prayersare to be observedin t h e i r p r e s c r i b e d me s. ti 8. Sanity and consciousness prayer is - re q u i r e d n l y fr om p e rso n s f so u n dmi nd. o o9. Ability to distinguish - prayer isrequ i r e do n l y w h e re th e p e rso n(ch i l d)isa b let o d i s t i n g ui sh e tw e e n o o da n d b ad, b ga n d i s a b l e t o un d e rsta n d n d a p p re ciate afully what is to be recited,performedetc.Note: I t is p r e f e r r e d fo r ch i l d re n to b e gin performingthe praverat the age of sevenf or i t a w a k e n si n th e m th e p re se n ceof "Allah (SWT)"and incutcates them in theh a b i t o f p r a y i n ga s a n a ct o f w o rsh i pa ndlovetof Allah 6WD". A child at the ageof1 O is m a d e t o u n d e rsta n d a t p ra ye ris thn e c e s s a r i la p a rto f th e p e rso n ,s a i l yl i fe y dand is a solemn duty ordainedby ,Altah(S W T ) "o n l l M u sl i ms,a n d th a t fa i l u reto a 48
  58. 58. p e rf o rm i t i s a n a ct o f d i sb e l i e f(K u fr).Therefore,parentsare requiredto guideth eir ch i l d r e n t o th e ri g h t p a th b yp u n is h i n ga n y o f t he m w h o a t th e a g e o f1 O in t e n t i o n a l l y i sse sth e p ra ye rs. mTh e P ro p h e t P B U H ), i d : ( sa"Order your children to pray when theyreach the age of seven and punish themfor not performing it at the age of ten andseparate them (i.e. boys and girls) in theirbe d s . " ( R e p o r t e d y l ma m B u h ka ri ) bUponattaining he age of 15, a childis td e e me d t o h a v e re a ch e d a d u l th o o d,whereby, he,/she is requiredto performth e p ra y e r . H e r e be l o w , re so me o th e r asig n sw h i c h m a y i n d i ca te a t a ch i l dh a s tha t t a ine da d u l t h o o d .a . T h e g r o w i n go f p u b i ch a i r s .b . F i n d i n g r a c e so f s e m e no n t h e c h i l d s tclo t h e sa n d , / o rb e d . 49
  59. 59. c. The start of menstruation, the caseof ina girl. OF T H E A C T S OF THEC AT EG O R IE SSAr AvATA l l t h e a c t s, re a d i n g sa n d su p p l i cationsu n d e r t a k e ni n th e co u rse o f th e salaathave different legal weights andim p l i c a t i o n s.T h e y a re ca te g o ri sedasfollows:A. Pilfarsof the Salaat - (Arkanu-Salaat)B . N e c e s s a ry D u ti e s o f th e S a laat(Wajibatu-Salaat)C . P r e f e r r e d A cts o f th e S a l aat(Sunnanu-Salaat)W e s h a l l no w d i scu ss e a ch o f thesec a t e g o r i e sn tu rn . i 50
  60. 60. PILLARSOF THE SAr ^vAT - (ARKANU-SAI AAT)Th e pra y e r h a s o b l i g a to ryp i l l a rsw h i chmu s t be f u l fi l l e df o r i t to b eva l i da n dth e seare as f o l l o w s :1. Al-Aiyaam" - prayer is to bep erf orm e d i n a sta n d i n g p o si ti o n i f ap ers oni s p h y s i c a l l y p a b l e . ca2. "Takbiiratil lhraam", that is saying"ALLAHU AKBAR". at the commence-me n t o f t h e p r a y er.3. "Al-Fatihah" - that is reciting theopenin g c h a p t e r of th e H o l y Ou ra n i nev e ryR a k a a t .4. "Rukuu" - this is bowing posturewh e re b y t h e h e ad a n d th e b a ck a rep os it io n e do n t h e sa me l e ve l a n d b o thh a n d s a r e r e s t e do n th e kn e e sw i th th ef ingerss p r e a da p a rt. 5l
  61. 61. 5 . A r e q u i r e m e nto ra i seth e h e a du p f r om tt h e R u k u up osi ti o n .6 . A r e q u i r e me n tto sta n d u p fro m theR u k u u p o s i ti o n i n su ch a w a y th at theperson feels that all his,/her backbonesa r e s t r a i g h te n e d .7. "Sujuud" that is prostrating oneselfins u c h a w a y t h a t th e fo l l o w i n gse ve npar tso f t h e b o d y a re fi rml y p l a ce d o n theg r o u n d : h e f ore h e a d g e th e r i th the tip t to wo f t h e n o s e, b o th th e p a l ms, b o th theknees,the bottom surface of the toes ofboth feet.8 . A r e q u i r e me n to ra i seth e h e a dfr om tt h e S u j u u dp o s i t i o n .9 . A r e q u i r e m e n t s i t u p r i g h t u r i n gt h e to dpause between the two prostrations.1 0 . A r e q u i r e m e n tt o t a k e a S i t t i n g
  62. 62. Position for the recitation of the "At-Tashahud" (words of witness).1 1 . A requirement to recite the tinal "At-Tashahud". .1 2 . A r e q u i r e m ento re ci teth e w o rd s of ts uppl i c a t i o no r t h e P ro p h e t B U H ). f (P1 3 . A r e q u i r e m ento co n cl u d e e p ra yer t thwith the words of peace "Tasleem", i.e."Assalamu Aleykum Wa RahmatullaahiWa Barakatuh".1 4 . A r e q u i r e m e n tt h a t i n f u l f i l l i n g t h eabove pillarsthe person should be in astate of tranquility.The above are the pillars of the prayer,wherein, if any of them is missed,it isr e q u i r e dt o r e p e a tt h e w h o l e R a k a a t U n i t ) (i n w h i c h t h e p i l l a r i s o m i t t e d ,b u t i f , t h eTakbiiratil - lhraam is omitted, it becomesn e c e s s a r yt o r e p e a t t h e w h o l e s a l a a t . 53
  63. 63. NECESSARYDUTIES THE SALAAT OF(wAJTBATU-SAr AAT)ln a d d i t i o nt o th e a b o ve1 4 p i l l a rso f thepra y e r ,t h e r e are a l so ce rta i n n e ce ssar ydu t i e s w h i c h n e e d to b e fu l fi l l e d i n thec ou r s eo f t h e sa l a a t. h e sea re a s fo l l ows: T1 . Sa y i n g "AL L A H U A K B A R " i n thecourseof the prayerwhere it is necessary,e. g . u p o n c o mme n ci n g u ku ue tc.,e tc. R2. Saying "SUBHANAA RABBIYALA Z I M . " w h e n i n R u k u up o s i t i o n .3. Saying "SAMI ALLAHU LIMANHA M I D A H " wh i l e re su mi n g sta n dingp o s i t i o nf r o m t h e R u k u u w h e t h e r t h eper s o ni s a n "l ma m" (l e a d e r)o i s p ra ying ralone. 54
  64. 64. 4. Saying "RABBANA WALAKALHAMD"when r e s u m i n g th e sta n d i n g p o si ti onf ro m th e R u k u u a fte r sa yi n gth e w o rd s:SAMI ALLAHU LIMAN HAMIDAH". Thisis required from the lmam (leader), fromthe congregation and even from a personwho is praying alone.5. Saying SUBHANARABBIYAL AALA"wh e n i n S u j u u d( p ro stra ti o np o si ti o n . )6. Saying "RABBI IGHFIR LEE" in thes it t in gp a u s eb e t we e n e tw o p ro tra ti o ns thof eve r y u n i t o f t he p ra ye r.7. Ta k i n g a Si tti n g P o si ti o n fo r therecitation of At-Tashahudafter the firstt w o r a k a a t su n i t s ) oD h u h r A s r ,M a g h r i b ( f ,and ls h a p r a y e r s.8 . Re c i t i n gt h e A t-T a sh a h u d (w o rd s ofwit n e s s )a f t e rt h e fi rst tw o ra ka a ts n i ts) (uo f D h u h r ,A s r , M a g h r i b n d l s h ap r a y e r s . a 55
  65. 65. The above8 actsconstitute the necessarydu t i e so f t h e p ra ye ra n d i f o n e o f th em ismi s s e du n i n t e n ti o n a l l y, e nth e p e rsonis thre q u i r e d o a me n dth e mi sta ke y co m ing t bup with the two prostrations offorgetfulnessat the end of the prayer.However,if any of these duties is left outd e l i b e r a t e l y , e n th e w h o l e p ra yer is thn u l l i f i e d n d s h a l l r e q u i r ea r e p e t i t i o n . aPREFERRED ACTS OF THE SALAAT(s u N AN U - S A A A T ) rI n a d d i t i o nt o th e P i l l a rsa n d N e ce ssar ydu t i e s a l r e a d yd i scu sse dth e re a re also ,c e r t a i np r e f e r re d ctsto b e f u tfi l l e d n the a icourseof the prayer. Theseare as follows:1. R e c i t i n g o f a n o p e n i n g su p p l i cation(Dua-al-lstiftaah) after the "Takbiiratil-lhraam".2 . P l a c i n g h e h a n d so ve rth e ch e stw hile tt h e p e r s o ni s in a sta n d i n gp o si ti o nwith 56
  66. 66. t h e ri g h t h a n d p l a ce do ve r th e l e ft h a n d.3 . Ra i s i n g f b o t h h a n d su p toth e l e ve lof othe shouldersor near to the lobesof theears when saying "Takbiiratil-lhraam";wh e n h e a d i n g l o r th e R u ku u ; w h e nre s u m i n g s t a n di n g p o si ti o n fro m th eRukuu and when resuming standingpositionfrom the prostration.4. See k i n g h e p r o te cti o n f A l l a hfro m th e t oc u rs e ds a t a n( o n l ya t th e sta rt o f th e fi rstra k a a t ) y s a y i n g: b"Auzu billahi minas- shaytani-r-rajiim,"which means"l seek Allahs refuge from the cursedsatan."5 . Sta r t i n g t h e p ra ye r w i th th e si l e ntinvocationof "Allah (SWf)" by saying: 57
  67. 67. ISM ILLAHI -R.RAHMAN I -R- - BRAHEEM." which means"ln the name of Allah theCompassionate,the M erciful." 6. S a y i n g"A me e n " u p o n co n cl u d i ngthe recitation of "Al-Fatihah".7 . R e c i t i n g o mech a p te rs r p a ssa g esat s o (le a s tt h r e e ( 3 ) ve rse s) f th e H o l yOur an oatter Al-Fatihah in the first two rakaats(un i t s )o f e a c h p ra ye r.8. A preference that the recitationof Al-Fatihah and of any other additionalre a d i n g s r o m th e H o l yOu ra na re re cited fin a l o u d v o i c e i n th e fi rst tw o ra ka atsofFa j r ,M a g h r i ba n d l sh a p ra ye rs.9 . A p r e f e r e nce a t w h e n si tti n gfo r the thtirstAt-Tashahud and in betweenthe twop ro s t r a t i o n sth e , p e rso nre stso n h i s leftf o o tf l a t t e n e d n th e g ro u n dw h i l e ke eping o 58
  68. 68. the right foot erect with the bottomof thet oes f i r m e d o n t h e g ro u n d .1O.A preference practtce to At-Tawarukwhen sitting for the final At-Tashahudinthe Dh u h r ,A s r , M a g h ri b n d l sh ap ra ye rs. a"At-Tawaruk" is a mode of sitting,w here i nt h e p e r so np ro tru d e s u t h i s l e ft of oot f r o m u n d e r ne a th i s ri g h tl e g ,i n su ch ha way that the persondoesnot relaxon hisleft foot.11 . R e c i t i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g s u p p l i c a -t ion, w h e n s i t t i n g fo r A t-T a sh a h u d ,i nb e t we e nt h e s u p p l i ca ti o n r th e P ro p h et fo(PB U H ) n d t h e f i n a l w o rd s o f p e a ce : a,,ALLAHUMMA INII AUDHU BIKA MINADHABI JAHANAMA. WAMIN ADHABIILAABR. WAMIN FITNATILMAHYAA WAL-MA-MATI, WAMIN FITNATIL MASIHID-D A J AA L ". w h i c h me a n s- 59
  69. 69. "O Lord I seek your protection from thetorment of Jahanam (the hell fire), andfrom the torment of the grave, and fromthe trials of living and dying and from thetrials of the Masiih Addajaal."The abovepointsare the preferred actsofthe prayer and all M uslims areencouragedto preservethese practicesbecause their observance entitles theperson great rewards f rom "Allah(SWf)". However, missing any of themd o e s n e i t h e r i n va l i d a teth e sa l a a t norrequire the two prostrations off o r g e tu l n e s s . fHO W T H E S A L A A TIS P E R F OR ME DHa v i n g k n o wn i n d e ta i l a l l th e d i ffer entacts of the praYer, i.e.,its Pillars,n e c e s s a r y u ti e s a n d p re fe rre d cts ,we d as h a l ln o w d i s c u s s n b r i e fh o w t h e S a l a a t iis p e r f o r m e d l l o w i n g e e xa mp l e the fo th ofP r o p h e ( P B U H )a n d i n d u e r e g a r d o h i s t , t 60
  70. 70. f amouss a y i n g :,,SALUU KAMA RAEYTUMUNIIUSALI,which means"Perform your prayers in the samemanner you have seen me doing."Trans m i t t e d y Al -B u kh a ri bW e s ha l ld i s c u s s h e p e rfo rma n ce f e a ch t oprayer in its properperspective.r. " F AJR ( D AW N )P R A Y E R " .Number of Rakaats.TwoR e c it a t i o n O u r a n i c re ci ta ti o n si n th i sp ra y e r a r e m a d e in a l o u d vo i ce b y th elm a m i n a c o n g r e g a ti o n ra ye r a n d b y pw h o e v e rp r a y sa l o n e .Performance: 1. Th e p e r s o nt u r ns to w a rd sth e d i re cti o n of the Aibbh, (the sacred Mosque at 6l
  71. 71. Makkah), intending by heart to performthe Fajr (Dawn)prayer.Note:T h e p e r s o ns h o u l dn o t p ro n o u n ce i s,/her hin t e n t i o n o pe n l y b e ca u se n e i th er theP r o p h e ( P B U H ) o r h i s co mp a n i o n s t n usedt o u t t e r t h e ir i n te n ti o nfo r p ra ye r.Thus,p r o n o u n c i n g e i n te n ti o ni n a l o u dvoice this a n i n n o v a ti o n n d i s to ta l l yre j e c ted. a2.T h e p e r s o n e n ra i se s o thh a n d sup to th bt h e l e v e lo f t h e sh o u l d e rs r n e a rth e lobes oof the ears, pronouncesthe "Takbiiratit -lhraam" by saying "ALLAHU AKBAR"an d p l a c e s oth h a n d so ve rth e ch e s twith bt h e r i g h t h a nd o ve r th e l e ft.B y r e c i t i n g h e " T a k b i i r a t i-l l h r a a m " . h e t tperson thus, resolves for prayer andenters into a state of worship and ist h e n c e f o r t hre q u i re dto ca l l to mi n d themajestyand glory of "Allah (SWT)" and to 62
  72. 72. dedicate his intentions, recitationsandact io n st o H i m a l o ne u n ti l th e e n d o f th epray er . W h i l e p r ayi n g th e p e rso n i srequiredto direct his eyesdownwardsatthe spot of Prostration.3. The personthen recitesin a low voicean o p e n i n g s u p p l i ca ti o n r th e p ra ye r. foH e reb e l o wa r e t h r e e o f th e su p p l i ca ti o n sw h ic h t h e P r o p h e( P B U H )u seto p ra cti ce t dan d t he M u s l i m i s e xh o rte d me mo ri ze toat least one of them for recitationeacht ime a p r a y e ri s p erfo rme d :a). "SUBHANAKA ALLAHUMMA WABEHAMDIKA WATABARAKA ISMOKA,WATAALA JADDOKA WALA ILAHAGHAYROKA". which means -"Praise and glory be to Allah. Blessed beYour name exalted be Your maiesty andglory. There is no god but You". 63
  73. 73. b). "ALLAHUMMA BA|D BAYNT WABAYNA KHATAYAYA KAMA BAADTABAYNA.AL.MASHRIKI WAL MAGHRIBI.ALLAHUMMA NAAANIY MIN KHA-TAYAYAKAMA YONAAA-AL-THOWBO -ALABYADO MIN-AL.DANASI,ALLAHUMMA IAYSILNIY MIN KHA.TAYAYA BIL-MAI. WATHALJI,WALBARAD".which means"O Lord, separateme from my sinsasyouhave separated the east and west. O Lord,cleanse me of my srns as the white robe iscleansed from dirt. O Lord, wash away mysins with water, snow and hail".c). "WAJAHTU WAJHIYA LtLLADHttFA.TARA-AL-SAMAWATI WAL.ARDHIHANIIFAN MUSLIMAN WAMAA ANAMINAL MUSHRIKIINA, INNA SALATIIWANUSUKII WAMAHYAYA WAMA-MATII LILLAHI RABEILALAMIINA LAASH,ARIKALAHU WABIDHALIKA UMIRTU
  74. 74. WA ,ANA MINAL-MUSLIMIINA". whichme a n s"l turn my face to Him Who created theheavens and the earth, as a true believerand a Muslim, and nay, am I one of thepolytheists. Truly, my prayer and mysacrifices, my life and my death. allbelongto Allah, Lord of the worlds, Who has nopartner. Thisam lcommanded, and lam ofthose who submit to His Will".4. The personthen seeksthe protection of"Allah (SWf)" from the cursed satan bysaying "AUZO BILLAHI MTNALSHAYTANI-R-RAJIIM".5. Th e p e r s o n h en si l e n tl yi n vo ke s" A l tah t(SWf)" by saying:,, B ISM IL LA H -R-RAHMAN -R-RAHIIM".w h i c h m e a n s- 65
  75. 75. "ln the name of Allah. the all Merciful, theall Compassionate".The personimmediately thereafterrecites"AL-FATIHAH" (openingchapter of theG lo r i o u s O u r a n ) i n d u e re g a rd to thef o l l o w i n gs a y i n go f th e P ro p h e t B UH) : (P"Prayer without reciting theAl-Fatihahis invalid". (Reported lmam Bukhari) byUpon completionof the "Al-Fatihah" thepe r s o ns a y s "A me e n " l o u d l y.6. T h e p e r s on th e n re ci te s ch a p ter s,v er s e s o r p a ssa g e s n i mu m o f thr ee (miv er s e s ) r o m t he H o l yOu ra n .H o w e v er it f ,is r e c o m m e nd e d a t l o n g p a ssa g es e th arre c i t e df o r t h e F a j r(D a w np ra ye r. )No t e :lf the person is praying with ai o n g r e g a t i o nb e h i n d a n l m a m ( l e a d e r ) 66
  76. 76. h e , / s h e o u l da pp l yN o s.1,2 ,3 a n d 4 , a nd wwoufd listento the lmam recitingthe "Al-Fatihah" loudly and upon the lmamc omp l e t i n gt s r e ci ta ti o n , e p e rso n l o ng i th awith the rest of the congregation wouldsay "Ameen" loudly after which, thepersonwould apply No. 5 in a low voice.7. Th e n ,t h e p e r so np ro ce e d s " R u ku u" to(b o w i n g ) o s i t i on i si n gb o th h a n d su p to p rathe levelof the shoulders nearthe lobesorof the ears saying "ALLAHU AKBAR".Wh ile i n t h i s po si ti o n , th e p e rso n isrequired to excercise serenity andt ranq u i l i t y o s i t io n i n g e h e a da n d b a ck p thon t h e s a m e l e ve l ,p u tti n gb o th h a n d so nt h e kn e e s w i t h th e fi n g e rs sp re a d a nds ay in g t h e f o l l o w i n g w o rd s fo r a t l e astt h r e et i m e s :"SUBHANA RABBIYAL AZM". whichm e a n s-"Glorified is my Lord the Great." 67
  77. 77. I n a d d i t i o n w h i l e i n R u ku up o si ti o n , t is , ialso advisable say: to"SUBHANAKA ALLAHUMMA WABIHAM DIKA, ALLAHUM MA EGHFIRLII,wh i c h m e a n s-"Glory be to Thee, O Allah, and praise beto Thee, forgive me my sins".8. Then, the person raises from the" Ru k u u " p o s i ti o nl i fti n gb o th h a n d suptot h e l e v e lo f t h e sh o u l d e rs r n e a rth el obes oof the ears saying:SAMI AALLAHU LIMAN HAMIDAH",wh i c h m e a n s"Allah listens to him who praises Him."Th e p e r s o nt h e n , i mme d i a te l y ci te s re thefollowing supplication while stillstanding: 68
  78. 78. .RABBANA WA LAKA AL HAMDUHAMD AN K A T HE E R A N T A Y Y IB A NMOBARAKAN FEEHIY MILASSAMAWATI WA MILA ALARDHI WAMILA MA BAYNAHOMA WA MILA MASHIATA MIN SHIYIN BAAD", whichmeans"Our Lord, praise be to Theeonly, praisesplentiful and blessings as to fill theheavens, the earth, and what /s inbetween, and fill that which will pleaseThee besides them".Howe v e r i f a p e r so n l l o w i n g n l ma m i n , fo aa c on g r e g a t i o n ap ra ye r i s n o t a b l e to lconrplete the above supplication itsuffices to say "RABBANA WA LAKAALHAMD".It is also advisableor the lmam. the ff ollow e r o r o n e wh o p ra ys a l o n e to a d df u r t h e rt h e s u p p l i c a t i o h e r e b e l o w : n
  79. 79. "AHLU THANAAI WALMAJDI A-HAAUMA AAALA ALABDU WAKULUNA LAKAABD, ALLAHUMMA LA MAANIA LIMAADEYTA WALA M UDIYA LIMAMANATA WALA YANFAUDHAL-JADDIMINKAL JADD". which means -"You Allah who deserves all praises andall glory, Your praising is the best andmost true of whatever Your servant cansay, we are allYour servants.Our Lord,noone can ever depriveanything of what Youhave bestowed and no one can ever giveanything of what You have deprived."Wh i l e i n t h e sta n d i n g p o si ti o n afterRu k u u , h e p e rso ni s a d vi se d p l a ceboth t toha n d so v e rt h e ch e sti n th e sa mema nnerbe f o r e b o w in g , si n ce , th i s w a s thepr a c t i c e f t h e P ro p h e t B U H ). o (P9. T h e p e r s o n th e re a fte r p ro ce e dstoprostration saying: "ALLAHU AKBAR"a n d t o u c h i n gt h e g r o u n dw i t h t h e k n e e s 70
  80. 80. first before the hands if possible.However,if not possible, personmay thet ouc h t h e g r o u n dw i th th e h a n d sb e fo ret he k n e e s . W h il e i n p ro stra ti o n ,th ep e rs o n s h o u l d p l a ce se ve n p a rts o f th eb o d yo n t h e g r o un d .T h e sep a rtsa re :th eforehead, together with the nose, bothp a lm s o f t h e h an d s (fi n g e rs sh o u l d bestretched, closed together and pointedt owa r d st h e d i r e cti o n f th e Oi b l a h ), o th o bknees,the bottompartsof the toesof bothf eet (t o e s p o i n t e dto th e d i re cti o no f theO i b l a h ) . D u r i n g t h e p r o s t r a t i o n st h e ,p e rs o ns a y s f o r th re e ti me s o r mo re thef o llo w i n gw o r d s :"SUBHANA RABBIYAL AALA", whichmeans"Glorified is my Lord the Exalted".I t is a l s o a d v i s a b l e sa y fu rth e r: to 7l
  81. 81. ,,SUBHANAKAALLAHUM MA RABBANAWA BI HAMDIKA, ALLAHUMMA IGHFIRLll", which means"Glory be to Thee,our Lord, and I praise beto Thee. O Lord, forgiue me my sins"Wh i l e i n p r o stra ti o n i,t i s re co mmendedthat the person recites as manysupplicationsas possible asking "Allah(SWf)" for prosperity both in this worldlylif e a n d i n t h e l i fe h e re a fte r e ca u se b theProphet(PBUsaid: H)When performing Rukuu glorify Allah , (SW T I , b u t d u ri n gp ro stra ti o n , n d e avour e t o m a k ea s m an ysu p p l i ca ti o na s p o s sible s Allah (SWTL to for supplications during p ro s t r a t i o n a re a l mo st ce rta i n to be a c c e p t e d . "( Re p o rte y l ma m Mu sl i m ) bdI n v i e w o f t h e a b o vep ro p h e ti c d ition, trawe q u o t e h e re b e l o w so me o f thes u p p l i c a t i o n s n d p ri va tep ra ye rsw hich a 72
  82. 82. t h e P r o p h e t( PB U H ) se d to sa y w h i l e i n upros tr a t i o n :a.,ALLAHUMMA LAKA SAJADTU,WABIKA AMANTU, WALAKA ASLAMTUSAJADA WAJHII LILLADHII KHA-LAAAHU FASAWARAHU FAAH.SANASUW A R A H I J , FA S H A A A S A MA H UWABAS ARA H U. FATABA RAKA. LLAH UAHSANA-L-KHAUAllN". which means"O Lord, to Thee I prostrate in Thee Ibelieve and to Thee I submit; MY face prostrates to He Who created andfashioned it and made its form good andprovided it with hearing and sight; praisebe to Altah, the most excellent ofcreators". RABBI ADI NAFSII TAAWAHA b. WAZAKIHA, ANTA KHAYRIJ-MANZA- KAHA ANTA WALIYUHAA WAMAU- L AH AA . " w h i c h me a n s
  83. 83. " O Lord, give my soul its devoutnessand purify it, for none other than Thou can purify it, Thou are its Lord and Master,,. Wh i l e i n p r o s tra tl o nth e p e rso nsh ould , no t b r i n gt h e ha n d scl o seto th e h e a dand should not stick the arms to the a b d o m e nA l s o,th e p e rso nsh o u l dn e i ther . s t ic kt h e a b d o me n th i g h sn o rth e th ighs to t o l e g s . T h e a rms sh o u l d b e d i sta nced from the body and raised up from the g ro u n d b e c a use th e p ro p h e t (p BUH) p ro h i b i t e d l a t te n i n gth e m o n th e g ro und f a c c o r d i n g o t h e fo l l o w i n gsa yi n g ; t"Adjust your prostration, keep straight init and stretch not your hands on theground as dogs do". (Reporterdby lmamBukhari) 10. T h e p e r s o nth e re a fte rra i se s u p theh e a d f r o m p r o stra ti o n yi n g ,A L L AHU saAKBAR", and sits up resting on the leftf ootfl a t t e n e d n th e g ro u n dw h i l e ke e p ing o 74
  84. 84. the right foot erect with the toes of theright f o o t f i r m e d o n th e g ro u n d Wh i l e i nt h is p o s i t i o n b o th p a l msa re to b e p l a ced ,on the knees and the person recitesthef o llo w i n gs u P P l i ca ti o n :RA BI Y A I AH F IR L II, WA R H A MN IIWAHDINII. WAJBIJRNII. WARZANEEWAA FINEE", which means"O my Lord, forgive me have mercY onme, guide me, consoleme, provide for meand h e a l m e . " 1 1. T h e p e r s o np ro stra te s g a i n sa yi ng a "ALLAHUAKBAR"andrepeatswhat was d o n e i n t h e f i r s t P ro stra ti o n 1 2 . f h e p e r s o nth e n ra i se s e h e a dfrom th " A L L A HU t h e se c o n dp r o stra ti o n yi n gsa AK B A R ",a n d t a ke sa si tti n gp a u se mi lar si t o t h e P au s e b e t w e e n t h e t w o p ro s t r a t i o n s .h i s i s a p a u sefo r re sta n d it T is re c o m m e n de d t5 ke su ch a p a u s e to ta
  85. 85. alt h o u g ht h e r e i s n o h a rm i f o mi tte d That . is the endof one "Rakaat,,(unit). 13. The personthereafter,says ALLAHU AKBAR and stands up for the second Ra k a a tw h i c h i s p e rfo rme di n th e sam e ma n n e r a s t h e fi rst R a ka a tw h e re b ythe p e r s o nc o m e sup w i th a l l th e a cti o n sand reci t a t i o n s f r o m N o s. 1 u p to 1 1 as discussed above. 14. Upon completing the second prostrationas discussed No. 12 above, in the person takes a sitting for the ,At_ Tashahud" (wordsof witness)and while in th i s p o s i t i on ,th e fi n g e rs o f th e ri ght han da r e t o b e pl a ce d o se -fi stesa vethe cl d inde x f i n g e r wh i ch th e p e rso n u se s to p o in to u t a s a n in d i ca ti o n r mo n o th e istic fo beli e f a l t h o u g h,th e p e rso nma y a s well k ee p b o t h t h e li ttl e a n d th e ri n g fi n g er sc l o s e d ,w h i l e r o u n d i n gt h e t h u m b a n dmid d l ef i n g e r i n a ri n g -sh a p e d rm a nd fous e st h e i n d e xf in g e rto p o i n to u t a s a signf or m o n o t h e i s ti b e l i e f. t h a sb e e nre l a ted c l 76
  86. 86. that the Prophet(PBUH),practicedboththese methods and it is advisable topracticethe first methodat times and theother methodat othertimesThe left hand is placedon the left kneewith the f ingers kept open.After sitting as discussed above, thepersonrecitesthe,4T-Tashahud(words ofwit n e s s )a s f o l l o w s: AT TAHIYYATULILAHI WASALAWATU WATAYYIBATU ASSALAMU ALAYKA AYUHAN-NABIYU WA RAHMATULLAHI WA BARAKATUHU,ASALAMU ALAYNA WA ALA IBADI-L-LAHI-S-SALIHIYN. ASH-HADU ANLA ILAHA ILA LAHU WAH DAHU LA SHARIKA LAHU WA ASH.HA- DU ANNA MUHAMMADAN ABDUHU WA RASUULUH.ALLAHUMMA SALLIYALA MUHAMMAD WA ALA AALI MUHAMMAD, KAMA SALAYTA ALA IBRAHIMA, WA AALA AALI IBRAHIM.
  87. 87. INAKA HAMIDON MAJID. WA BARIKALAA MUHAMMAD WA ALAA AALIMUHAMMAD KAMA BARAKTA ALAIBRAHIMA WA ALAA AALI IERAHIM.INAKA HAMTDONMAJtD...which means "Greetings, prayers and our good deeds are for Allah. Peace,mercy and blessings of Allah be on you O prophet. May peacebe upon us and on the devout slaves ofAllah. l testify that there is no god butAllah (the person when reciting thistestimony points out the index finger as asign of monotheistic belief) and I testifythat Muhammad /s His slave andmessenger. O Lord, bless Muhammadand his family as you blessedlbrahim andhis family. You are the Most-praised, TheMost-Glorious. O Lord,bestow your graceon Muhammad and his famity as youbestowed it on lbrahim and hisfamily. youa re t h e M o s t-p ra i se d , th e Mo st_Glorious." 78
  88. 88. It is recommendedto add to the aboveread i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g su p p l i ca ti o ninwhic h t h e p e rso n a sks fo r A l l a h sp ro t e c t i o nr o m fo u r e vi l s: f,ALLAHUMMA INII AUDHU BIKA MINADHABI JAHANNAMA, WA M INADHABIL AABR. WAMIN FITNATILMAHYAA WAL-MAMATI, WAMINFtTNATtL MASIHID-DAJAAL". whichm e a n s-"My Lord, I seekYourprotection from thetorment of Hell, from the torment of thegrave, from the trials in lifetime and afterdeath, and from the impostor Masihi- dajaal". Th e p e r s o n m a y a l so ma ke f u rther s u p p l i c a t i o nts " A l l a h (S WD " a ski n gfor o p ro s p e r i t y o t h i n th i s l i fe a n d i n th e life b her e a f t e r , n d to b e sto w H i s fa vo u rson a h i s p a r e n t s n d o t h e rM u s l i m s T h i sw a s a . t h e c o n f i r m e d p ra cti ce o f th e P ro phet 79
  89. 89. (PB U H ) s r e p orte d y l b n Ma sso u d ay a b (mA lla h b e p l e a se d i th h i m). w15. H a v i n g c o mp l e te dth e A t-T a sh a hudt he p e r s o n t e rmi n a te s th e p ra ye r bysayingfor two timesAS-SALAMU ALEYKUM WARAHMATU-LAAH". which mean" Peace and mercy of Attah be upon you",t u rn i n gt h e f a c efi rstto th e ri g h ta n dth en,to the left.Th a t i s t h e e n d o f th e F a j r p ra ye r.I I . " D H U H R( N O O N ) R A Y E R " PNumber of Rakaat: FourRecitation: Ouranic recitations in thisp ra y e ri s m a d ei n a l o w vo i ceb y th e l mam(lead e r )t,h e f o ll o w e rso r w h o e ve r p raysalone. 80
  90. 90. Performahce:1. T h e f i r s t t w o Ra ka a tso f th e D h u h rp ra y e ra r e p e r f o r me dn th e sa mema n n e r ias the two Rakaats the Fajrprayerwith ofre g a rdt o N o s .1 u pto 1 4 . H o w e ve r, n th e ic as eof D h u h rp r a ye r, e si tti n gi n N o . 1 4 thre p re s e n t t h e f t r s tA t-T a sh a h u id w h i ch s nc a s e ,t h e p e r s o ni s re q u i re d re ci teo n l y tothe f irst part of the words of witness up to"...WA ASHADUANNA MUHAMMADANABDUHU WA RASUULUHU". Mean-while, i t i s p r e f e r re d a t, fo r th e D h u h r thpray er ,t h e o u r a ni c re ci ta ti o n s fte r th e aA l-F a t i h a h a r e o f me d i u m l e n g th (i .e .n e it he rt o o s h o r t n o r to o l o n g ).2 . Up o n c o n c l u d in g e re ci ta ti o n f th e th ofi rs t p a r t o l A t - T ash a h u di n N o . 1 4 , th eperson, instead of proceedingto actionNo. 15 (of the Fajr prayer), stands up fort h e t wo r e m a i n i n gR a ka a ts f th e D h u h r op ra y e rw h i c h a r e a l so p e rfo rme di n th esa me m a n n e ra s t h e fi rst tw o . 81
  91. 91. 3 . U p o n p e r fo rmi n gN o . 1 2 i n th e four thRakaat,the person sits for the tinal AtTa s h a h u d a n d co me s u p w i th f ullre c i t a t i o n f th e sa mea s i n N o . 1 4 of the oF a j r p r a y e r . h e p e rso nth e n p ro ce eds T ont o N o . 1 5 a n d th u s, co n cl u d e s e p rayer . thI I I ." A S R ( A F T E R N O O N ) A Y E R " PRNumber of rakaats: FourR e c i t a t i o n Ou ra n i c re ci ta ti o n si n thisp r a y e r a r e ma d e i n a l o w vo i ce bY thele a d e r( l m a m ), e fo l l o w e rs, r w h oever th op r a y sa l o n e .Performance: is performed lt similarto theDhuhr ( N o o n ) r a y e ri n a l l r e s p e c t s . prv . "M AG H R IB(S U N S E TP R A Y E R" ) Three Number of Rakaats. 82
  92. 92. Recitation Ouranic recitationsin thisprayer is made loudly in the first twor ak aats b y t h e le a d e r (l ma m) o r b yw hoeve rp r a y sa l o n e .Performance:1. The first two Rakaats this prayerare ofp e rf o rm e dn t h e s a mema n n e ra s th e f i rst itwo Rakaats of the Dhuhr prayer.Ho wev e r ,t h e p e r so n p ra yi n gb e h i n d a nlm a m i n a c o n g re g a ti o n s re q u i re dto ili s t e nt o t h e l m a ms re ci ta ti o n f th e A l - oFatihah,in the first two Rakaats. Uponthelmams completionof the Al-Fatihah,theperson says Ameen with the rest of thecongregation and then recitesAl-Fatihahsile n t l yb y h i m s e l f. h e p e rso n e re a fte r, T thma y no t n e e dt o r eci teOu ra n i cp a ssa g e sh ims el f b u t s h o u l d p a y a tte n ti o nto th el m a m sr e c i t a t i o n .M e a n w h i l e ,O u r a n i cr e c i t a t i o n sn t h i s iprayer after the Al-Fatihah by the lmam 83
  93. 93. (or by whoeverpraysalone)may be eitherlong or short passages the HolyOuran. of2. Upon raisingthe headfrom the secondprostration of the second Rakaat, thepersonsits down for the firstAt-Tashahudand iecites the first part of the words ofwitness (i.e. upto "....wA ASHADUANNAMUHAMMADAN ABDUHU WARASUULUHU").3 . T h e p e r s o n e re a fte sta n d su p for the th rp e r f o r m a n ce f th e th i rd a n d l a st Rakaat oo f t h e M a g h ri b p ra ye ra n d u p o n raisingthe head from the second prostrationofthis third Rakaat, personsits down for thethe final At-Tashahud and recites thew o r d s o f w i tn e ss i n fu l l .4 . T h e p e r so nth e n co n cl u d e s e pr ayer thb y t h e " T a s l e e m " i . e . c t i o nN o 1 5 o f t h e ( aF a j r p r a y e r ).
  94. 94. v . " l s H A ( E V E N I N G )R A Y E R " PNumber of rakaats.FourRecitation Ouranic recitations in thispray e r i s m a d e l o u d l y i n th e fi rst tw oRa k a a t sb y t h e l ma m a n d b y w h o e verp ray sa l o n e .Performance:1 . Th i s p r a y e ri s p e rfo rme di n th e sa mem a n n e ra s t h e D h u h r( N o o n a n d t h e A s r )( Af t er n o o n p r a y e rs. )H o w e v e rw h e n p r a y i n g e h i n da n l m a m , , bthe p e r s o n i s r e q u i re dto l i ste n to th elma m sr e c i t a t i o n f th e " A L -F A T IH A H i"n ot he f ir s t t w o R a ka a ts. p o n th e l ma ms Ucompl e t i o n f t h e A l -F a ti h a hth e p e rso n osays Ameen with the rest of thec ongre g a t i o n n d th e n re ci te s l -F a ti h a h a As ilent l yb y h i m s e lf. h e p e rso nth e re a fter T 85
  95. 95. m a y n o t n e e dto re ci teOu ra n i cp a ssageshim s e l f b u t sh o u l d p a y a tte n ti o nto thel m a m sr e c i t a t i o n .T H E F O R G E T F U L N E S S OS T R A TIONS PR(SU J U U D H W) SAA s h u m a n be i n g s, w e a re b Y n atur es u b j e c t t o m i sta ke sa n d e rro rs, a nd asm e n t i o n e d ea rl i e r, i f a p e rso n fa i ls tope r f o r m a n y o f th e p i l l a rs o f th e p r ayeran d / o r n e c essa ry u ti e s, th e p e rson is dre q u i r e dt o me n d th e e rro r b y co mi ngupwi t h t w o p r ostra ti o n s t th e e n d of the aprayer known as "Suiuud Sahw" i.ef o r g e t f u l n e s s p r o s t r a t i o n s ,a l t h o u g h ,wh e r e a p i l l ar(s)s o mi tte da re p e ti tion i oft h e m i s s e dp i l l a r(s)s n e ce ssa ry. iT h e r e a r e s o me d i sa g re e me n ts e tween br e l i g i o u su r i s t sr e g a r d i n gh i s s u b j e c a s j t tt o w h e t h e r i t sh o u l db e p e rfo rme d befor eor after the words of peace (Tasleem).What seems to be a fair solution, 86

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