• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
English 080
 

English 080

on

  • 600 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
600
Views on SlideShare
600
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    English 080 English 080 Document Transcript

    • tilll KITAB AL SALAAT rf r r(!ir of PRAYFR) (]ON1PILED BY: N A ] I J I I iI 1 A A D A ] V J
    • ,aaaaaa ,a.laaaa aaaaaa t,aaaa ,ataata aaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaa aiaaaa aaaaaa a,tataa a,taaaa KITAB aataaa aaaaaa aaiaaa aaaaaa aaaaaa ,aaaaaa a)aaaa aaaaaa aataaaAL- SALAAT aaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaa ,taaaaa aaaaaa taaaaa aaaaaa (THE BOOK OF PRAYER) aaaaaa aaaaaa aafaaa aaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaa COMPILED aaaaaa BY: ,taaaaa aaaataNATHIFJAMA ADAM aaaaaa aaataa ,aaa+aa aaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaa aaaa,ta aaaaaa aaataa aaaaaa aaaaaa ,taataa aaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaea aaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaa liitfi
    • COOPERATIVE OFFICE FOR CALL AND GUIDANCE UNDER SUPERVISIONPRESIDENCY ISLAMIC RESEARCH OF IFTA AND PROPAGATION P.O. Box: (20824) RIYADH 11465 - TEL.4030251 FAX. &30142 Permission No. ll73lM On 22/2/t4ll H This book may not be reproduced without prior written permission from the office
    • PREF A C EPRAISE to "Allah 6Wn "who ordained beAs Salaat (Prayer) an act of worship ason His servants, and may the utmostpeaceand blessings of Allah(SWT) beu p o n H i s p r o p h et h o ta u g h tth e U mmah w(Muslim nation) how best to performtheprayer.I do not intendtowrite a longpreface, I butmerelywish to makea briefexplanation ofmy re a s o n so r un d e rta ki n th i s w o rk.l t is f gnatural that by virtue of its importance,many bookshave in the pastbeenwrittenon the Sa/aatby different muslims indifferent parts of the world - may Allah6WD reward them all for their efforts.A n d ,w h i l e a l a r gen u mb e ro f th e w o rkssof a r ca r r i e d o u t o n S a l a a h a ve g e n e rally t been well appreciated, is however no it s ec r e t a l s o t h a t ma n y b o o ks o n this subject suffer serious shortcomings
    • which notably may be summarised asfollows:(1 ) Apparent lack of subjectcomprehensiveness mostbooks. in While,certainly, no single writer cancomprehend subject aswide as Salaat, abut it is true that many books on thissubjectonly make scantytouch on it.(2) The unfortunateexistencein many ofthe books of various matters such asrecitations,supplicationsand even actspurported to be part of the prayer butwhich cannotbe correctlytraced having tobeen recited and/.or performed by thePro p h e t ( P B U H )o r e ve n b y h i s ri g htlyg u i d e dC a l i p h s(su cce sso rs).(3 )T h ea b s e n ce f a rra n g e me na n do r der o tin most bookswith regardto the variousmatters relatingto the prayer.(4) The virtual absencein most booksof 2
    • TRANSLITERATION o the various tsupplicationswhich a person needs torecite in the course of the Prayer.Needlessto say, but, the importanceoftransliteration the non-Arabic to speakingMus lim sc a n n o tbe o ve r-e mp h a si se d .It is in view of the foregoing that thethough t o f c o m p i l i n ga mo re a p p ro p ri a tetreatiseon I lat arose to me and it is bythe graceoI Allah 6Wf ) that it is now ino u r ha n d sa l t h o u g hI a m q u i te co n sci o uso f h o w u n e q u a lI a m to a su b j e ctsu ch a sthis on e t o w h i c h a ma n o f mu ch g re a tercapab i l i t i e sh a n myse l f w a s re q u i re d .I ta m, h o w e v e r , u s ta i n e d yth e co n vi cti on s bthat the readers will overlook mY shortcomings and treat them with indulgence.In compiling this treatise, lhaveendea v o u r e t o t ou ch o ve r a l mo sta l l th e d
    • importantaspectsof the prayerand there is perhapsno other book which providessuch an elaborateaccountof the subjecta l t h o u g h ,a s me n ti o n e de a rl i e r,S alaat isju s t s u c h a w i d e su b j e ctth a t e ve n thist re a t i s e i s s ti l l i n w a n t o f mu ch otherin f o r m a t i o n n th e sa meb u t w h i ch ,Insha o- A l l a h , s h a l lb e ta ke ni n to a cco u n ti n thenext reproduction. How far I have succeeded this work is in not for me to say but it is my sincerehope that it will, lrshaAllah,go a long way in f u l fi l l i n gt h e g a p sa n dsh o rtco mi n gfound s in other books written so lar on the subject. The book,howevercannotand, is not meant to be a substituteto the otherworks on the .g/aaf but ratherc o m p l e m e n ti ve . a n w h i l e , n i s to er r Me maand this work may not necessarily free bef rom errors whether tech n icaI,t y p o g r a p h i c a lr o th e rw i seH e n ce I m ake o . ,
    • a k in d a p p e a l t o a l l th o se w h o ma Ydiscoversomethingincorrectin this workto communicate the same to thep u b lis h e r s o r d u e co rre cti o n n th e n e xt f ir e -p rin t .C ompi l i n g s u c h a w o rk, d i d n o t o n l Yrequire my referenceto a wide range ofb o o k s i n c l u d i n gt he H o l y Ou ra n , H a d i thb o o k sa n d F i q h( j uri sp ru d e n ce )o o ksb u t bals o t o s e e k t h e h e l p o f o th e r l e a rn e dmu s lim b r e t h r e nan d i n th i s re g a rd ,mya p p re c i a t i o n o e s to S h e i kh H a mo u dM. gA l la h i m a n d b r o t he r b d a l l aK a rsh e o th A bo f Riya d h- m a y t h e A l mi g h tyA l l a h l e ss bt h e mf o r t h e i rc o n t i n u o uc o u n s e l l i na n d s g a d v ic e . Si m i l a r l y,th i s w o rk w o u l d n o t hav eb e e nc o m p l e te a di t n o t b e e nfo r th e ht ire less e f f o r t s o f b ro th e r Mu h a mme d AmeenCaveof the Co-operative ice for off Ca ll an d G u i d a n ce , i ya d hw h o n o t o n l y R did the system data entering but even h e lpe ds o m u c h i n th e f i n a l p ro o f-re a d i ng
    • - may Allah reward him for h i s s h a r eofcontributionin this work.N AT H I F . AD A M JR I Y A D H2 1 s t M a y , 1 9 9 1 ,In this Book the words (SWT) insertedafter the name of Allah stand for,,SUBHANAHU WA TAALA" WhiChme a n s "T h e Gl o ri fi e d ,th e Mo st H igh";while, the words (PBUH) inserted afterthename of the Prophet standfor " pEACEBEU P O NH I M " . 6
    • AS-SALAAT (PRAYER)INTRODUCTIONSalaat (PraYer) is one of the mainobfigations which "Attah 6Wn" hasordainedon His servants. is the first act ltof worship decreedon the Muslim Nation(Ummah) bY "Allah 6Wn " and wasordained on the night of the Prophets(PB U H l a s c e n s i o n th e se ve nh e a ve n s. to ltis t h e s e c o n do f th e fi ve p i l l a rso f l sl amafter the proclamationof the "Shahada"(the words of witness)I t is e n j o i n e d on th e Mu sl i ms a s anobfigatoryact by" Allah 6wffas can benoted from the following verses of theH o l yO u r a n :,ESTABLISHREGULAR PRAYERSATTHE SUruS DECLINE TILL THE DARKNESS OF THE NIGHT, AND THE (OuraMORNTNG PRAYER""" n 17:781 I
    • In another verse "Allah 6Wn" says:..AND ESTABLISH REGULAR PRAYERSAT THE TWO ENDS OF THE DAY AND ATTHE APPROACHES OF THE NIGHT.( O u r a n1 1 : 1 1 4 ! .T h e i m p o r t a n ceo f th e S a l a a t h a s alsobeen explicitly expressed by AllahsMe s s e n g e r PB U H ), s ca n b e n o te dfr om ( at h e f o l l o w i n gsa yi n g s:"What lies between a perfect man anddisbelief is the leaving of prayer". (Relatedb y l m a m sA h m e d a n d M u s l i m )Th e P r o p h e t P B U H ) l so sa i d : ( a"The obligation which separates us fromthem (the non-believers)is the prayer andhe w h o r e n o u n ce s i t b e co me s a "disbeliever. (Relatedby lmams Ahmedand Muslim)
    • The abovequotedOuraniccommandsby"Altah ,Swffand the honouredsayingso f t he Pr o p h e ( PB U Hcl e a rl yi n d i ca te e t ) thimp o r t a n c e o f Sa l a a t su ch th a t i t i sunanimously agreed bY all Muslims c hol a r s h a t r e n o u n ci n gt i s re g a rd e d n t i aa c t of d i s b e l i e ( Ku fr). fT HEV I R T U ES F P R A Y E R OSala a t P r a y e r p erfo rme d e n u i n e l y i th ( ) g wh u mil i t ya n d s u b mi ssi o n " A l l a h(S Wf) " toh a s u n l i m i t e d i r tu e s n db e n e i ts.l t i s th e v a fn o b le s t x p r e s s io n f fa i th a n d th e su re st e oway of thanking "Allah 6wfyfor Hisunlim i t e d f a v o urs. l t i s th e w a y toobtaining Allahs mercy, generosity,k in d n e s s ,b l e s s in g sa n d a su re w a y toparadise."Allah (SWf)" says in the HolyOuran:PROSPEROUS INDEED ARE THEBELIEVERSWHO ARE HUMBLE IN THEIRPRAYERS". (Ouran 23:1 -2l, 3
    • It is a deliverance on the Day ofJudgementfor thosewho usedto observeit well. The Prophet(PBUH) says:"The first thing that the servant of "Allah(SWT)"will be calledto accounlfor on theDay of Judgementwill be the prayer;andif it was goodthe personsdeedswill havebeen good,but if it was bad,the personsdeeds will have been bad". (Reported bylmambhukari)Prayer purifiqp the soul, refines thec h a r a c t e r a n d i n cu l ca te s i n ma n theexcellentvirtues of truthfulness,honestyand modesty. keepsone who performsit ltfrom falsehood and from all forbiddenactions as is categorically confirmed bythe following verse of the Holy Our,an:"...VERILY, PRAYER REFRAINSFROMINDECENCY AND EVIL..."(Ouran 29:45) 4
    • W UDH U( AB L U T ION )Prio r to e n t e r i n g S a l a a t,th e p e rso n i sr e q u i r e d t o u n d e r t ak e a c e r t a i npurification procedure known as"Wudhu"wit h o u t w h i c h ,t h e p e rso n s ra ye r o u l d p wnot be acceptablein the sight of "Allah(S WT ) . "A l l a h , t h e A l mi g h tY sa Y s: ,,O YE WHO BELIEVE. WHEN YEPREPARE FOR PRAYER, WASH YOURFACES AND YOUR ARMS TO THEELBOWS; RUB YOUR HEADS (WITHWATER); AND (WASH) YOUR FEET TOT H EA N K L E S . . . " u r a n5 : 6 ) (OA n d t h e P r o p h e t(P B U H ), i d : sa Prayer without ablution /s invalid".(Reportedby lmam Muslim)
    • C O N D I T I O N S OR T H E P E R F OR M ANCE F oF w U D H U ( A B L U T |ON )Th e r e a r e v a ri o u sco n d i ti o n s q u i redto rebe f u l f i l l e di n th e p e rfo rma n ce f Wudhu owh i c h a r e a s fo l l o w s: 1. Ac c e p t a n ce f th e l sl a mi cF a i th . o2. Sa n i t ya n d co n sci o u sn e ss.3 . I n t e n t i o n( A n n i ya h ) p e rfo rmWudhu toas a n a c t o f wo rsh i p .4. Purifying oneself from urine,exc r e m e n a n d a l l o th e rki n do f i mp u rities tbe f o r ep e r f o r mi n g d h u . Wu5 . E n s u r i n gt h e p u ri ty o f th e w a te r to beu s e df o r t h e Wu d h u6. E n s u r i n gt ha t w a te r i s n o t p re ventedf ro m r e a c h i n g e p a rtso f th e b o d yw hich thneed to be washed in the performance of 6
    • the wudhu.7 . Be i n g c o n s c i o u s a n d ke e P i n g th eWudhuin mind.ES SE N T I AA C T SOF WU D H U L1. Wa s h i n gt h e e n ti refa ce o n ce .2 . W a s h i n ge a c ha r m o n c e .3 . W i p i n gt h e e n t i r eh e a do n c e .4. Wa s h i n gt h e f ee t u p to th e a n kl e s5 . En s u r i n gt h a t th e a b o ve 4 a cts a reperf or m e d n t h e g i ve n se q u e n ce . i 6. Performing the Wudhu acts cont in u o u s l ya n d w i th o u t u n n e ce ssar y l e t - u p su n t i l c o m P l e t i o n .
    • VOLUNTARY ACTS OF WUDHUBesides the above essential acts ofWudhu, there are alsosomevoluntarybutrecommended acts in the Wudhuprocedure.These are as follows:a. InvokingAllah (SWT)at the start of theWudhu.b. Washingof both handsuptothe wrists.c . R i n s i n gt h e mo u n thw i th w a te r.d. Sniffing of water in and out of thenostrils.e. Passingof water outsideand insideoft h e e a r l o b e s.H O W T H EW U D H UI S P E R F O R M E DThe essential and voluntary actsdiscussedaboveshall now be integratedto demonstratehow the prophet(PBUH) 8
    • used to performWudhu:1 . Ma k i n gt h e i n t e n ti o n p e rfo rmWu d h u toas an act of sincerehomageand worshipfor the pleasure of Allah 6Wn Theintentionneednot be utteredbut it shouldbe k ep t i n m i n d d u ri n g th e th e Wu d h u 2. fnvokin Atlah (SWT)at the start of the gW udh u b Y s a Yi n g: ISM ILLAHI -R -RAHM AN I -R-RAHIIM ". - B (ln t h e n a m e o f A l l a h , Mo st Gra ci o usMost Merciful). 3. Wa s h i n gt h e ha n d su p toth e w ri sts for t hree t i m e s , w hi l e ru b b i n g th e m a n d letting the water reach between the fingers. 4 . Rin s i n gt h e m o u th w i th w a te r th ri ce preferably using the "Miswak" (tooth stick),tooth brush, or f ingersto brushthe t eet h a n d t h e g u m. R e g a rd i n g the 9
    • importanceof the Miswak, the prophet ( P B U Hs a i d : ) "lf it had not been too great a burden on my Ummah, I would have ordered them to use the "Miswak, at every Wudhu.,, (R e p o r t e d y l ma m Ma fi k) b 5 . C l e a n i n g he n o stri l sb y sn i ffi n gwater t in a n d o u t f o r th re e ti me s.6 . W a s h i n g t h e e n ti re fa ce th ri ce usingboth hands from the top of the foreheaddown to the bottom of the chin and fromear to ear.7. W a s h i n gt h e a rmsth re eti me s u p to theup p e r e n d o f th e e l b o w s;ri g h t a rm fir st,a n d t h e n , t h e l e ft a rm. A rms sh o u ld berL O b e O h i l e th e y a re b e i n gw a sh e d. w8 . W e t t i n g b oth h a n d s a n d p a ssi n g thesame over the head starting from abovet h e f o r e h e a d o w nto th e n a p e(th eb a ck d of l0
    • t h e n e c k )a n d f r o m th e re , re tu rn i n gb o thh ands u p t o a b o v eth e fo re h e a d .9 . Fro m t h e h e a d , w i th o u t w e tti n g th eh ands a g a i n , t he P e rso n w i P e s th ee a rlob e su s i n gt h e fo re fi n g e rs w i p eth e , toi n n e r p a r t o f t h e l o b e sa n d th e th u mb sfo rth e ou t s i d ep a r t .1 0 . Wa s h i n gb o t h fe e t u p toth e a n kl e s r fothree times or more if necessarY,b e g in n i n gw i t h t he ri g h t fo o t a n d th e nwit h th e l e f t f o o t. B o th fe e t sh o u l d b er u b b e dw h i l e t h e y a re b e i n gw a sh e da n dwat er s h o u l d f r ee l y p a ss b e tw e e n th etoes . I M P O R T A NP O I N T S N W U D H U T O a . M u c h v i r t u e i s a t t a c h e dt o W u d h u whic h i s p r o p e rl yp e rfo rme da s ca n be not ed f r o m t h e fo l l o w i n g sa yi n g o f th e P r o p h e( P B U H ) : t 1l
    • "A person who performs Wudhu properly will have his sins removed from hisbody, so much that the sins are removed even from underneath his nails,,. (Reportedby lmamMuslim)b . H a v i n g c o mp l e te d th e Wu d h u , theperson may recite the "SHAHADA,,i.e.the words of witness and the supplicationf o r c o n c l u d i ng e Wu d h u a s fo l l o ws: th.,ASH-HADU ANLAA ILAHA ILLA-LAAHUWA ASH-HADU ANNA MIJHAMMADANABDUHU WA RASUULUHU...-ALLAHUMMA IJALNII M INAT.AWABIINWA IJALNII MINA.L MUTADAHIRIIN...wh i c h m e a n s"l bear witness that there is no god butAllah and that Muhammad is His servantand messenger...OLord, make me amongthose who return to you in repentanceandof those who are undefited., t2
    • Rega r d i n g t h e vi rtu e o f th e a b o ves u p p l i c a t i o nt,h e l e a d e r o f th e fa i th ful,Uma r l b n - u l Kh a tta b (ma y A l l a h b epleased with him) reportedthe Prophet(P BU H ) s s a Yi n g : a"tf anyone Performs the Wudhucompletely and then saYs":" l testify that there is no god but Allahalone, He hasno partner; and I testify thatMuhammad is His servant andmessenger, the eight gates of Paradisewilt be opened for him and may enter bywhichever of the gates he wishes""( R e l a t e d Yl m a m M u s l i m ) . b c. When Performing Wudhu, it is recommended to let the water reach beyond the area required to be washed (e . g . , h e n w a sh i n gth e a rms th e p e rs on w may wash beyondthe elbows or beyond t he a n k l e sw h e n w a sh i n gth e fe e t)Great v irt u e h a s b e e n a tta ch e dto th i s fa ct, as l3
    • can be notedfrom the followingsayingof t h e Pr o p h e t pB U H ): ( "My nation (tJmmah) will be called(distinguised) on the Day of Judgement asa people with bright faces and limbs fromthe effect of their Wudhu practices. Therefore, anyone of you who wishes toincrease his brightness may do so (bywashing beyond the required areaswhenperforming W"udhu).,. (Reported by lmamsBukhari and Muslim)d. The person is required to avoid use ofwater more than what is necessary.e . M u c h i m p o rta n ce h a s b e e n a tta chedt o t h e p e r f o r m a n ceo f tw o ra ka a tsa fterperformin Wudhuas can be notedfrom the gf o l l o w i n g c o n v e r s a t i o nb e t w e e n t h eProphet (PBUH) and Bilat, the firstMua d h i n( m a yA l l a h b e p l e a se d i th h im ) : w t4
    • "O Bilal! tell me which of your acts is mostmeritorious since ioining lslam, f or I heardthe sound of your shoesin Paradiseaheadof me?Bilal replied: I do not have any action moreme rito r i o u s t h a n th a t w h e n e ve r Iperformed Wudhu (purification) duringthe day or night, I each time offered aprayer as much as Allah has destined forme" . ( R e p o r t e d y l ma ms B u kh a ri a nd b Muslim)WIPING OVER THE SOCKSa. lf someones"Wudhu", gets nullified,t hen , w h e n p e rfo rmi n g a su b se q u entWu d h u , i t i s a ll o w e d to w i P e o ve r thes oc k sw i t h w e t h a n d s,i n ste a d f w a sh i ng obot hf e e t o n c o n d i ti o n a t th e so cks e r e th w put o n a f t e r w a sh i n gth e fe e t i n th e fi r st W u d h u o r b e f o r e h e s a m ei s n u l l i f i e d . t b . A t r a v e l l e rm a y a v a i l h i m s e l fo f t h i s l5
    • privilege continuously for three consecutivedays and nights (72 hours), but a residentmay do so for only one day and one night continuously(24 hours). HO WW I PI N G E R H ES OC K S D ONE OV T ISWiping is done accordingto the traditionof the Prophet(PBUH), follows: asAfter removingthe shoes,wet hands arepassed only over the upper surface ofsockswithout the needto wipe the bottomparts.WH E N T H EW I PIN GP R IV IL E GE E A SES CT h e w i p i n g p r i vi l e g eb e co me si n va l i dinthe eventthat one or moreof the followingcasesoccur:1. W h e n t h e m a xi mu m mi n g sa l l o w e d ti asdis c u s s e d a r l ie rl a p se . e 16
    • 2. The moment the socksare removed.3 . Wh e n a n y o f th e ca se s re q u l rl n g"G hus l " o c c u r .MA TT E R S W H I C H IN V A L ID A T E T H EWUDHUThe person will remain in a state ofWu d h u u n t i l a n y of th e fo l l o w i n gma tte r sis committed:1 . Pass i n go f e x cre me n t, ri n e o r w i n d uWhen s o m e o n e p a sse s u ri n e a n d /o rexcrement, it becomes mandatoryuponsuch a personto removethe foulnessofthes e t h i n g s b e f o re p e rfo rmi n gWu d h u.Pu re w a t e r s h ou l d b e u se d fo r th i sp u rp o s e ,b u t i n c a se , i t i s n o t a va i l a bleafter earnestsearchfor it, the personmayresort to the use of certain dry objects,such as stones, dry woods and tissuep a p e rt o r e m o v e e f i l th .T h i s i s kn o w nas th "lstijmaar" . Odd numbersof the objectto 17
    • be used is preferred, such as 3, S, etc.The person should ensure that no drops of ur i n e o r s t a i n s o f fo u l n e ss a re l eft on his,/herbody or clothes.However,in the case of personsafflictedwi t h p e r m a n e n t w e tti n g o r p e rmanentp a s s i n go f w i n d , o r o f w o me n w h o ar esufferingfrom prolongedflows of blood,s u c h p e r s o n s a re re q u i re d to p e r for mWudhu only once beforethe start of eachpr a y e r a n d t he i r Wu d h u w o u l d re mainv a l i d e v e n i f th e a b o ve p ro b l e ms m ayo c c u r l a t e r i n th e co u rseo f th e p ra yer .2. E a t i n go f c ame l sme a t.3 . Sl e e p i n gi n w h i ch th e p e rso n l o ssesc o n s c i o u s n ess.4. L o s s o f c o n sci o u sn e ss su l ti n gfr om reinsa n i t y , a i n ti n g ,e tc. f l8
    • 5. Touching of the sexual organsi n t e n t i o n a l l yd i r e ctl ya n d u n cl o th e d . ,6. After washing a dead person(corpse)7 . R e n o u n c i n o f l s l a m i cF a i t h . gGHUSL (TOTALBATH)Ghusl in lslam means the bathing of theentire body with water. Proof of ftstegitimacy is embodiedinthe Holy Auranas follows:,....AND IF YE ARE IN A STATE OFCEREMONIALIMPURITY, BATHE YOURWHO L EB O D Y . . .."(Ou ra n5 :6 )OCCASIONS WHEN GHUSL ISREO U I R ED AN OB L IGA T ORA C T AS Y G husl i s r e q u i r eda s a n o b l i g a to ry ct i n a l9
    • the following cases:1. After the discharge semenas a result ofof stimulation whether awake or asleep(i.e.in a wet dream). Thisstateis known inArabic as"JUNUB".lf , alter the dream nowetness is traced in ones clothing,bathingis not obligatory.However, case inwetness is found but without recallingany dream, performing Ghusl isobligatory.2. After sexual intercourse(or the merecoming together of the two organs of ama n a n d a w o ma n , e ve n th o u g h ther ema y b e n o a c tu a le j a cu l a ti o np e rfo rm ing )G h u s l i s r e q u i re d .3. Followinga period of menstruation, awo m a n i s r e q u i re dto p e rfo rmGh u s l.4. At the end of 40 daysafter childbirth,awo m a n i s r e q u i re d p e rfo rmGh u sl. to 20
    • 5. When a disbelievernewly embracesf s lam , s u c h a p e rso n i s re q u i re d top e rf o r mG h u s l .6 . W h e n a M u s l i md i e s ,G h u s li s r e q u i r e dfor him/her.O C C A S I O N SF O R W H I C H G H U S L I SPREFERREDG hus l i s r e c o m m e n d e dn th e fo l l o w i ng icases:1 . B e f o r e g o i ng to Ju ma h (F ri dayCong r e g a t i o n a ye r). I Pra2 . B e f o r e g o i n g to E i d P ra ye rs(Mu sl i mannu a lf e a s t p r a ye rs).3. Before undertaking Umrah or Hajj( P i l g r i m a gte M a k k a h ) . o4. Up o n w a s h i n ga co rp se . cco rd i n g (A tomanys c h o l a r st,he p e rfo rma n ce f Gh u s l o 2l
    • is preferredfor a person who washes acorpse).E S S E N T I AR E O U I R E M E N T S G H U S L L OFT h e r e a r e t w o e sse n ti a l re q u i re m entswhich need to be f ulfilledfor Ghuslto bevalid. These are as follows:1. In t e n t i o n o p e rfo rm u sli s n e ce ssar y t Ghbec a u s ei t i s th e d i vi d i n g l i n e b e tweena c t s p e r f o r m eda s a me re cu sto m anddeeds which are rewardable acts ofwo r s h i p .H o w e ve r, e i n te n ti o n s o n lyby th iheart and need not be uttered.2 . T h e e n t i r e b o d y sh o u l d b e w a shed.Wa t e r s h o u l d r e a cha n d fl o w fre e l yoverevery part of the body.H O W G H U S LI S P E R F O R M E DBesides the above two essentialr e q u i r e m e n t s ,t h e r e a r e a l s o o t h e r 22
    • v olu n t a r ya c t s r e co mme n d e d r Gh u s l. foBoth the essentialand the voluntaryactsare now integrated herebelow tod e mo n s t r a t eh o w th e P ro p h e t (P B UH)us edt o p e r f o r mth e Gh u sl .a. I nte n db y h e a rtto p e rfo rmGh u sl .b . Wa s h b o t h h an d s u p to th e w ri sts fort h r e et i m e s .c . Wa s h t h e s e x o rg a n sp ro p e rl y.d . P e r f o r m u d h ua s u s u a l ( i n h e m a n n e r W ta l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d )e x c e p t , t h a t t h ewa s h i n go f t h e f e e tw o u l db e d e l a ye d n til ula t e r w h e n a l l th e re st o f th e b o d y isbathed.e . P o u r w a t e r o ve r th e h e a d th re e ti mes,massaging he hair to allow water to tre a c h i t s r o o t s .f . Pou rw a t e r l i b e ra l l y ve rth e e n ti reb o dy, o 23
    • b e g i n n i n g i t h th e ri g h tsi d ea n dth e n ,the wleft side ensuringthat no part of the bodyis untouched by water such as thea rm p i t s , i n s i d e th e e a rl o b e s,i n si d e thenavel, between the fingers and toes, etc.g . F i n a l l y m o vea l i ttl efu rth e rfro mw her e ,you were and wash your feet, beginningwith your right foot and then, the left.Notes:1 . A w o m a n w i l l p e r f o r mG h u s lj u s t a s aman does, except,that if she has plaitedh a i r ,s h e n e e dno t u n d oi t. S h eo n l yn eedsto throw three handfuls of water over herhea d .2. T h e p e r s o n ma y a fte r co mp l e ti n g theGhusl recite the supplication forc on c l u d i n g h u slw h i ch sh o u l db e re cited Gouts i d et h e t o i le t,/b a th ro o mn d w h i c h is athe same as the one recited afterc o m p l e t i n n On r;O *u
    • A CT S F O R B I D D E N O P E R S ON S T WH OA RE R E O U I R E D O P E R F OR M U S L T GHPersons requiring to perform Ghusl areforbiddento undertake certainacts.Theseare as follows:1. Any type of prayerwhether obligatoryor v o l u n t a r y .2. Circumambulating the Kaabah(Tawaf).3 . To u c h i n go r ca rryi n gth e H o l y Ou ra n.However, the prohibition doesnot applytoot he r b o o k s wh i ch co n ta i n Ou ra nicpas sa g e s u c h a s co mme n ta ri e s f the s oHoly Ouran or works of lslamicju risp r u d e n c e .4 . R e c i t i n gh e H o l yO u r a n . t5 . Sta y i n gi n s i deth e Mo sq u e . 25
    • ME N S T R U AT ION A ID H } (HThis refers to the periodicaldischargeofb lo o d b y w o me n i n th e i r sta te o f h ealthand i s e a s i l y di sti n g u i sh a b l e w o m en tof ro m p o s t - c h i l d b i rth l e e d i n g . bP O S T - C H t L D B t RB L E E D T N(G t F A S ) TH NS u c h b l e e d i n gu su a l l yo ccu rsto w o menaf t e r c h i l d b i r t h n d ma y co n ti n u e i thout a wf ix e d d u r a t i o n ,a l th o u g h i n so me ca ses,t h e r e m a y n ot o ccu r b l e e d i n g a t all.However, the strengthof the teachings onof the Prophet (PBUH), a womane x p e r i e n c i n g st-ch i l d b i rthl e e d i n g po b hasa m a x i m u mc on fi n e me n t e ri o do f a bout pforty (4O) daysafter which, she is requiredt o m a k eG h u s l a n dco mme n ce e r l sl am ic hduties. lf, however, the blood does notceaseafter 40 days,most scholarsare ofthe opinion that the woman shouldc on t i n u ew i t h he r re g u l a rl sl a mi cd u ties.
    • ACTS FORBIDDEN TO WOMENEX PE R I EN C I N G N S T R U A T ION N D ME APO S T - C H I L D B IR T H E E D IN G BL1. A ll a c t s m e nti o n e dh e re i n b e fo rea s ,f o rb id d e n o p e r so n sre q u i ri n gGh u sla re tals o p r o h i b i t e dto w o me n e xp e ri e n cingmenstruation and post-childbirthbleeding.2. A w o m a n c a n n o t e n g a g ei n a se xu alin t e rc o u r s e .T h e c o m p a n i o ns f th e P ro p h e t(P B U H) , oasked him about this and "Allah (SWT)"rev ea l e d h e f o l l o w i n gOu ra n i cve rse : tTHEY ASK THEE CONCERNINGWOMENS COU,9SES. Y: THEYARE A S/HURT AND A POLLUTION..SO KEEPAWAY FROM WOMEN IN THEIRCOURSES,AND DO NOT APPROACHTHEM UNTIL THEY ARE CLEAN......(O u r a n2 : 2 2 2 1 27
    • However,all scholarsare of the opiniont ha t a h u s b a n dma y to u ch a n y p a rt o f hiswifes bodyabovethe naveland/ or belowthe knees. This fact, is based on theconfirmations the Prophets of wives,thatwh e n t h e P r o p h e t(P B U H ) i sh e d ro be wwit h t h e m d uri n g th e i r p e ri o d s, theywo u l d p u t s o m e th i n go ve r th e i r p ri vateparts.AT-TAYAMMUM(ABLUTION USINGTHEEARTH)"At-Tayammum" is a means of usingthes oi lt o w i p e o n esfa cea n d h a n d sw i th theintentionof preparingoneselfto performprayer.Proofof its legitimacyis found int h e H o l y O u r an a s fo l l o w s:,"...^ND IF YE ARE ILL. OR ON AJOURNEY, OR ONE OF YOU COMETHFROM OFFICES OF NATURE. OR YEHAVE BEENIN CONTACTWITH WOMEN.AND YE FIND NO WATER. THEN TAKE 28
    • FOR YOURSELVES CLEAN SAND OREARTH, AND RUB THEREWITH YOURFACES AND HANDS, FOR ALLAH DOESBLOT OUT SINSAND FORGIVES AGAINAND AGAIN." (Ouran4:431T h e P r o p h e t P B U H ), l so sa i d : ( a"All of the earth has been made a pureplace of prayer for me and my "Ummah"( Na t io n ) .W h e n e ve r a p e rso n fro m mynat io n w a n t s t o p ra y, h e h a s so me th i ngwit h w h i c h t o p u ri fy h i mse l f...th aits th ee a rt h ". ( R e p o r t ed y l ma m A h ma n d ) bINSTANCES WHEN AT-TAYAMMUM ISPE RM I T T EDAt-Tayammum is permitted only onspecificinstancesas follows:1. Where the personcannotf ind water ort h e am o u n t o f w ate r i s n o t su ffi ci e n t r foWudhu. However,beforeperformingAT- 29
    • Tayammum, the personis required look tofor water earnestly from any possiblesource.2 . W h e n a p e rso n i s i n j u re d o r i l l andbelieves that the use of water will worsenh i s , / h e r o n di ti o nth e n ,A t-T a ya mm um c , isallowed.3 . W h e n w a t e r i s to o co l dsu chth a t i t m ayha r m t h e pe rso n , A T -T a ya mmum isall o w e di f t h e u se r ca n n o tfi n d me ansofhe a t i n gt h e w a te r.4. W h e n w a t er i s n e a rb y, u tth e p e rsonis bnot able to fetch it due to fear for his,/herlif e , f a m i l y an d w e a l th , (e .g .fro m ane n e m y e i t h er b e a st o r h u ma n i n thev ic i n i t y ) t h e n, A t-T a ya mmu m ma y beperformed.5. W h e n t h e re i s n o t e n o u g hw a te r andon e i s f o r c e dto sa vew h a t i s a va i l a ble fordrinking and/or cooking, then, At- 30
    • Ta y a m m u mi s a l l o w e d .THE E A R T H S O T L IT O E U S E DF ORA T - ( BTAYAMMUMT h is s h o u l db e p u re e a rtho r so i l a n d ca nbe sand, stone or gypsumwhich produced us t wh e n h i t w i t h th e h a n d s.HOW TO PERFORMAT-TAYAMMUM1 . Th e p e r s o ns h o u l dfi rst i n te n db y h e a rtt o perfo r mAt - T a ya mmu m.2 . T h e p e r s o nt h e n stri keth e so i l w i th th ep alms o f b o t h h a nd s.3 . Th e p e r s o nt h e n w i p e s th e fa ce u si n gbothpalms.4 . Th e r e a f t e r , h e p e rso n u se s th e l e ft tpalm to w i p e o v er th e b a ck o f th e ri g h th a n d u p t o t h e w r i st, a n d th e n , u se s th er ight p a l mt o w i p e o ve rth e b a cko f th e l e ft 3t
    • hand upto the wrist.Notes:1 . l f a n y d u s t cl i n g s to th e h a n d s uponstriking the earth, it should be blown outfirst beforewiping the face and the handsto avoid the dust.2. Only one strikeon the earth is sufficientfor wiping both the face and hands.3. For persons who are required top e r f o r m G h u sl , b u t a re u n a b l e to findwater,then, At-Tayammumas discussedwould suffice.MATTERS WHICH NULLIFY AT-TAYAMMUMP u r i f i c a t i o nby A t-T a ya mmu m h a s thes a m e v a l i d ity a s Wu d h u a n d Ghuslperformed with water, but becomesinvalidated the following cases: in 32
    • 1 . A l l a c t i o n sa n d c o n d i t i o n sh a t n u l l i f y tWu d h u a l s o n u l l i fyA t-T a ya mmu m.2. lf after performing At-Tayammum,wa t e r i s f o u n d f or Wu d h u o r Gh u sl .THE TIMINGS OF THE OELIGATORYPRAYERSlslam has prescribed specified time limitsfor each obligatoryprayer as can be notedfrom the following verse of the HolyAuran:"Prayer is enjoined on believers at statedt ime s "( O u r a n :1 0 3 ) 4And i n a n a u t h e n ti cp ro p h e ti c yi n gi t is sac onf i r m e dt h a t so me o n eo n ce a ske dtheprop h e t( P B U H ) b o u t th e b e st a cti o n in athe sight ol Allah 6WD and the prophetre p lie d : 33
    • " Off ering prayer at its prescribedt ime . . . . . . . "( R e p o rtey l ma m B u kh a ri ) bdT h u s ,t h e a r r i v a lo f th e ti me fo r p ra ye ri s af und a m e n t a lc o n d i ti o nfo r p e rfo rmi ngitand i f , t h e r e f o re a p ra ye ri s i n te n ti o nally ,performedbefore or after its designatedt ime i t s h a l ln o t b e a cce p ta b l i n th e si ght eof Atlah 6Wn. However, Personswho ma y f o r g e t( w i th o u ti n te n ti o n )to e rfor m pany o f t h e o b li g a to ryp ra ye rsw i th i n itsord a i n e dt i m e o r w h o a re o ve rta ke nby s lee p ,t h e n s u ch p e rso n s o u l dp e rfor m sh t h e p r a y e ra s s o o n a s th e y re me mb erit and / o r a s s o o na sth e yw a ke u p f ro mtheir s lee p .We s h a l l n o w e n u me ra teth e d i ffe r entt imi n g s o f t h e fi ve o b l i g a to ry ra ye rs: p -1. F A J R( D a w n )P R A Y E R l ts ti me b e ginsa t d a w n w h e n m o rn i n gl i g h tf i rsta p p ear si n t h e h o r i z o n n dc o n t i n u e s n t i l t h es u n a uris e s .
    • 2. DHUHR (Nonn) PRAYER- lts timebegin sw h e n t h e su n re a ch e si ts h i g h estpoin t i n t h e s k y a n d co n ti n u e su p to thetime of Asr Prayer.3. AS R ( Af t e r no o n ) R A Y E R- l ts ti m e Pbegin sw h e n t h e sh a d o w o f a n o b j e ctisequa lt o i t s o w n l e n g th , l u sth e l e n g thof pit s n o o n t i m es h a d o wa n d co n ti n u e s n til us unse t .4. MAGHRI8 (Sunset)PRAYER tts time -s t a r t s r o m s u n s e t n dc o n t i n u e s n t i l t h e f a ue n d o f t w i l i g h t . T w i l i g h t i s th e re d n e sswhic h r e m a i n s n th e h o ri zo n fte rsu n set. i a -5 . I S H A( Ev e n i n gP R A Y E R l tsti mesta rts )wh e n t h e t w i l i gh t d i sa p p e a rs n d ac o n t i n u e su p t o m i d - n i g h t .M i d - n i g h ti nthis case may not necessarily bein t e r p r e t e t o m e a n1 2 :OO cl o ck u t may d o bbe c o n s t r u e da s th e mi d -ti me b e tw e en 35
    • s u n s e t a n d t he a p p e a ra n ce f th e odawn.ADHAAN (CALLTO PRAYER)The "Adhaan" is a call to inform othersinspecif words that the time lor a icpa r t i c u l a r r a ye rh a s b e g u n .l t i s a call to pt he c o n g r e g ati o n n d i s a n e xp re ssion a oft he l s l a m i c r a cti cel.t i s re q u i re d s a n act p af or a l l t h e O b l i g a to ry ra ye rs. PT H E VI R T U ES A D H A A N OFT h e g r e a t n e ss f th e vi rtu e w h i ch l s lam oa t t a c h e st o t h e " A d h a a n " a n d th e onewho performs it i.e. the "Muadhin", canb e n o t e d f r o m th e fo l l o w i n gve rseo f theH o l yO u r a n : 36
    • "WHO IS BETTERIN SPEECH THAN ONEWHO CALLS (THE PEOPLE) TO ALLAHAND WORKS RIGHTEOUSIVESS.,,( O u r a n 1: 3 3 ) 4T h e m o t h e r o f t he fa i th fu l , A i sh a (ma yA lla h b e p l e a s e d th h e r)co n fi rme d a t wi tht his v e r s e c o n c e rn s a n d re fe rs to th eMu a d h i n a n d w a s re ve a l e d n n o o th er ore a s o nt h a n f o r t he Mu a d h i n .A n d , fr o m t h e p r o p h e ti ctra d i ti o n s, b u AHurairah reported that the Prophet( P B U H )s a i d : ,"lf the people knew the reward in theAdhaan and the f irst row of the prayer andthat they could not get it (the reward)saveby drawing lots, they would draw |ots....."( N a r r a t e db y l m a m B u k h a r i ) And, in another saYing the ProPhet (PBUH), aid: s l7
    • "The "Muadhins" will on the Day ofJudgement have the longest necks(re f l e c t i n gt h ei r e xcl u si vee mi n e n c e) ".(R e p o r t e d y lma m Mu sl i m) bHOW T H EA D H A A N IS P E R F OR MEDPr e f e r a b l yt,h ere sh o u l db e a n a p p o intedMu a d h i na t e a chMo sq u e h o w i l l ca llthe wpeople to prayer when the time of apa r t i c u l a r r a ye ri s d u e .l n p e rfg rmi ng p theAdhaan, the Muadhrn would stand facingthe directionof the "Aibbh" (the sacredmo s q u ei n M a kka h ). e w o u l d th e n raise Hbo t h h a n d su ptoh i s e a rsa n d sa y i n a loudv o i c et h e f o l l o w i n gw o rd s:1. ALLAHU AKBAR Allah rs thegreatest.(to repeated4 times) be2. ASH-HADU ANLA ILAHA ILLALLAAH-I testify that there is no god but Altah. (tobe r e p e a t e d ti me s) 2
    • 3. ASH.HADU ANNA MUHAMMADANRASUULULLAAH - ltestifythatMuhammad is Allahs messenger. (to berepeated2 times)4. HAYYAALAS SALAAT - Come fast toprayer. (to be repeated 2 times). TheMuadhin, when reciting this turns thef ac e s l i g h t l yt o t he ri g h t si d e .5. HAYYAALAL FALAAH - Come fast tosuccess. (to be repeated 2 times). TheMuadhin, when reciting this turns thef a c e s l i g h t l yt o t he l e ft si d e .6. ALLAHU AKBAR - Allah is the greatest.(t o be r e p e a t e d ti me s) 27. LAA ILAHA ILLALLAAH - There is nogod but Allah. (to be recitedonce)No t e : l n t h e Ad ha a n ,fo r e F a j r (D a w n) thpray e r ,t h e f o l l o w i n g w o rd s a re re ci tedt wic e a f t e r H a y y a a l aF a l a a h : l 39
    • "ASSALATU KHEIRUM MINA NAWM.(to be recited two times)whichmeans- for"Salaat is better than sleep".WH A T S O M E ON ES U P P L IC A T EU PON SHE AR I N G H E A D H A A N TIt is preferredpractice that when a personhears the Adhaan, he should repeatthewo r d s t h e Mu a d h i n ca l l s o u t, e xcept,wh e n h e s a y s " H a a ya a l a l S a l a a t andH a y y aa l a l F a l a a h " , h e l i s t e n e r s h o u l d tinsteadsay:"LA HOWLA WALA AUWATA ILABILLAH", which means -"There is no power and strength exceptbyAllah". 40
    • THE SUPPLICATION AFTER THEADHAANUpon the completionof the Adhaan, it isrecommendedthat the listener recitest he f o l l o w i n gs u pp l i ca ti o n :ALL AH U M M A R A B B A H A D H IH IDDAWATI - TAMMAH. WASALATILAAIMAH. ATI MUHAMMADANALWASILATA WAL FADHILATA,WAA B AT H U H U MA A A MU M MA H .MUDA N - A L L A D H II WA A D T A H U ".whic h m e a n s-"O Allah, Lord of this complete call and ofthe prayer to be held, grant Muhammadthe most favoured and excellent positionin the Paradiseand raise him to the praiseworthy place that You have promisedhim".I t is h i g h l y r e c omme n d e d re ci te the toabove s u p p l i c a ti o n t th e e n d o f e ve ry a 4l
    • Adhaan and in this regard the Prophet( P B U Hs a i d : )"....it becomes obligatory upon me tointercede for him (person reciting thesupplication) on the Day of Judgement".(R e p o r t e d y l ma m B u kh a ri ) bToAMAH(SECONDCALL TO PRAYER)"lqamah" is the secondcall to the prayera n d i s s a i d i n si d eth e Mo sq u ea t th e s tar to f t h e c o n g r e g a ti o n ap ra ye r.l t g o es as lfollows:l. ALLAHUAKBAR (repeated two times)2. ASH-HADU ANLA ILLAHA ILA LAAH.(on c e )3. ASH-HADU ANNA MUHAMMADARRASULUL-LAAH.(once)4. HAYYAALAS-SALAAL (once) 42
    • (once)5. HAYYAALAL-FALAAH.6. AAD AAMATIS-SALAAT. (rePeatedtwo times)7. ALLAHUAKBAR.(repeated two times)8. LAA ILAAHA ILA-LAAH. (once)Notes:a . lt is r e c o m m e n d e d a t a b ri e f ti me thgappi n g b e m ai n ta i n e d b e tw e e n th e" A d h a a n "a n d t h e " l q a m a h "t o a l l o wt h ec ongr e g a t i o no ge t re a d yfo r th e sa l a a t. tb . lt i s p r e f e r r e dth a t th e " l q a ma h " i sp e r f o r m e d y t h e s a m ep e r s o n M u a d h i n ) b (who p e r f o r m e d he " A d h a a n " . tc . lt i s d i s l i k e dfo r a n yo n eto l e a veth emo s q u e o n c e t h e " A d h a a n " i s ma d e,u n less f o r u r g e n t re a so n (s) u t w i th a bdet er m i n a t i o no re tu rnfo r th e p ra ye r. t 43
    • d. lt is prohibited offervoluntaryprayers toaft e r l q a m a h h a s b e e n ca l l e d o u t. ThePr o p h e t P B U H ) ys: ( sa"When lqamah is called out, no prayer ispermissible except the obligatory one".(R e p o r t e d y l ma m Mu sl i m) be. l f a p e r s o n mi sse s a p ra ye r d ue too v e r s l e e p i n go r fo r g e t f l n e s s , t h e n , ubefore starting the missed prayer thepe r s o ni s r e qu i re dto co me u p w i th bothA d h a a n a n d l q a ma h ,However,if a personmissesa number ofpra y e r s ,i t i s pre fe rre d a t h e co mes up thw i t h o n l yo n e " A d h a a n "f o r a l l t h em i s s e dp ra y e r s , u t t o co me u p w i th a se p ar ate b" l q a m a h "f o r e a c hs a l a a t . t. Where a person misses thec on g r e g a t i o na p ra ye r a t th e mo sque, ls uc ha p e r s o n, e fo re rti n g p ra yis at b sta tolib e r t y t o e i t h e r p e rfo rm o r o mi t the M
    • A d h a a n a n d t h e l q a ma h .H o w e ve r,i f hedecides to Perform the Adhaan, it ispreferredthat he does it in a low voicesoas not to attract the attention of othersout si d e .g. lt is not obligatory women to perform ont he A d h a a na n d l q a ma hb u t i f th e yw i shtoperfo r mt h e s a m e th e re i s n o h a rm.PE R F O R M AN COF T H E S A I A A T EAfter introducing the salaat andd is cu s s i n g i t s p re -re q u i si te s, e shall wnow t u r n t o ma tte rs p e rta i n i n gto itsac t u a lp e r f o r m a n ce . CONDITIONS FOR THE PRAYER (SH U R U U D - L -S A IA T ) Th e r e a r e a n u mb e ro f co n d i ti o n s h ich w n e e d t o b e f u l fi l l e dfo r th e p ra ye rto be v a l i d .T h e s ea r e a s f o l l o w s : 45
    • 1. A c c e p t a n ce o f l sl a mi c F a i thd is b e l i e v e r a r e n o t re q u i re d e sta b lish s toSafaat until they believein "Attah6WD"and b e a rw i t n e s sth a t th e re i s n o g o d butAlla h a n d b e a rwi tn e ssth a t Mu h a mm adis Hi s s e r v a n ta n d me sse n g e r.2. Anniyah - this in Arabic means theintention by heart to perform thep a rt i c u l a r r a y e r. p -3. Cleanliness this includescleanlinesso f t h e b o d y , t h e cl o th e s a n d th e p l acewhere the prayer is to be performed.4. Purification - this refers to theperformance Wudhu(or Ghuslwhere it ofis re q u i r e d ) p ri o r to u n d e rta ki n gthepraye r .5. Concealing of the Private parts - for ama n , i t i s e s s e nti a th a t h e b e co ve re d l atleastf r o m t h e n a ve l toth e kn e e sa l l ro u nd,wh ile , i n t h e c a seo f a w o ma n , h e r b o dy 46
    • should be totally coveredexceptfor thef a c e a n d w r i s t s.6. Facingthe "Aiblah" - this meansthat aperson when prayingmust face towardst h e d i r e c t i o n o f th e sa cre d mo sq u e in"Makkah". Where a personis not able tolo c a t e t h e d i r ecti o nb y h i mse l f/h e rself,the person may ask another personwho may know the direction of the Aibbh. Ho w e v e r , f n o o n e i s i n si g h tto g u i d eto it h e r i g h t d i r ecti o n , th e n , th e p e rson s ho u l d d e c i d e fo r h i mse l f,/h e rse land f make the best guess of the correct direction of the Aiblah, and accordingly, p e r f o r mt h e p r aye ri n th a t d i re cti o n ven e t ho u g h t h e g u e ss ma yb e i n co rre ct. The prayer performed would still be a c c e p t a b l e l n s h a A l l a h ) i n vi e w o f the ( f o llo w i n gv e r s eo f th e H o l YOu ra n . "Whichever direction ye turn there is the P re s e n c e f A l l a h ," (Ou ra n2 :1 1 5 l o
    • 7. Timing - prayersare to be observedin t h e i r p r e s c r i b e d me s. ti 8. Sanity and consciousness prayer is - re q u i r e d n l y fr om p e rso n s f so u n dmi nd. o o9. Ability to distinguish - prayer isrequ i r e do n l y w h e re th e p e rso n(ch i l d)isa b let o d i s t i n g ui sh e tw e e n o o da n d b ad, b ga n d i s a b l e t o un d e rsta n d n d a p p re ciate afully what is to be recited,performedetc.Note: I t is p r e f e r r e d fo r ch i l d re n to b e gin performingthe praverat the age of sevenf or i t a w a k e n si n th e m th e p re se n ceof "Allah (SWT)"and incutcates them in theh a b i t o f p r a y i n ga s a n a ct o f w o rsh i pa ndlovetof Allah 6WD". A child at the ageof1 O is m a d e t o u n d e rsta n d a t p ra ye ris thn e c e s s a r i la p a rto f th e p e rso n ,s a i l yl i fe y dand is a solemn duty ordainedby ,Altah(S W T ) "o n l l M u sl i ms,a n d th a t fa i l u reto a 48
    • p e rf o rm i t i s a n a ct o f d i sb e l i e f(K u fr).Therefore,parentsare requiredto guideth eir ch i l d r e n t o th e ri g h t p a th b yp u n is h i n ga n y o f t he m w h o a t th e a g e o f1 O in t e n t i o n a l l y i sse sth e p ra ye rs. mTh e P ro p h e t P B U H ), i d : ( sa"Order your children to pray when theyreach the age of seven and punish themfor not performing it at the age of ten andseparate them (i.e. boys and girls) in theirbe d s . " ( R e p o r t e d y l ma m B u h ka ri ) bUponattaining he age of 15, a childis td e e me d t o h a v e re a ch e d a d u l th o o d,whereby, he,/she is requiredto performth e p ra y e r . H e r e be l o w , re so me o th e r asig n sw h i c h m a y i n d i ca te a t a ch i l dh a s tha t t a ine da d u l t h o o d .a . T h e g r o w i n go f p u b i ch a i r s .b . F i n d i n g r a c e so f s e m e no n t h e c h i l d s tclo t h e sa n d , / o rb e d . 49
    • c. The start of menstruation, the caseof ina girl. OF T H E A C T S OF THEC AT EG O R IE SSAr AvATA l l t h e a c t s, re a d i n g sa n d su p p l i cationsu n d e r t a k e ni n th e co u rse o f th e salaathave different legal weights andim p l i c a t i o n s.T h e y a re ca te g o ri sedasfollows:A. Pilfarsof the Salaat - (Arkanu-Salaat)B . N e c e s s a ry D u ti e s o f th e S a laat(Wajibatu-Salaat)C . P r e f e r r e d A cts o f th e S a l aat(Sunnanu-Salaat)W e s h a l l no w d i scu ss e a ch o f thesec a t e g o r i e sn tu rn . i 50
    • PILLARSOF THE SAr ^vAT - (ARKANU-SAI AAT)Th e pra y e r h a s o b l i g a to ryp i l l a rsw h i chmu s t be f u l fi l l e df o r i t to b eva l i da n dth e seare as f o l l o w s :1. Al-Aiyaam" - prayer is to bep erf orm e d i n a sta n d i n g p o si ti o n i f ap ers oni s p h y s i c a l l y p a b l e . ca2. "Takbiiratil lhraam", that is saying"ALLAHU AKBAR". at the commence-me n t o f t h e p r a y er.3. "Al-Fatihah" - that is reciting theopenin g c h a p t e r of th e H o l y Ou ra n i nev e ryR a k a a t .4. "Rukuu" - this is bowing posturewh e re b y t h e h e ad a n d th e b a ck a rep os it io n e do n t h e sa me l e ve l a n d b o thh a n d s a r e r e s t e do n th e kn e e sw i th th ef ingerss p r e a da p a rt. 5l
    • 5 . A r e q u i r e m e nto ra i seth e h e a du p f r om tt h e R u k u up osi ti o n .6 . A r e q u i r e me n tto sta n d u p fro m theR u k u u p o s i ti o n i n su ch a w a y th at theperson feels that all his,/her backbonesa r e s t r a i g h te n e d .7. "Sujuud" that is prostrating oneselfins u c h a w a y t h a t th e fo l l o w i n gse ve npar tso f t h e b o d y a re fi rml y p l a ce d o n theg r o u n d : h e f ore h e a d g e th e r i th the tip t to wo f t h e n o s e, b o th th e p a l ms, b o th theknees,the bottom surface of the toes ofboth feet.8 . A r e q u i r e me n to ra i seth e h e a dfr om tt h e S u j u u dp o s i t i o n .9 . A r e q u i r e m e n t s i t u p r i g h t u r i n gt h e to dpause between the two prostrations.1 0 . A r e q u i r e m e n tt o t a k e a S i t t i n g
    • Position for the recitation of the "At-Tashahud" (words of witness).1 1 . A requirement to recite the tinal "At-Tashahud". .1 2 . A r e q u i r e m ento re ci teth e w o rd s of ts uppl i c a t i o no r t h e P ro p h e t B U H ). f (P1 3 . A r e q u i r e m ento co n cl u d e e p ra yer t thwith the words of peace "Tasleem", i.e."Assalamu Aleykum Wa RahmatullaahiWa Barakatuh".1 4 . A r e q u i r e m e n tt h a t i n f u l f i l l i n g t h eabove pillarsthe person should be in astate of tranquility.The above are the pillars of the prayer,wherein, if any of them is missed,it isr e q u i r e dt o r e p e a tt h e w h o l e R a k a a t U n i t ) (i n w h i c h t h e p i l l a r i s o m i t t e d ,b u t i f , t h eTakbiiratil - lhraam is omitted, it becomesn e c e s s a r yt o r e p e a t t h e w h o l e s a l a a t . 53
    • NECESSARYDUTIES THE SALAAT OF(wAJTBATU-SAr AAT)ln a d d i t i o nt o th e a b o ve1 4 p i l l a rso f thepra y e r ,t h e r e are a l so ce rta i n n e ce ssar ydu t i e s w h i c h n e e d to b e fu l fi l l e d i n thec ou r s eo f t h e sa l a a t. h e sea re a s fo l l ows: T1 . Sa y i n g "AL L A H U A K B A R " i n thecourseof the prayerwhere it is necessary,e. g . u p o n c o mme n ci n g u ku ue tc.,e tc. R2. Saying "SUBHANAA RABBIYALA Z I M . " w h e n i n R u k u up o s i t i o n .3. Saying "SAMI ALLAHU LIMANHA M I D A H " wh i l e re su mi n g sta n dingp o s i t i o nf r o m t h e R u k u u w h e t h e r t h eper s o ni s a n "l ma m" (l e a d e r)o i s p ra ying ralone. 54
    • 4. Saying "RABBANA WALAKALHAMD"when r e s u m i n g th e sta n d i n g p o si ti onf ro m th e R u k u u a fte r sa yi n gth e w o rd s:SAMI ALLAHU LIMAN HAMIDAH". Thisis required from the lmam (leader), fromthe congregation and even from a personwho is praying alone.5. Saying SUBHANARABBIYAL AALA"wh e n i n S u j u u d( p ro stra ti o np o si ti o n . )6. Saying "RABBI IGHFIR LEE" in thes it t in gp a u s eb e t we e n e tw o p ro tra ti o ns thof eve r y u n i t o f t he p ra ye r.7. Ta k i n g a Si tti n g P o si ti o n fo r therecitation of At-Tashahudafter the firstt w o r a k a a t su n i t s ) oD h u h r A s r ,M a g h r i b ( f ,and ls h a p r a y e r s.8 . Re c i t i n gt h e A t-T a sh a h u d (w o rd s ofwit n e s s )a f t e rt h e fi rst tw o ra ka a ts n i ts) (uo f D h u h r ,A s r , M a g h r i b n d l s h ap r a y e r s . a 55
    • The above8 actsconstitute the necessarydu t i e so f t h e p ra ye ra n d i f o n e o f th em ismi s s e du n i n t e n ti o n a l l y, e nth e p e rsonis thre q u i r e d o a me n dth e mi sta ke y co m ing t bup with the two prostrations offorgetfulnessat the end of the prayer.However,if any of these duties is left outd e l i b e r a t e l y , e n th e w h o l e p ra yer is thn u l l i f i e d n d s h a l l r e q u i r ea r e p e t i t i o n . aPREFERRED ACTS OF THE SALAAT(s u N AN U - S A A A T ) rI n a d d i t i o nt o th e P i l l a rsa n d N e ce ssar ydu t i e s a l r e a d yd i scu sse dth e re a re also ,c e r t a i np r e f e r re d ctsto b e f u tfi l l e d n the a icourseof the prayer. Theseare as follows:1. R e c i t i n g o f a n o p e n i n g su p p l i cation(Dua-al-lstiftaah) after the "Takbiiratil-lhraam".2 . P l a c i n g h e h a n d so ve rth e ch e stw hile tt h e p e r s o ni s in a sta n d i n gp o si ti o nwith 56
    • t h e ri g h t h a n d p l a ce do ve r th e l e ft h a n d.3 . Ra i s i n g f b o t h h a n d su p toth e l e ve lof othe shouldersor near to the lobesof theears when saying "Takbiiratil-lhraam";wh e n h e a d i n g l o r th e R u ku u ; w h e nre s u m i n g s t a n di n g p o si ti o n fro m th eRukuu and when resuming standingpositionfrom the prostration.4. See k i n g h e p r o te cti o n f A l l a hfro m th e t oc u rs e ds a t a n( o n l ya t th e sta rt o f th e fi rstra k a a t ) y s a y i n g: b"Auzu billahi minas- shaytani-r-rajiim,"which means"l seek Allahs refuge from the cursedsatan."5 . Sta r t i n g t h e p ra ye r w i th th e si l e ntinvocationof "Allah (SWf)" by saying: 57
    • ISM ILLAHI -R.RAHMAN I -R- - BRAHEEM." which means"ln the name of Allah theCompassionate,the M erciful." 6. S a y i n g"A me e n " u p o n co n cl u d i ngthe recitation of "Al-Fatihah".7 . R e c i t i n g o mech a p te rs r p a ssa g esat s o (le a s tt h r e e ( 3 ) ve rse s) f th e H o l yOur an oatter Al-Fatihah in the first two rakaats(un i t s )o f e a c h p ra ye r.8. A preference that the recitationof Al-Fatihah and of any other additionalre a d i n g s r o m th e H o l yOu ra na re re cited fin a l o u d v o i c e i n th e fi rst tw o ra ka atsofFa j r ,M a g h r i ba n d l sh a p ra ye rs.9 . A p r e f e r e nce a t w h e n si tti n gfo r the thtirstAt-Tashahud and in betweenthe twop ro s t r a t i o n sth e , p e rso nre stso n h i s leftf o o tf l a t t e n e d n th e g ro u n dw h i l e ke eping o 58
    • the right foot erect with the bottomof thet oes f i r m e d o n t h e g ro u n d .1O.A preference practtce to At-Tawarukwhen sitting for the final At-Tashahudinthe Dh u h r ,A s r , M a g h ri b n d l sh ap ra ye rs. a"At-Tawaruk" is a mode of sitting,w here i nt h e p e r so np ro tru d e s u t h i s l e ft of oot f r o m u n d e r ne a th i s ri g h tl e g ,i n su ch ha way that the persondoesnot relaxon hisleft foot.11 . R e c i t i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g s u p p l i c a -t ion, w h e n s i t t i n g fo r A t-T a sh a h u d ,i nb e t we e nt h e s u p p l i ca ti o n r th e P ro p h et fo(PB U H ) n d t h e f i n a l w o rd s o f p e a ce : a,,ALLAHUMMA INII AUDHU BIKA MINADHABI JAHANAMA. WAMIN ADHABIILAABR. WAMIN FITNATILMAHYAA WAL-MA-MATI, WAMIN FITNATIL MASIHID-D A J AA L ". w h i c h me a n s- 59
    • "O Lord I seek your protection from thetorment of Jahanam (the hell fire), andfrom the torment of the grave, and fromthe trials of living and dying and from thetrials of the Masiih Addajaal."The abovepointsare the preferred actsofthe prayer and all M uslims areencouragedto preservethese practicesbecause their observance entitles theperson great rewards f rom "Allah(SWf)". However, missing any of themd o e s n e i t h e r i n va l i d a teth e sa l a a t norrequire the two prostrations off o r g e tu l n e s s . fHO W T H E S A L A A TIS P E R F OR ME DHa v i n g k n o wn i n d e ta i l a l l th e d i ffer entacts of the praYer, i.e.,its Pillars,n e c e s s a r y u ti e s a n d p re fe rre d cts ,we d as h a l ln o w d i s c u s s n b r i e fh o w t h e S a l a a t iis p e r f o r m e d l l o w i n g e e xa mp l e the fo th ofP r o p h e ( P B U H )a n d i n d u e r e g a r d o h i s t , t 60
    • f amouss a y i n g :,,SALUU KAMA RAEYTUMUNIIUSALI,which means"Perform your prayers in the samemanner you have seen me doing."Trans m i t t e d y Al -B u kh a ri bW e s ha l ld i s c u s s h e p e rfo rma n ce f e a ch t oprayer in its properperspective.r. " F AJR ( D AW N )P R A Y E R " .Number of Rakaats.TwoR e c it a t i o n O u r a n i c re ci ta ti o n si n th i sp ra y e r a r e m a d e in a l o u d vo i ce b y th elm a m i n a c o n g r e g a ti o n ra ye r a n d b y pw h o e v e rp r a y sa l o n e .Performance: 1. Th e p e r s o nt u r ns to w a rd sth e d i re cti o n of the Aibbh, (the sacred Mosque at 6l
    • Makkah), intending by heart to performthe Fajr (Dawn)prayer.Note:T h e p e r s o ns h o u l dn o t p ro n o u n ce i s,/her hin t e n t i o n o pe n l y b e ca u se n e i th er theP r o p h e ( P B U H ) o r h i s co mp a n i o n s t n usedt o u t t e r t h e ir i n te n ti o nfo r p ra ye r.Thus,p r o n o u n c i n g e i n te n ti o ni n a l o u dvoice this a n i n n o v a ti o n n d i s to ta l l yre j e c ted. a2.T h e p e r s o n e n ra i se s o thh a n d sup to th bt h e l e v e lo f t h e sh o u l d e rs r n e a rth e lobes oof the ears, pronouncesthe "Takbiiratit -lhraam" by saying "ALLAHU AKBAR"an d p l a c e s oth h a n d so ve rth e ch e s twith bt h e r i g h t h a nd o ve r th e l e ft.B y r e c i t i n g h e " T a k b i i r a t i-l l h r a a m " . h e t tperson thus, resolves for prayer andenters into a state of worship and ist h e n c e f o r t hre q u i re dto ca l l to mi n d themajestyand glory of "Allah (SWT)" and to 62
    • dedicate his intentions, recitationsandact io n st o H i m a l o ne u n ti l th e e n d o f th epray er . W h i l e p r ayi n g th e p e rso n i srequiredto direct his eyesdownwardsatthe spot of Prostration.3. The personthen recitesin a low voicean o p e n i n g s u p p l i ca ti o n r th e p ra ye r. foH e reb e l o wa r e t h r e e o f th e su p p l i ca ti o n sw h ic h t h e P r o p h e( P B U H )u seto p ra cti ce t dan d t he M u s l i m i s e xh o rte d me mo ri ze toat least one of them for recitationeacht ime a p r a y e ri s p erfo rme d :a). "SUBHANAKA ALLAHUMMA WABEHAMDIKA WATABARAKA ISMOKA,WATAALA JADDOKA WALA ILAHAGHAYROKA". which means -"Praise and glory be to Allah. Blessed beYour name exalted be Your maiesty andglory. There is no god but You". 63
    • b). "ALLAHUMMA BA|D BAYNT WABAYNA KHATAYAYA KAMA BAADTABAYNA.AL.MASHRIKI WAL MAGHRIBI.ALLAHUMMA NAAANIY MIN KHA-TAYAYAKAMA YONAAA-AL-THOWBO -ALABYADO MIN-AL.DANASI,ALLAHUMMA IAYSILNIY MIN KHA.TAYAYA BIL-MAI. WATHALJI,WALBARAD".which means"O Lord, separateme from my sinsasyouhave separated the east and west. O Lord,cleanse me of my srns as the white robe iscleansed from dirt. O Lord, wash away mysins with water, snow and hail".c). "WAJAHTU WAJHIYA LtLLADHttFA.TARA-AL-SAMAWATI WAL.ARDHIHANIIFAN MUSLIMAN WAMAA ANAMINAL MUSHRIKIINA, INNA SALATIIWANUSUKII WAMAHYAYA WAMA-MATII LILLAHI RABEILALAMIINA LAASH,ARIKALAHU WABIDHALIKA UMIRTU
    • WA ,ANA MINAL-MUSLIMIINA". whichme a n s"l turn my face to Him Who created theheavens and the earth, as a true believerand a Muslim, and nay, am I one of thepolytheists. Truly, my prayer and mysacrifices, my life and my death. allbelongto Allah, Lord of the worlds, Who has nopartner. Thisam lcommanded, and lam ofthose who submit to His Will".4. The personthen seeksthe protection of"Allah (SWf)" from the cursed satan bysaying "AUZO BILLAHI MTNALSHAYTANI-R-RAJIIM".5. Th e p e r s o n h en si l e n tl yi n vo ke s" A l tah t(SWf)" by saying:,, B ISM IL LA H -R-RAHMAN -R-RAHIIM".w h i c h m e a n s- 65
    • "ln the name of Allah. the all Merciful, theall Compassionate".The personimmediately thereafterrecites"AL-FATIHAH" (openingchapter of theG lo r i o u s O u r a n ) i n d u e re g a rd to thef o l l o w i n gs a y i n go f th e P ro p h e t B UH) : (P"Prayer without reciting theAl-Fatihahis invalid". (Reported lmam Bukhari) byUpon completionof the "Al-Fatihah" thepe r s o ns a y s "A me e n " l o u d l y.6. T h e p e r s on th e n re ci te s ch a p ter s,v er s e s o r p a ssa g e s n i mu m o f thr ee (miv er s e s ) r o m t he H o l yOu ra n .H o w e v er it f ,is r e c o m m e nd e d a t l o n g p a ssa g es e th arre c i t e df o r t h e F a j r(D a w np ra ye r. )No t e :lf the person is praying with ai o n g r e g a t i o nb e h i n d a n l m a m ( l e a d e r ) 66
    • h e , / s h e o u l da pp l yN o s.1,2 ,3 a n d 4 , a nd wwoufd listento the lmam recitingthe "Al-Fatihah" loudly and upon the lmamc omp l e t i n gt s r e ci ta ti o n , e p e rso n l o ng i th awith the rest of the congregation wouldsay "Ameen" loudly after which, thepersonwould apply No. 5 in a low voice.7. Th e n ,t h e p e r so np ro ce e d s " R u ku u" to(b o w i n g ) o s i t i on i si n gb o th h a n d su p to p rathe levelof the shoulders nearthe lobesorof the ears saying "ALLAHU AKBAR".Wh ile i n t h i s po si ti o n , th e p e rso n isrequired to excercise serenity andt ranq u i l i t y o s i t io n i n g e h e a da n d b a ck p thon t h e s a m e l e ve l ,p u tti n gb o th h a n d so nt h e kn e e s w i t h th e fi n g e rs sp re a d a nds ay in g t h e f o l l o w i n g w o rd s fo r a t l e astt h r e et i m e s :"SUBHANA RABBIYAL AZM". whichm e a n s-"Glorified is my Lord the Great." 67
    • I n a d d i t i o n w h i l e i n R u ku up o si ti o n , t is , ialso advisable say: to"SUBHANAKA ALLAHUMMA WABIHAM DIKA, ALLAHUM MA EGHFIRLII,wh i c h m e a n s-"Glory be to Thee, O Allah, and praise beto Thee, forgive me my sins".8. Then, the person raises from the" Ru k u u " p o s i ti o nl i fti n gb o th h a n d suptot h e l e v e lo f t h e sh o u l d e rs r n e a rth el obes oof the ears saying:SAMI AALLAHU LIMAN HAMIDAH",wh i c h m e a n s"Allah listens to him who praises Him."Th e p e r s o nt h e n , i mme d i a te l y ci te s re thefollowing supplication while stillstanding: 68
    • .RABBANA WA LAKA AL HAMDUHAMD AN K A T HE E R A N T A Y Y IB A NMOBARAKAN FEEHIY MILASSAMAWATI WA MILA ALARDHI WAMILA MA BAYNAHOMA WA MILA MASHIATA MIN SHIYIN BAAD", whichmeans"Our Lord, praise be to Theeonly, praisesplentiful and blessings as to fill theheavens, the earth, and what /s inbetween, and fill that which will pleaseThee besides them".Howe v e r i f a p e r so n l l o w i n g n l ma m i n , fo aa c on g r e g a t i o n ap ra ye r i s n o t a b l e to lconrplete the above supplication itsuffices to say "RABBANA WA LAKAALHAMD".It is also advisableor the lmam. the ff ollow e r o r o n e wh o p ra ys a l o n e to a d df u r t h e rt h e s u p p l i c a t i o h e r e b e l o w : n
    • "AHLU THANAAI WALMAJDI A-HAAUMA AAALA ALABDU WAKULUNA LAKAABD, ALLAHUMMA LA MAANIA LIMAADEYTA WALA M UDIYA LIMAMANATA WALA YANFAUDHAL-JADDIMINKAL JADD". which means -"You Allah who deserves all praises andall glory, Your praising is the best andmost true of whatever Your servant cansay, we are allYour servants.Our Lord,noone can ever depriveanything of what Youhave bestowed and no one can ever giveanything of what You have deprived."Wh i l e i n t h e sta n d i n g p o si ti o n afterRu k u u , h e p e rso ni s a d vi se d p l a ceboth t toha n d so v e rt h e ch e sti n th e sa mema nnerbe f o r e b o w in g , si n ce , th i s w a s thepr a c t i c e f t h e P ro p h e t B U H ). o (P9. T h e p e r s o n th e re a fte r p ro ce e dstoprostration saying: "ALLAHU AKBAR"a n d t o u c h i n gt h e g r o u n dw i t h t h e k n e e s 70
    • first before the hands if possible.However,if not possible, personmay thet ouc h t h e g r o u n dw i th th e h a n d sb e fo ret he k n e e s . W h il e i n p ro stra ti o n ,th ep e rs o n s h o u l d p l a ce se ve n p a rts o f th eb o d yo n t h e g r o un d .T h e sep a rtsa re :th eforehead, together with the nose, bothp a lm s o f t h e h an d s (fi n g e rs sh o u l d bestretched, closed together and pointedt owa r d st h e d i r e cti o n f th e Oi b l a h ), o th o bknees,the bottompartsof the toesof bothf eet (t o e s p o i n t e dto th e d i re cti o no f theO i b l a h ) . D u r i n g t h e p r o s t r a t i o n st h e ,p e rs o ns a y s f o r th re e ti me s o r mo re thef o llo w i n gw o r d s :"SUBHANA RABBIYAL AALA", whichmeans"Glorified is my Lord the Exalted".I t is a l s o a d v i s a b l e sa y fu rth e r: to 7l
    • ,,SUBHANAKAALLAHUM MA RABBANAWA BI HAMDIKA, ALLAHUMMA IGHFIRLll", which means"Glory be to Thee,our Lord, and I praise beto Thee. O Lord, forgiue me my sins"Wh i l e i n p r o stra ti o n i,t i s re co mmendedthat the person recites as manysupplicationsas possible asking "Allah(SWf)" for prosperity both in this worldlylif e a n d i n t h e l i fe h e re a fte r e ca u se b theProphet(PBUsaid: H)When performing Rukuu glorify Allah , (SW T I , b u t d u ri n gp ro stra ti o n , n d e avour e t o m a k ea s m an ysu p p l i ca ti o na s p o s sible s Allah (SWTL to for supplications during p ro s t r a t i o n a re a l mo st ce rta i n to be a c c e p t e d . "( Re p o rte y l ma m Mu sl i m ) bdI n v i e w o f t h e a b o vep ro p h e ti c d ition, trawe q u o t e h e re b e l o w so me o f thes u p p l i c a t i o n s n d p ri va tep ra ye rsw hich a 72
    • t h e P r o p h e t( PB U H ) se d to sa y w h i l e i n upros tr a t i o n :a.,ALLAHUMMA LAKA SAJADTU,WABIKA AMANTU, WALAKA ASLAMTUSAJADA WAJHII LILLADHII KHA-LAAAHU FASAWARAHU FAAH.SANASUW A R A H I J , FA S H A A A S A MA H UWABAS ARA H U. FATABA RAKA. LLAH UAHSANA-L-KHAUAllN". which means"O Lord, to Thee I prostrate in Thee Ibelieve and to Thee I submit; MY face prostrates to He Who created andfashioned it and made its form good andprovided it with hearing and sight; praisebe to Altah, the most excellent ofcreators". RABBI ADI NAFSII TAAWAHA b. WAZAKIHA, ANTA KHAYRIJ-MANZA- KAHA ANTA WALIYUHAA WAMAU- L AH AA . " w h i c h me a n s
    • " O Lord, give my soul its devoutnessand purify it, for none other than Thou can purify it, Thou are its Lord and Master,,. Wh i l e i n p r o s tra tl o nth e p e rso nsh ould , no t b r i n gt h e ha n d scl o seto th e h e a dand should not stick the arms to the a b d o m e nA l s o,th e p e rso nsh o u l dn e i ther . s t ic kt h e a b d o me n th i g h sn o rth e th ighs to t o l e g s . T h e a rms sh o u l d b e d i sta nced from the body and raised up from the g ro u n d b e c a use th e p ro p h e t (p BUH) p ro h i b i t e d l a t te n i n gth e m o n th e g ro und f a c c o r d i n g o t h e fo l l o w i n gsa yi n g ; t"Adjust your prostration, keep straight init and stretch not your hands on theground as dogs do". (Reporterdby lmamBukhari) 10. T h e p e r s o nth e re a fte rra i se s u p theh e a d f r o m p r o stra ti o n yi n g ,A L L AHU saAKBAR", and sits up resting on the leftf ootfl a t t e n e d n th e g ro u n dw h i l e ke e p ing o 74
    • the right foot erect with the toes of theright f o o t f i r m e d o n th e g ro u n d Wh i l e i nt h is p o s i t i o n b o th p a l msa re to b e p l a ced ,on the knees and the person recitesthef o llo w i n gs u P P l i ca ti o n :RA BI Y A I AH F IR L II, WA R H A MN IIWAHDINII. WAJBIJRNII. WARZANEEWAA FINEE", which means"O my Lord, forgive me have mercY onme, guide me, consoleme, provide for meand h e a l m e . " 1 1. T h e p e r s o np ro stra te s g a i n sa yi ng a "ALLAHUAKBAR"andrepeatswhat was d o n e i n t h e f i r s t P ro stra ti o n 1 2 . f h e p e r s o nth e n ra i se s e h e a dfrom th " A L L A HU t h e se c o n dp r o stra ti o n yi n gsa AK B A R ",a n d t a ke sa si tti n gp a u se mi lar si t o t h e P au s e b e t w e e n t h e t w o p ro s t r a t i o n s .h i s i s a p a u sefo r re sta n d it T is re c o m m e n de d t5 ke su ch a p a u s e to ta
    • alt h o u g ht h e r e i s n o h a rm i f o mi tte d That . is the endof one "Rakaat,,(unit). 13. The personthereafter,says ALLAHU AKBAR and stands up for the second Ra k a a tw h i c h i s p e rfo rme di n th e sam e ma n n e r a s t h e fi rst R a ka a tw h e re b ythe p e r s o nc o m e sup w i th a l l th e a cti o n sand reci t a t i o n s f r o m N o s. 1 u p to 1 1 as discussed above. 14. Upon completing the second prostrationas discussed No. 12 above, in the person takes a sitting for the ,At_ Tashahud" (wordsof witness)and while in th i s p o s i t i on ,th e fi n g e rs o f th e ri ght han da r e t o b e pl a ce d o se -fi stesa vethe cl d inde x f i n g e r wh i ch th e p e rso n u se s to p o in to u t a s a n in d i ca ti o n r mo n o th e istic fo beli e f a l t h o u g h,th e p e rso nma y a s well k ee p b o t h t h e li ttl e a n d th e ri n g fi n g er sc l o s e d ,w h i l e r o u n d i n gt h e t h u m b a n dmid d l ef i n g e r i n a ri n g -sh a p e d rm a nd fous e st h e i n d e xf in g e rto p o i n to u t a s a signf or m o n o t h e i s ti b e l i e f. t h a sb e e nre l a ted c l 76
    • that the Prophet(PBUH),practicedboththese methods and it is advisable topracticethe first methodat times and theother methodat othertimesThe left hand is placedon the left kneewith the f ingers kept open.After sitting as discussed above, thepersonrecitesthe,4T-Tashahud(words ofwit n e s s )a s f o l l o w s: AT TAHIYYATULILAHI WASALAWATU WATAYYIBATU ASSALAMU ALAYKA AYUHAN-NABIYU WA RAHMATULLAHI WA BARAKATUHU,ASALAMU ALAYNA WA ALA IBADI-L-LAHI-S-SALIHIYN. ASH-HADU ANLA ILAHA ILA LAHU WAH DAHU LA SHARIKA LAHU WA ASH.HA- DU ANNA MUHAMMADAN ABDUHU WA RASUULUH.ALLAHUMMA SALLIYALA MUHAMMAD WA ALA AALI MUHAMMAD, KAMA SALAYTA ALA IBRAHIMA, WA AALA AALI IBRAHIM.
    • INAKA HAMIDON MAJID. WA BARIKALAA MUHAMMAD WA ALAA AALIMUHAMMAD KAMA BARAKTA ALAIBRAHIMA WA ALAA AALI IERAHIM.INAKA HAMTDONMAJtD...which means "Greetings, prayers and our good deeds are for Allah. Peace,mercy and blessings of Allah be on you O prophet. May peacebe upon us and on the devout slaves ofAllah. l testify that there is no god butAllah (the person when reciting thistestimony points out the index finger as asign of monotheistic belief) and I testifythat Muhammad /s His slave andmessenger. O Lord, bless Muhammadand his family as you blessedlbrahim andhis family. You are the Most-praised, TheMost-Glorious. O Lord,bestow your graceon Muhammad and his famity as youbestowed it on lbrahim and hisfamily. youa re t h e M o s t-p ra i se d , th e Mo st_Glorious." 78
    • It is recommendedto add to the aboveread i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g su p p l i ca ti o ninwhic h t h e p e rso n a sks fo r A l l a h sp ro t e c t i o nr o m fo u r e vi l s: f,ALLAHUMMA INII AUDHU BIKA MINADHABI JAHANNAMA, WA M INADHABIL AABR. WAMIN FITNATILMAHYAA WAL-MAMATI, WAMINFtTNATtL MASIHID-DAJAAL". whichm e a n s-"My Lord, I seekYourprotection from thetorment of Hell, from the torment of thegrave, from the trials in lifetime and afterdeath, and from the impostor Masihi- dajaal". Th e p e r s o n m a y a l so ma ke f u rther s u p p l i c a t i o nts " A l l a h (S WD " a ski n gfor o p ro s p e r i t y o t h i n th i s l i fe a n d i n th e life b her e a f t e r , n d to b e sto w H i s fa vo u rson a h i s p a r e n t s n d o t h e rM u s l i m s T h i sw a s a . t h e c o n f i r m e d p ra cti ce o f th e P ro phet 79
    • (PB U H ) s r e p orte d y l b n Ma sso u d ay a b (mA lla h b e p l e a se d i th h i m). w15. H a v i n g c o mp l e te dth e A t-T a sh a hudt he p e r s o n t e rmi n a te s th e p ra ye r bysayingfor two timesAS-SALAMU ALEYKUM WARAHMATU-LAAH". which mean" Peace and mercy of Attah be upon you",t u rn i n gt h e f a c efi rstto th e ri g h ta n dth en,to the left.Th a t i s t h e e n d o f th e F a j r p ra ye r.I I . " D H U H R( N O O N ) R A Y E R " PNumber of Rakaat: FourRecitation: Ouranic recitations in thisp ra y e ri s m a d ei n a l o w vo i ceb y th e l mam(lead e r )t,h e f o ll o w e rso r w h o e ve r p raysalone. 80
    • Performahce:1. T h e f i r s t t w o Ra ka a tso f th e D h u h rp ra y e ra r e p e r f o r me dn th e sa mema n n e r ias the two Rakaats the Fajrprayerwith ofre g a rdt o N o s .1 u pto 1 4 . H o w e ve r, n th e ic as eof D h u h rp r a ye r, e si tti n gi n N o . 1 4 thre p re s e n t t h e f t r s tA t-T a sh a h u id w h i ch s nc a s e ,t h e p e r s o ni s re q u i re d re ci teo n l y tothe f irst part of the words of witness up to"...WA ASHADUANNA MUHAMMADANABDUHU WA RASUULUHU". Mean-while, i t i s p r e f e r re d a t, fo r th e D h u h r thpray er ,t h e o u r a ni c re ci ta ti o n s fte r th e aA l-F a t i h a h a r e o f me d i u m l e n g th (i .e .n e it he rt o o s h o r t n o r to o l o n g ).2 . Up o n c o n c l u d in g e re ci ta ti o n f th e th ofi rs t p a r t o l A t - T ash a h u di n N o . 1 4 , th eperson, instead of proceedingto actionNo. 15 (of the Fajr prayer), stands up fort h e t wo r e m a i n i n gR a ka a ts f th e D h u h r op ra y e rw h i c h a r e a l so p e rfo rme di n th esa me m a n n e ra s t h e fi rst tw o . 81
    • 3 . U p o n p e r fo rmi n gN o . 1 2 i n th e four thRakaat,the person sits for the tinal AtTa s h a h u d a n d co me s u p w i th f ullre c i t a t i o n f th e sa mea s i n N o . 1 4 of the oF a j r p r a y e r . h e p e rso nth e n p ro ce eds T ont o N o . 1 5 a n d th u s, co n cl u d e s e p rayer . thI I I ." A S R ( A F T E R N O O N ) A Y E R " PRNumber of rakaats: FourR e c i t a t i o n Ou ra n i c re ci ta ti o n si n thisp r a y e r a r e ma d e i n a l o w vo i ce bY thele a d e r( l m a m ), e fo l l o w e rs, r w h oever th op r a y sa l o n e .Performance: is performed lt similarto theDhuhr ( N o o n ) r a y e ri n a l l r e s p e c t s . prv . "M AG H R IB(S U N S E TP R A Y E R" ) Three Number of Rakaats. 82
    • Recitation Ouranic recitationsin thisprayer is made loudly in the first twor ak aats b y t h e le a d e r (l ma m) o r b yw hoeve rp r a y sa l o n e .Performance:1. The first two Rakaats this prayerare ofp e rf o rm e dn t h e s a mema n n e ra s th e f i rst itwo Rakaats of the Dhuhr prayer.Ho wev e r ,t h e p e r so n p ra yi n gb e h i n d a nlm a m i n a c o n g re g a ti o n s re q u i re dto ili s t e nt o t h e l m a ms re ci ta ti o n f th e A l - oFatihah,in the first two Rakaats. Uponthelmams completionof the Al-Fatihah,theperson says Ameen with the rest of thecongregation and then recitesAl-Fatihahsile n t l yb y h i m s e l f. h e p e rso n e re a fte r, T thma y no t n e e dt o r eci teOu ra n i cp a ssa g e sh ims el f b u t s h o u l d p a y a tte n ti o nto th el m a m sr e c i t a t i o n .M e a n w h i l e ,O u r a n i cr e c i t a t i o n sn t h i s iprayer after the Al-Fatihah by the lmam 83
    • (or by whoeverpraysalone)may be eitherlong or short passages the HolyOuran. of2. Upon raisingthe headfrom the secondprostration of the second Rakaat, thepersonsits down for the firstAt-Tashahudand iecites the first part of the words ofwitness (i.e. upto "....wA ASHADUANNAMUHAMMADAN ABDUHU WARASUULUHU").3 . T h e p e r s o n e re a fte sta n d su p for the th rp e r f o r m a n ce f th e th i rd a n d l a st Rakaat oo f t h e M a g h ri b p ra ye ra n d u p o n raisingthe head from the second prostrationofthis third Rakaat, personsits down for thethe final At-Tashahud and recites thew o r d s o f w i tn e ss i n fu l l .4 . T h e p e r so nth e n co n cl u d e s e pr ayer thb y t h e " T a s l e e m " i . e . c t i o nN o 1 5 o f t h e ( aF a j r p r a y e r ).
    • v . " l s H A ( E V E N I N G )R A Y E R " PNumber of rakaats.FourRecitation Ouranic recitations in thispray e r i s m a d e l o u d l y i n th e fi rst tw oRa k a a t sb y t h e l ma m a n d b y w h o e verp ray sa l o n e .Performance:1 . Th i s p r a y e ri s p e rfo rme di n th e sa mem a n n e ra s t h e D h u h r( N o o n a n d t h e A s r )( Af t er n o o n p r a y e rs. )H o w e v e rw h e n p r a y i n g e h i n da n l m a m , , bthe p e r s o n i s r e q u i re dto l i ste n to th elma m sr e c i t a t i o n f th e " A L -F A T IH A H i"n ot he f ir s t t w o R a ka a ts. p o n th e l ma ms Ucompl e t i o n f t h e A l -F a ti h a hth e p e rso n osays Ameen with the rest of thec ongre g a t i o n n d th e n re ci te s l -F a ti h a h a As ilent l yb y h i m s e lf. h e p e rso nth e re a fter T 85
    • m a y n o t n e e dto re ci teOu ra n i cp a ssageshim s e l f b u t sh o u l d p a y a tte n ti o nto thel m a m sr e c i t a t i o n .T H E F O R G E T F U L N E S S OS T R A TIONS PR(SU J U U D H W) SAA s h u m a n be i n g s, w e a re b Y n atur es u b j e c t t o m i sta ke sa n d e rro rs, a nd asm e n t i o n e d ea rl i e r, i f a p e rso n fa i ls tope r f o r m a n y o f th e p i l l a rs o f th e p r ayeran d / o r n e c essa ry u ti e s, th e p e rson is dre q u i r e dt o me n d th e e rro r b y co mi ngupwi t h t w o p r ostra ti o n s t th e e n d of the aprayer known as "Suiuud Sahw" i.ef o r g e t f u l n e s s p r o s t r a t i o n s ,a l t h o u g h ,wh e r e a p i l l ar(s)s o mi tte da re p e ti tion i oft h e m i s s e dp i l l a r(s)s n e ce ssa ry. iT h e r e a r e s o me d i sa g re e me n ts e tween br e l i g i o u su r i s t sr e g a r d i n gh i s s u b j e c a s j t tt o w h e t h e r i t sh o u l db e p e rfo rme d befor eor after the words of peace (Tasleem).What seems to be a fair solution, 86
    • however, is that if a person made an a ddit i o n t o t h e p ra ye r, th e n , th e tw oprostrationsof forgetfulnessshould beperformed after reciting the Tasleem.W hile, i f a d e d u cti o ni s ma d e fro m th eprayer, then, the two prostrations offorgetf u l n e s s h o ul db e p e rfo rme d e fo re breciting the Tasleem. However, whereb o t h a n a d d i t i o n a n d a d e d u cti o nma yh a v e b e e n m a d e i n th e co u rse o f th eprayer, then, in th is case, thef o r g e t fu I n e s s p r o s t r a t i o n s c an b eperformed before the recitation of thewords of peace(Tasleem).V A R I O U SN S T A N C EW H E R E S U J U U D I S "S AHW " BE C O M E S P P A R E N T AA. Where a Pillar of the Prayer is Omitted1. Whe r e ,f o r e x a mp l ea p e rso n rg e ts , fo torecite the "Al-Fatihah" but remembersth e s am e b e f o r eRu ku uo r i n th e p ro ce sso f bow i n g ,t h e n ,t he p e rso ni s re q u i re d to 87
    • re s u m e a p r op e r sta n d i n gp o si ti o nandread the "Al-Fatihah" and some otherv e r s e sf r o m th e H o l y Ou ra n a s u sual.lft h i s o m i s s i o no ccu re di n th e fi rst rakaata n d t h e p e r s o nre me mb e rs e o mi ssion thwh i l e i n t h e co u rseo f th e se co n dra kaat,t h e n , t h e p e r so nsh o u l dco u n tth e secondra k a a ta s b e i n gth e fi rst ra ka a ta n d tr eatt h e f i r s t o n e i n w h i ch h e ,/sh emi ssedto recite the "Al-Fatihah"as null and void.Th e p e r s o n sh o u l d th e n P ro ce ed to pe r f o r m o n e mo re ra ka a t to co mplete h i s , / h e rSa l aa t a n d a t th e e n d , re ci tethe " T a s l e e m "( w o rd so f p e a ce ) fte r w hich, a t h e p e r s o n co me s u P w i th th e two pr o s t r a t i o n s f fo rg e tfu l n e ss n d again, o a recites the Tasleem.2 . l f , h o w e v e r w h i l e s i t t i n gf o r t h e f i n a l ,"At-Tashahud",(the words of witness),ap e r s o n r e m e mb e rs th a t h e mi ss ed ap r o s t r a t i o n , th e n th e p e rso n shouldim m e d i a t e l yco me u p w i th th e m issedp r o s t r a t i o n d si t b a cka g a i nto re peata an 88
    • recitationof the At-Tashahud. The personwould then say the Tasleem conclude tot he p ra y e r , u t w ou l d th e re a fte r me u p b cowith the two prostrations forgetfulness ofbeforeonce again reciting the Tasleem.T he a b o v e a r e so me e xa mp l e sw h e ree rrors a r e c o mmi tte d i n p e rfo rmi ngFARA I D H ( i . e . Pi l l a rs) o f th e S a l a at,w h e re i n ,t h e p e r so ni s n o to n l yre q u i re d tor epea t h e m i s s e d ct,b u t a l so , co meu p a towith the two prostrations forgetfulness. ofB. Where a Necessary DutY is OmittedHo we v e r , w h e r e so me o n e mi sse s a "WAJIB" (Necessary Duty) of the prayer,t h e m e r e c o m i n g u p w i th th e tw op ro s t r a t i o n s f f o rg e tfu l n e ss i l l su ffi ce o wwit ho u tt h e n e e dfo r re p e a ti n g e mi ssed thact.Thus, it a Waiib act is missedand theperson remembers it after startinganot h e ra c t i o n o f th e p ra Y e r, e n , h e i s th 89
    • not required repeatthe forgottenact but towould proceedto completethe rest of thes a l a a t a n d a t th e e n d , j u st b e fo re theTasleem,the person comes up with thetwo prostrations forgetfulness. ofC. Where a Preferred Act is OmittedAs for SUNNANS(PreferredActs) of thepr a y e r h i c h m a yb e mi sse d n e i th e ris it a w ,re q u i r e m e nto re p e rfo rm e m n o r i s the t thf o r g e t f u l n e s s ro stra ti o n s e e d e d . p nP R I V A T E S U P P L I C A T I O N SR E C I T E DUP O NC O M PL E T IN G R A Y E R S P I n a c c o r d a nce i th th e te a ch i n g s f the w oP r o p h e( P B U H ) , e r ea r eq u i t ea n u m b e r t thof p r i v a t e s up p l i ca ti o n s n d w o rds of aextollingAllah (SWf) i.e. "Dhikr" whicha r e h i g h l y d e s i r a ba e d r e c o m m e n d efd r ln ore c i t a t i o n t t h e e n d o f e a chp ra ye r. hese a Ts u p p l i c a t i o na n d e x t o l l a t i o n(s h i k r ) r e s d ano n - o b l i g a t ory n d co n sti tu te se p ar ate a 90
    • forms of "IBADAH" (Worship), hence,re c it in g h e m o r f a i l u reto d o so , d o e sn ot taffect the prayer.However, a person who recites theses u p p l i c a t i o n sa n d e x t o l l a t i o n sw o u l dcertainly achieve much additionalrewa r d sb e s i d e s e re w a rdA l l a h g ra n ts thf or t h e Sa l a a t ,I N S H AA L L A H .We s h a l l n o w di scu ss so me o f th e s es u p p l i c a t i o na n d e x t o l l a t i o n s . sa ) . l m m e d i a t e l yu p o n c o m p l e t i n gt h eprayer it is recommendedfor theworshipperto invokeAllah (SWf) and toa s k f o r H i s f o r g i ve n e ss y sa yi n g : b "ISTAAFIRULLAAH"for three times,which means "l seek Allahs forgiveness". 9l
    • b). lmmediately thereafter, thewo r s h i p p e r m a y re ci te th e fo l l o wingsupplication: "ALLAHUMMA ANTA SALAAM. WAMINKA SALAAM. TABARAKTA YAADHAL JALALI WAL IKRAAAM." whichm e a n s- "O Allah, Youare the source of peace andfromYou comes peace, exaltedYou are, OLord of Majesty and Honour."c ). l t i s a l so re co mme n d e d fo r theworshipper to recite thereafter thef o l l o wn g s u p p il c a t i o n : i,,LA ILAHA ILAL-LAHU WAHDAHU.LAASHARIKA LAHU, LAHUL-MULKU.WALAHUL-HAMDU. WAHUWA ALAAKULI SHEY-INAAAR". which means 92
    • "There is no god but Allah, He is one, Hehas no partner, to Him belongssovereignty and to Him belongs praise,and has power over all things."d). The person may thereaftersay: .,ALLAHUMMA LAA MANIA LIMAAADEYTA WALA MUDIYA LIMAMANAATA WALA YANFAUDHAL JADDIMINKAL JAD". which means - "O Allah, none can withhold what Youhave granted, and none can grant whatYou have withheld, and nothing can beoffered by the rich; richness and fortunecomes from You alone".e). And says thereafter: LAA HOWLA WALAA AUWATA ILLABILLAAH."which means - 93
    • "There is no might or power, except fromAllah".f). Also, the person may thereaftersay: ,LAA ILLAHA ILAL LAAHU WALANAABUDU ILLA IYAHU, LAHU NIMATUWALAHULFADHLU, WALAHUL THANAAAL-HASSAI". which means-"There is no god but Allah and we worshipnone but Him, to Him belongs prosperity,and to Him belongs favours and to Himbelongs all good praises".g ) . T h e p e r s o nma y a l so sa y:LAA ILAHA ILLAL LAAHU MUKHLISINALAHU DIINA WALAO KARIHAALKAFIRUUN".which means -"There is no god but Allah, (and we) offerHim sincere devotion even though theunbelievers may detest it". 94
    • h ). Als o , s a y s : ALLAHIJMMA AINNIALA DHIKRIKA.WASHUKRIKA. WA HUSNA IBADATIK."w h i c h m e a n s-"O Allah, help me in remembering You,thanking You and conducting my worshipto You in a perfect way.".i ). T h e p e r s o na l s o sa ys: -(l )SUBHANA-ALLAH GlorybetoALLAH- (33 times)(2)AL HAMDU-LILLAH- PraisebetoAllah- (33 times)(2) ALLAHU AKBAR - Allah is great (33times)T h e n , a t t h e e n d o f th e a b o ve th re er ec it a t i o n s ,t h e wo rsh i p p e r re ci te s th ef o l l o w i n g u p pilc a t i o n : s 95
    • ,LAA ILLAHA ILAL LAAHU WAHDAHULAA SHARIKA LAHU, LAHUL MUL.KU,WALA.HUL HAMDU. WAHUWA ALAAKULI SHEYINNAAAR". which means -"There is no god but Allah alone; He hasno partners, to Him belongs dominion andto Him belongs praises; and He has powerover all things".By t h i s s u pp l i ca ti o n ,th e w o rshipperm a k e s u p a to ta l o f 1 OOre a d i n g s and int h i s r e g a r d i,t w a s re p o rte dn a n a u thentic ip r o p h e t i c a y i n gth a t w h o e ve rco m es up sw i t h t h i s 1 O O h ra se s t th e e n d o f ever y p ao b l i g a t o r y r aye r, p " A l l a h w i l l fo rg i vehim ,e v e n i f h i s s i n s w e re a s a b u n d a n tas thef o a m o f t h e se a ." (R e p o rte d Y lm am bMuslim)j) . l t i s a l s or e co mme n d e d fo rthp e rson e tore c i t et h e r e afte r A Y A TA L K U R S I"i .ethe "v e r s e o f t h e T h ro n e(H o l yOu ra n 2 :255}which has the following English 96
    • t rans l a t i o n : -"Allah! there is no god but He, the Livingthe Self-Subsisting, the Eternal. Noslumber can seize Him nor sleep. To Himbelongs all that is in the heavens and onearth. Who is there can intercede in Hispresence except as He permitteth? Heknoweth what (appeareth to His creaturesas) before or after or behind them. Norshall they compass aught of Hisknowledge except as He willeth. HisThrone doth extend over the heavens andthe earth, and He feeleth no fatigue inguarding and preserving them for He isthe Most High, the Supreme (in glory)".T h e i m p o r t a n c e o f th i s ve rse w a sc o n f ir m e db y t h e P ro p h e t(P B U H )i n a na ut he n t i cs a y i n gth a t:"Whoever recites this verse at the end ofevery prayer, nothing will prevent himfrom entering Paradise."(Reported by 97
    • lmam Bukhari)k). lt is also strongly recommendedthatthe person recites the following threechapters of the Holy Ouran after eachprayer:(1) Surah Al-lkhlaas (Purity of Faith) -Q u r a n ,C h a p te r1 1 2 .(2) Su r a h Al - F a l a q(T h e D a w n ) - Ou r an,Chapter 13.1(3) Su r a h An - N a a s (Ma n ki n d )- Ou r an,Chapter 14. 1Note: lt is preferredthat each of thesethree chaptersbe recitedfor three timesa t t h e e n d o f F a j r (D a w n ) a n d Ma ghr ib(Su n s e t p r a y ers; h i l e ,e a chch a p te r ) w maybe recited only once at the end of theo t h e r o b l i g a to ryp ra ye rsn a me l y,D huhr(N o o n )As r ( A fte rn o o n )a nld a(E ve ning) , shprayers.
    • THINGS WHICH INVALIDATE THEPRAYERPrayerif performedwell with due regardt o it s c o n d i t i o n s, p i l l a rs, d u ti e s a n dpref e r r e d c t st r u l y i l l u mi n a te s e h e a rt a thand p u r i f i e st h e so u l . l t i s th e me a n sbywhic h m a n c o m mu n i ca te sw i th A l l a h(SWT)and therefore,one should keep itf re e f r o m a n y t h i n g h i ch w o u l d re n d e rit win v a l i d .l n Ar a b i c L a n g u a g ea cts w h i ch ,in v a l i d a t e t h e p ra ye r a re kn o w n as"Mubdillatu-Salaah" and we now listthem herebelow:1. S p e a k i n g r t a l ki n gi n th e co u rseo f th e oprayer.2. Lau g h i n g n t h e co u rseo f th e p ra ye r. i3. Ea t i n g h i l e p ra yi n ge ve nth o u g hw h at w ,is ea t e n m a y b e a s sma l l a s a p i e ce ofdates. 99
    • 4 . D r i n k i n gw h i l e p ra yi n g ,e ve n th oughwh a t i s d r a n k ma yb ea s sma l l a s takingo n l y a m o u t h fu l .5. lf someonein the courseof the prayerremembersthat he,/shedid not actuallype r f o r mt h e a b l u ti o n u d h u ), e n , such (w tha person is requiredto break the prayera n d g e t o u t t o p e rfo rmWu d h u .6. lf a persons ablution (wudhu) getsinvalidatedin the course of the prayer,t h e n t h e p r a ye rb e co me si n va l i d .7. T h e p r a ye r i s a l so i n va l i d a tedbyc a r r y i n g o u t th e R u ku u a n d S ujuudpostures with haste and without ease.Wh i l e i n p r o s tra ti o nb o b b i n g e rki ng) , (j upand down like chickenpeckingfood fromt h e g r o u n di s n o t a l l o w e d .8. Turning oneself away f rom thedirectionof the Aiblahalsoinvalidates theprayer. 100
    • T H I N G S H I C H R EN O TP R E F E R R E N W A IDT HE P R AY E R1. Turning of the eyes up . The Prophet(P BU H ) t r o n g l yad mo n i sh e d g a i n st is s a tha s c a n b e n o t e df ro m th e fo l l o w i n g yi ng: sa"What is the matter with the people whoraise their eyes towards the sky whilepraying? They shall have to refrain fromthis or else they will lose their eyesights".(Re p o r t e d y l m a m B u kh a ri ) bI t is a l s od i s l i k e d l o o kri g h t a n d l e ft a nd tot he P r o p h e t P B U H ) n th i s re g a rdsa ys: ( i"lt /s a deception with which satandeceives the servant while in prayer".(Reprotedby lmam Bukhari)The person while praying is required todirect his eyes at the point of prostration. l0l
    • 2. Closing the eyes in the course of theprayer.3. Placing the hands above the kidneys oron the waist. Hands should be placed overthe chest.4. Wiping the earth more than once toremove pebbles on it.5. Reading of the Holy Quran, whilei n Rukuu and in Sujuud positions.6. Making unnecessarymovements in thecourse of the prayer such as touching thechin (beard) or fidgetting the fingertips ormending up the clothes e.g. the headturban etc.7. Entering to prayer, while food has beenserved to the person before the prayer orwhile badly in need of passing excrementand/or urine. The Prophet (PBUH) in thisregard says: lz
    • "Prayer is not valid when food has beenserved and when a person is in need ofrelieving himself of excrement and/orurine." (Reported by lmam Muslim)8. lt is prohibited for someone in acongregational prayer to raise the headfrom Rukuu and Suiuud positions aheadof the lmam. The Prophet (PBUH)stronglywarned persons doing this as can benoted from the following saYing:"Doesnt the person who raises uP hishead before the lmam fear that Allah willturn his head to that of a donkey or make his face look like a donkey". (ReportedbylmamBukhari)O TH E R M PO R T A NN OT E S E GA R D ING I T RPRAYER1 . l f a p e r s o ni s s m e l l i n g f g a r l i c o n i o n , o ,leek, cigarettes, tobacco or anything 103
    • s imi l a r w h i c h h a s a n u n p l e a sa n t d our oand which may cause inconvenience toothers, then, such person must not joint h e c o n g r e g a ti o n a p ra ye r a n d sh o uld lk ee pa w a y u n t i lth e o d o u rd i ssi p a te from shim / h e r . T h e P ro p h e t (P B U H ) i n thisregardsays:"A person who has eaten garlic or onionor any other bad smelling thing should notapproach our Mosques because theangels are offended by the things whichhuman beings get offended f rom".(Re p o r t e d y l m a m Mu sl i m). b2 . Th e w h o l e e a rth i s fo r th e Mu sl i ms ap lace o f p r a y e r a n d vi rtu a l l y cl e an.Therefore,anyone can pray wherever hemay be when the time of prayercomes ifthere are no Mosquesnearby.However, itis forbidden to perform prayers atcemeteries, except the funeral prayera d m i n i s t e r e d v e r a d e a d Mu sl i m. l t is oalso forbidden to pray inside toilets IM
    • and/ o r b a t h r o o ms n d a t f i l th yp l a ce s. a Allprayers performed in such areas arec o n s i d e r e d u l l a n d vo i d . n3. W h e n e n t e r i n g a mo sq u e i t i s thetraditionthat the personstepsin with theright f oot reciting the f ollowings upp l i c a t i o n :,BISMILLAH WASSALATU WASSA.LAMUALAA RASULULLAAH.A L AH U M M A IA F IR L II D H U N U BI.WAFTAH LII ABWABA RAHMATIK".w h i c h m e a n s-"tn the name of Allah..and blessings andpeace be upon the messenger of Allah- OLord, forgive me mY sins and open for methe gates of Your mercY".A n d , w h e n d e pa rti n gfro m th e mo sque,the personstepsout with the left foot f irstsaying: 105
    • BISMILLAH WASSALATU .WASSALAMU ALA RASULULLAAAH.ALLAHUMMA IAGHFIR LII DHUNIJBIIWAFTAH LII ABWABA FADHLIKA"wh i c h m e a n s"ln the name of Allah...may blessings andpeace upon the messenger of Allah. OLord, forgive me my sins and open for methe gates of your favours".4. lt is not proper to come to the prayerh a s t e n i n gb u t th e p e rso n i s re q u i re dtoc o m ec a l m l ya n d i n a sta teo f se re n i ty andt ran q u i l i t y .l f a p e rso n j o i n s th e p rayerwh i l e t h e l m a m,/co n g re g a ti o n re in aRu k u u p o s i t i on , th e n , th a t p a rti cularraka a t( u n i t ) i s co u n te dfo r h i m a s i f hestarted the rakaat (unit) with the rest ofthe congregation from the start.However,if a person joins the prayer after thelma m , / c o n g r e g a ti o n a s a l re a d y ri s en hf ro m t h e R u k u u p o si ti o n , th e n , thatp a rt i c u l a rr a k a a ti s n o t co u n te dfo r h im , 106
    • but he should continue prayingwith therest until the lmam completes the prayerafter which the personis required come toup with the missed rakaat(s)inorder tocompletehis prayer.Here b e l o w i s a n e xa mp l e :As s u m i n gt h a t a p e rso nj o i n s th e D h uhrprayer in the first rakaat but after thec o n g r e g a t i o n a s a l re a d yri se n fro m the hRukuu position, the person wouldc o m p l e t e h e r e ma i n i n g a rt o f th e ra kaat t pwit h t h e r e s t ,a l th o u g hsu ch ra ka a ti s notc o u n t e d f o r h i m. T h e l ma m a n d thecongregation proceed to the secondrak a a t ,b u t t h e l a te co me r sh o u l d co untt h e s e c o n dr a k aa ta s h i s fi rst ra ka a t.Thereafter,the congregation sits for thefirst "At-Tashahuh" and would then,s t an d u p t o p e rfo rmth e th i rd ra ka a ta nds u b s e q u e n t l y , e fo u rth ra ka a tu p to the ths ec o n d a n d f i n a l " A t-T a sh a h u d " .A fter t07
    • the lmam reads the words of peace toconcludethe prayerthe late-comer underdiscussion,would thereby stand up toperform one more rakaat in lieu of thera k a a tm i s s e da t th e b e g i n n i n g .5. lt is allowedfor a personto pray whilewearing shoes, but before doing so, thepersonis requiredto checkon the solesoft he s h o e s ,a n d sh o u l dth e re a p p e a ranytrace of wetness and/or defilement,thiss ho u l db e c l e a n e dw e l l o n th e g ro u n d.6. A personis not allowedto pass infrontof a n o t h e r p e r so n w h o i s p ra yi n g nomatter how long and how muchin c o n v e n i e n c e e w a i ti n g ma y ca u se. thTh e P r o p h e t P B U H ) ys: ( sa"lf a person who passes infront of apraying person could realize the gravity ofthe sin, it would have been better for himto wait for forty rather than passinfront ofthe praying person. The narrator was not 108
    • sure whether the Prophet (PBUH) saidforty days or forty months or forty Years".(Rep o r t e d y l m am B u kh a ri ) b7. lt a person who wishes to perform aprayer fears others may pass infront ofhim i n t h e c o urse o f h i s P ra ye r, i t isadvisable such a personto place any forkind of object infront of him beforecommencing the prayer.Such an objectisknown as SUTRAin Arabicand it actsas aboundary for the person so that people may pass only beyond the object. lfthereater, any person attempts to pass betweenhim and the object, personin the prayermay push away the passerby.But if the passerby insists on passing, the praying person has perfect right to fight t he in t r u d e rf o r h e i s a n e vi l o n e . 8 . A s t r a n g e rw o ma n p a ssi n gto o cl o se in f ro n to f a p r a yi n gma l e p e rso nw h o h as no" Sutra", has the effect of invalidating the prayer, except when the prayer is bein g d o n e i n th e g ra n d mo sq u e of Makkah. 109
    • CON G R EG A T ION A L A Y E R PRPerformance the prayertogetherwith oft he o t h e r M u sl i ms i n co n g re g a ti onatMosques is a duty required from everymafe Muslim of sound mind.Allah 6Wf)says:"...And bow down your heads with thosewho bow down (in worship)". (Ouran2:43lMu c h e m p h a si sh a s a l so b e e n ma d e bythe Prophet (PBUH) about theCongregationalPrayers as can begathered from the following authentics ayi n g s :1. "Performing prayer in congregation is27 times better than prayer performed onindividua I basis".(Reported by lmamBukhari)2 . l b n M a k t u ms a i d : lr0
    • "l told the Messenger of Allah that I ambtind and my house is far awaY and I haveno suitable guide to the mosgue..doI nothave permission to pray at home?"The Prophet(PBUH), asked me: "Do Youhear the call to the prayer?"I an s w e r e d : "Y e s" ,a n d th e P ro P het(P BU H ) h e n s a id to me : t"Respond accordingly (bV coming to themosque)".(Reported lmam Muslim) by3. "lf there happens to be (even) threepersons in a village, desert or iungle andthey do not praY in congregation, satanwould surely dominate them. So, observeyour prayers in congregation forcertainly, the wolf devours the lonelYsheep". (Reported Abuu Dawoud) bY4. "1 swear by Allah in Whose possessionis my life, I feel like asking for firewood to lll
    • be gathered, and order for the prayerto beheld and the call for prayer (Adhaan) to beannounced, and then asksomeoneto leadthe prayer, and I go after those who failedto join the congregational prayer and setfire to them while they are in theirhouses". (Reported lmam Bukhari) byBy virtue of the above quoted Our,anicverseas well as the varioussayings the ofProphet(PBUH), congregational prayerisin c u m b e n t u p o n e ve ry ma l e Mu s limunlessa personis excusedfrom doing soas a result of one or more of the followingreasons:1. Sickness2 . F e a rt h a t g o in gto th e mo sq u e i l l b ring wabo u t u n d u e h a rd sh i p s, r p e ri l fro m an oene m y .3 . H e a v yr a i n .It is permitted for women to attend thecongregationator1l1. at the mosques
    • and their husbandsmay not preventthemfrom doing so unlessit is fearedthat harmwill come to them. However, it ispreferablefor women to perform prayersa t t he i r h o m e s .T he P ro p h e (p B U H )sa ys: t"Do not prohibit women to attend prayerat mosgue, but prayer at their homes isbetter for them". (Reported by lmamAhma d )lf, however, women decide to go out forprayer at the mosques, they shouldneitherdressnor perfumethemselves a inmanner that may attract the attentionofmen. At the mosques,it is an establishedtradition that women perform theirprayers preferablyin their own partitionbehin dt h e r o w s o f me n .P URPO S E F T HE C ON GR E GA T IONAL OPRAYERPerformance of the prayer inc ongr e g a t i o ns a g re a t l sl a mi c p ra cti c e i lt3
    • through which equality and justice aremade manifest. Here, the ruler and thesubject,the old and the young, the richand the poor, thb powerful and thed o w n t r o d d e nt,h e i n f l u e n t i a l a n d t h ewretchedall assemble rows shouldertoins h o u l d e r i n f ro n t o f A l l a h , th e A l mi ghty,with neither differencesnor distinctionsbetween them - all of them servantsofAllah (SWf). .They meet on commongr o u n d i n t h e h o u se s o f A l l a h th i nkingon l yo f H i m i n h u mi l i tyi n d u e re g a rd the tofollowing verse of the Holy Ouran:"....Verily,the most honouredof you inthesight of Allah is (he who is) the mostrighteousof you...." (HolyOuran 49:13)ls l a mi s a r e l i g i o n f g re a tso ci a l o rd er o andwh e n a c o m mu n i tyo f Mu sl i msi n a givenarea meet at the Congregational Prayersf iv e t i m e s e a ch d a y, th e n , ce rta i n ly, wec a n i m a g i n e th e i n n u me ra b l eb e nefitsthat could be derived - people knowing tt4
    • each other; people learning each othersaffairs;peoplemeetingtheir leadersandcommunityheads;peoplediscussing andsolvingtheir day-to-day problems; peoplecooperating etc. Thus, cohesiveness,unity, love and brotherhood becometrulye v id e n ta m o n gt h e mu sl i m co mmu n i ty.In an lslamicstate,the headof the stateorhis representative supposed leadthe is tofive daily congregational prayers at thecentral mosqueof the capitalcity as wasthe practiceof the Prophet(PBUH), the infirs t lsl a m i cs t a t e e sta b l i sh e d t Me d i n a. aT h e le a d e r o r h e a d o f th e l sl a mi csta tewould, of course, be a person ofu nque s t i o n a b l e nte g ri ty, kn o w n to b e imore knowledgeablethan his subjectsand ab o v ea l l r i g h te o u s.Persons wish ing to perform ac ongr e g a t i o n a lr a ye r o u l d ch o o se m p w froamong s t t h e m s e l ve sa n l ma m (l e a d e r)w h o ha st h e q u a l iti e s e scri b e d b o ve n d d a a ll5
    • who would stand infront of the others atthe center of the row.After the second call for the prayer(lq a m a h )i s pe rfo rme d , e l ma m tur ns thtowards the congregation and wouldendeavour to straighten out the row(s)and urge the congregation stand close toto each other as much as possible. Theseacts were established practices of theProphet(PBUH) can be notedfrom the asfollowing sayings:1." Straighten your rows and stand closeto each other in prayer..." (ReportedbylmamBukhari)2. "You shall have to straighten Yourowsin prayer or else Allah will createdifferences among you". (Reported bylmamBukhari)The lmam, thereafter, starts the prayerwith the words of "TakbiiratilAl-lhraam" tt6
    • as us u a l a n d t h e co n g re g a ti o n o u l dwfo llo w s u i t . T h e c o n g re g a ti o w o u l d th e n nproceed to complete the prayer asd is c u s s e dn d e t a i le a rl i e r. iTHEP R A Y E R FAT R A V E L L IN G E R S ON O P(MUSAFTR)lsla m i s a r e l i g io n fu l l o f me rcy a n dbecause of the harships andin c onv e n i e n c ew hi ch a p e rso n u su a l l y sundergoesduring travels, Allah FWf)has ma d e c e r t a i n co n ce ssi o n sto th etr av elle rO n eo f t h e seco n ce ssi o nis th a t . sa t ra v e l l e r m a y sh o rte n so me o f th eob ligato r y r a y e r s. l l a h sa ysi n th e H o l y p AOuran:"When ye travelthrough the earth there isno blame on you if ye shorten your "pr a y e rs . . . ( O u r a n4 :10 1 )Because this grant lrom Atlah (SWT), of it tt7
    • is a n e s t a b l ish e p ra cti ce a t a tra velling d thM u s l i m m a y sh o rte nth e fo u r (4 ) rakaatsobligatoryprayers into two rakaatsonly.Th u s , t h e D h u h r, A sr a n d l sh a p rayer smay each be shortenedinto two rakaats.However. the Maghrib and the Fajrprayerscannotbe shortened and are to bep e r f o r m e d n fu l l . iI t i s a l s o a n esta b l i sh e d ra cti ce at the p tht r a v e l l e r m a y co mb i n e so me o f theo b l i g a t o r y pra ye rs. T h u s, th e Dhuhrp r a y e rm a yb e d e l a ye d n ti lth e ti me of the uAsr prayerwhen both will be performed;or, the Asr prayermay be broughtforwardt o t h e t i m e o f th e D h u h rp ra ye r h e n both ww i l l b e p e r fo rme d .L i ke w i se ,th e lshap r a y e rm a y be b ro u g h t rw a rdto th e tim e foof Maghrib pra ye r; r, th e Ma g h ri bpr ayer om a y b e d e l aye d u n ti l th e ti me o f lshap r a y e r .T h e F a j r p ra ye r ca n n e i ther beb r o u g h t o r w a rdn o r d e l a ye d n d h a sto be f aperformedat its prescribed time. ll8
    • Characteristics of combining the prayers1. Each prayer will be performedseparately.2 . O n ly o n e Pr a y e r a l l(A D H A N ) a l l b e C shmade for both prayers but two SecondC a lls (I O , AM A H Ssh a l l b e re q u i re d(i .e . )o n e Se c o n dC a l l ( l q a ma h ) a l l b e ma d e shseparately each prayer). forl f we m a y g i v ea n e xa mp l ea ssu mi n g a t , tha t rav e l l e rw i s h e sto co mb i n eD h u h r a n dAs r p ra y e r sb y b r i n g i n gth e A sr p ra ye rfo wa rd t o t h e t i m e o f th e D h u h r p ra ye r ,the personwould proceedas follows:( 1 ) T h e p e r s o nw o u l d fi rst co me u p w i thth e Ca l l f o r p r a y e r" A d h a a n " i n te n d i n gi tfor both the two prayers.( 2 ) T h e p e r s o nw o ul d th e n co me u p w i tht h e s e c o n dc a l l " l q a m a h " f o r t h e D h u h rPraer rt9
    • (3) The person would then perform theDhuhr prayershorteningit to two rakaatsonly.(4 ) Af t e rc o mp l e ti n g e D h u h rp ra y erthe th ,p e r s o n s t a n d s u p a n d ma ke s a nothers e c o n dc a l l " l q a ma h " fo r th e A sr pr ayer .( 5 ) T h ep e r s on o u l dth e n p e rfo rm w theAsrprayeralsoshortened two rakaats to only.Note:A t r a v e l l e r ma y l e a d th e p ra ye r as an" I M A M " o f t h e re si d e n ts f th e p l a cehe is ov i s i t i n ga n d i n s u c h a c a s e ,h e ( b e i n ga nlm a m ) ,m a y p e rfo rmo n l y tw o ra kaats forth e D h u h r , Asr, a n d l sh a p ra ye rswhile,t h e r e s i d e n t s e i s l e a d i n gs h a l lu p o nh i s h ,c o m p l e t i o n co n ti n u e to co mp l e te ther e m a i n i n gt w o ra ka a tso f th e re spectiveprayers. However, in such cases, it isd e s i r a b l eh a t th e tra ve l l e w h o ma yactas t ra n l m a m f i rst g i ve s n o ti ce to the t20
    • congre g a t i o n e g ard i n gh i s p o si ti o na n d rhis intentionto shorten his prayerso thatthe congregationcontinues to completethe prayer.On t h e o t h e r h a n d , i f th e tra ve l l e rh a s topray be h i n da n l m a m w h o i s a re si d e n o f tth e pla c eh e i s v i s i ti n g th e n i n su chca se , ,th e t ra v e l l e rs h a l l p ra y w i th th e l ma m a l lth e f ou r ( 4 ) r a k a a ts s u su a l . aPERFO R M A N C EFT H EP R A Y E R YON E O BWHO IS SICKA sickpersonhas to performthe prayerinac c ord a n c e i t h t he p e rso n s n d i ti o n s. w coTh e Pro p h e t PB U H )w a s n ce a ske db y a ( osi c kc o m p a n i o n s to h o w h e ca n p e rfo rm ath e pray e ra n d t h e Pro p h e (P B U H )re p l i e d thim as follows:"Pray standing but if unable then bysitting and if still unable then do so whilston your back". (Reported by lmamBukhari) nl
    • Thus:1 . lf, it is impossible the sickpersonto forstand up, he,/sheshall performthe prayerby sitting and makingtoken gesturesfort h e "R u k u u " a n d " S u j u u d " p o si ti ons byb r i n g i n g t h e h e a d sl i g h tl y d o w n asindication for "Rukuu" and slightlyf u r t h e r d o w n a s i n d i ca ti o n r " S u j uud". fo2 . l t , i t i s i m po ssi b l e r th e si ckp e rs on fo topray sitting, he,/she shall perform theprayer by lying on his,/her back. Allah(S W f ) s a y s :"...THOSE ARE THEY (MEN OFUNDERSTANDING) WHO REMEMBERALLAH WHILESTANDING,SITTINGANDR E C L I N I N G...." ra n3 :1 9 O-1 1 ) (Ou 9The personslegsaredirected towardstheQ i b l a ha n d w i l l ma keme reto ke ng e s tur esa s f a r a s p o ssi b l e i th th e h e a d for the wb o w i n g ( R u ku u ) a n d th e p ro str ation 122
    • (Suju u d ) o s i t i o n s. p3 . lf , s t i l l , i t i s i m p o ssi b l e r th e th e si ck foperson to performthe prayerwhile lyinga s dis c u s s e di n No . 2 a b o ve ,th e n , th epersonshall performthe prayerby heart.Th e pe r s o n s h a l l co me u p w i th a l l th ere q u ir e d e c i t a t i on a s fa r a s p o ssi b l ea n d r s ,will re c a l l t o m i n d a l l th e n e ce ssa ryposturesfor the prayer.S u c h is t h e i m p o rta n ce f th e P ra ye ri n ol s lam th a t a p e r so n mu st p e rfo rm i t n om at t erw h a t h i s , zh e co n d i ti o n . rVOLUNTARY PRAYERS Besides the prescribed obligatoryprayers,a person may come up with asm any v o l u n t a r y p ra ye rs a s i s p o ssi b l e.T hroug h v o l u n t a ry p ra ye rs a p e rso nr ec eiv e s d d i t i o n a re w a rd sa n d th ro u g h a lthem he draws closer to "Allah (SWf)"a lt hou g h p e r s o n l l n o t b e p u n i sh e d r a wi fo 123
    • neglectingto perform voluntaryprayers.However,the Prophet(PBUH)had set at r a d i t i o n o f p ra cti ci n gce rta i n vo l untar yprayersbeforeand/ or afterthe obligatoryprayers and every Muslim is stronglyrecommended performthem.Theseare toas follows:a. DHUHR NOON) RAYER ( P :Four (4) rakaats before (with each twora k a a t s e r fo rme d p a ra te l y)a ntwo ( 2) p se drakaatsafter.b. MAGHRIBSUNSET)RAYER ( PTwo (2) rakaatsafter.c . I S H A( E V E N I N G )R A Y E R PTwo (2) rakaatsafter. r24
    • e. FAJR (DAWN)PRAYERTwo (2) rakaats before.These Voluntary prayers are known inArabic Language (Rawatrbl as which maybe construedto mean definite practicesand the Prophet(PBUH), usedto preservetheir performance continuouslywhenever in residence. However,duringhis travels he used to omit their practiceexcept the two rakaats before the Fajrprayer.Performance these two rakaats ofis so important that the prophet(PBUH)s a id :"These two Rakaatsare more important tome than the whole world." (Reported byimamMuslim)While there is no objection to performthese optionalprayersat the mosque,it ispreferred performthem at home in vieu to r25
    • of the following saying of theProphet(PBUH):"The best of the prayers are those whichare fulfilled at ones home, with theexception of the obligatory prayers (whichare to be performed with the congregationat the Mosgue)". (Reportedby lmam AbuDawoud)F u f f i l l i n g t h e se tw e l ve (1 2 ! vo l u ntar ypr a y e r si s a me a n sto g a i n a d mi ss ion toparadise as can be noted from thef o l l o w i n gs a yi n go f th e P ro p h e t B UH) : (P"Whoever prays optionally twelve rakaatsevery one day and night, Allah will rewardhim by an established dwelling in theparadise".(Reported lmam Bukhari) byB e s i d e s t h e a b o ve tw e l ve d e finitevoluntary prayers,the person may alsopray four optional rakaats before Asr(Afternoon)prayer, and two before lsha 126
    • (Evening) prayer, because thesewere alsoreported to have been practiced by theP ro p h e t P B U H ) . (T I M E S W H E N P E R F O R M A N C EO FVOLUNTARY PRAYERS PROHIBITED. ISThere are certain times when voluntaryprayersare not allowed to be performedand these are as follows:1. In between the Fajr Prayer and ther is in g o f t h e s u n .2. In betweenwhen the sun is closeto itsz enit ha n d t h e D h u h r P ra ye r.3. ln between the Asr Prayer and untilsuns e t .However, a person can perform the tworakaatsprayedas salutationto mosqueswhenevera personentersa mosqueevent houg h ,t h e t i m e of e n te ri n gth e mo sq u emay coincide with one of the abovestatedtiming s . T h i s i s i n a cco rd a n ce i th th e w r27
    • following propheticsaying:"Anyone of you entering a mosgue,should not sit until after perfoming tworakaats."(Reported lmam Al-Bhukari) byJUMAH (FRIDAY) PRAYERBesidesthe five obligatoryprayers,"Allah(SWff has also ordained the "Jumah"(Friday Congregational Prayer) as anecessary prayer on the Muslim Nation(Ummah) as is made clear in the followingverse of the Holy Quran.,,O YE WHO BELIEVE.WHEN THECALL ISPROCLAIMED TO PRAYER ON FRIDAY(THE DAY OF ASSEMBLY), HASTENEARNESTLYTO THEREMEMBRANCEOFALLAH AND LEAVEOFF BUSINESS (ANDTRAFFIC):THAT tS BEST FOR YOU lF YEBUT KNEW." (O.uran62:9) r28
    • Th e Pr o p h e ( P B U H )a l so , e xh o rti n g e t in thMu s l i m s t o t h e i mp o rta n ce f th e F ri d ay opray e rs a i d :"They (peopl e) will have to stopneglecting the Friday prayer or otherwise," Alla h ( S W f l w i l l se a l th e i r h e a rtsa ndthey will be counted among thenegli g e n t ". R e p o rte d y l ma m Mu sl i m ) .i ( bT h e P r o p h e t PB U H ) l so sa ys: ( a"He who deliberately neglects threeconsecutive Friday prayers, "Allah(S WT ) " w i l l m a ke a ma rk o n h i s h e a rt".(Reported Abu Dawoud) byB y v i r t u e c i t t n e a b o veOu ra n i cve rseaswe ll a s t h e r e sp e cte dsa yi n g s o f theP ro p h e t ( PB U H ), th e F ri d a y C o n g re-g a t io n a l P r a y e r i s, th e re fo re , a d u ty(Wa j i b ) e q u i r e d m e ve rya d u l ta n d free r froM u s l i mw h o i s i n r e s i d e n c e . 129
    • F ri d a y i s a g l o ri o u s d a y i n l sl a m andrepresents a great weekly meeting inwh i c h t h e M u sl i msg a th e r i n th e h o useso f " Al l a h ( S W T|l e a vi n ga si d ea l l w o r ldlyaffairs. The "Jumah" prayer is therefores pe c i f i c w i t h a S e rmo n i n w h i ch themo s q u e p r e a ch e rs(l ma ms)d i scu ssandd e a l w i t h t h e d a i l y p ro b l e ms o f theMu s l i m ss o c ie ty n d g i ve e n l i g h te n ment afrom the torch of lslam. The "Jumah"prayerreflectsthat lslam is a great socialorder which fosters brotherhood, abhorsd is u n i t ya n d d i sco u ra g e s vi l s. eThe Jumah is not a duty on women, whoinstead, may perform the obligatoryDh u h r ( N o o n) p ra ye r a t th e i r h o m esa f t h o u g h t h e y ma y j o i n th e Ju ma hprayers,if by doingso doesnot affecttheirh o u s e h o l d d u ti e s, o r ca u se th e m anyinc o n v e n i e n ce . 130
    • THE P E R F O R M A N C E T H E JU MA H OF(FRtDAY) PRAYERPerformanceof the Jumah prayeris onlyallow e d i n t h e Co n g re g a ti o n a l sq u es Mowher e , M u s l i m s co n g re g a tea n d fro mwh e re t h e l m a m g i ve s th e m a d vi cea n ds p irit u a li n s i g h t s.The time for the Jumah prayeris the timeo f t h e D h u h r pra ye r, a l th o u g h , so meMu s l i m j u r i s t s a n d sch o l a rsa re o f th eopin i o nt h a t i t i s pe rmi ssi b l e p e rfo rmit tob e f o r et h e s u n r e a ch e si ts ze n i th .Mu c h i m p o r t a n ce n d re w a rd h a s b e en aat t ach e d y l s l a m to th e ti mi n g so f g o i ng bt o t h e F r i d a yP r a ye r s ca n b e n o te dfro m at h e fo l l o w i n g sa yi n g o f th e p ro p h et(PBUH):ANY PERSON WHO TAKES TOTALABLUTION (GHUSL) ON FRIDAY ANDGOES OUT FOR THEFRIDAYPRAYERIN l3l
    • THE FIRST HOUR (i.e. EARLY).lT tS AS tFHE SACRTFTCED CAMEL (lN ALLAH,S ACAUSE); AND WHOEVER GOES IN THES E C O N D H OU R . IT /S ,4 S IF HESACRIFICED A COW; AND WHOEVERGOES IN THE THIRDHOUR, IT IS AS IF HESACRIFICED A HORNED RAM; ANDWHOEVERGOES IN THEFOURTHHOUR,tT lS AS lF HE SACRIFICEDA HEN; ANDWHOEVER GOES IN THE FIFTH HOUR.THEN.IT IS AS IF HE OFFERED AN EGG.WHEN THE IMAM COMES OUT (TODELIVER THE SERMON), THE ANGELSPRESENT THEMSELVES TO LISTEN TOTHE SERMON." (Reported by lmamBhukari) Ho w e v e r ,i t is a re co mme n d e dsl am ic lt ra d i t i o nt h a t th e p e rso nco me s u p witht he f o l l o w i n gpre -re q u i si teb e fo reg oing so u t t o t h e F r i da yP ra ye r:1. U n d e r t a k i n G h u s l( t o t a lb a t h ) . g r32
    • Th e P r o p h e t P B U H ) n th i s re g a rdsa ys: ( i"Ghusl on Friday /s necessary (Wajib)upon every adult person". (ReportedbylmamBukhari)2. Pu t t i n g o n t h e b e st a n d cl e a n e sto fc lot he s .3 . P e r f u m i n g f o n e se l f. oHaving undertaken the above pre-r e q u is i t e s , h e p erso nth e n p ro ce e d s t tot h e m o s q u ei n t r a n q u i l i t yu l l y c o n s c i o u s fot" Allah 6WD". Upon reaching themos qu e , h e p e r so ne n te rsb y ste p p i n g n t iwit h t h e r i g h t f o o t fi rst p ro cl a i mi n g e thfollowing rivate upplication: p s BISMILLA,AHWASALAATU -W AS SA L AM U AL A A R A S U L U L L A A H..ALLAHUMMA IAHFIR LII DHUNUBIIWAFTAHLII ABWAABA RAHMATIK.which means 133
    • "ln the name of Allah...May peace andblessings be on the messenger ofAllah...O Lord forgive me my sins andopen to me the gates of your mercy."Ha v i n ge n t e r edth e mo sq u e ,th e p e r soncomes up with two rakaatsas salutationt o t h e m o s q u e i n a cco rd a n ce i th the wf o l l o w i n g f a m o u s sa yi n go f th e P rophet(PBUH):"lf anyone of you enters the mosque, donot sit until you have Performed tora k a a t s . "{ R e p o rte d y l ma m A l -B h ukar i) bTh e p e r s o nt h e n a w a i tsfo r th e se rmontos t a r t a n d m a y i n th e me a n ti mere a d theHo l y O u r a n a n d /o r co me u P withwh a t e v e rs u p p l i ca ti o n h e ca n . sWh e n t h e l m a m e n te rsth e Mo sq u e,the"MUADHIN" (PraYer Caller), would maket h e "A D H A A N " ,(i .e .th e ca l l to th ep rayer )an d t h e p e r s o nw o u l d b e a n sw e ri ngthe t34
    • c all i n t h e m a n n e r a l re a d y d i scu ssedearli e r .Wh e n t h e M ua d h i n co mp l e te s theAdha a n , t h e l m am cl i mb s th e p u l p i t todeliv e r t h e S e r m o n a n d th e p e rso n isreq,uired devotehis whole attentionand tois f o r b i d d e n o t al k o r ke e p o n e se l fb u sy twit h e v e n m i n o racti vi ti e sn th e co u rse i oft he se r m o n .T h e P ro p h e t B U H ) ys i n (P sat h is re g a r d :"He who performs ablution properly andcomesto the Jumah prayerand listenstot he s e r m o na t t e n ti ve l y, i l l h a ve h i s si ns wf rom t h e p r e v i o us ri d a yp l u s th re e mo re Fday s f o r g i v e n a n d h e w h o o ccu p i esh imse l f w i t h p e bb l e sd u ri n g th e se rmonh a s p e r f o r m e d ad l y" .(R e p o rte b y l ma m b dMuslim)Up o n c o m p l e t i o no f th e fi rst p a rt o f thes erm o n ,t h e l m a m si ts d o w n fo r a b ri efp a u s ea n d t h e n , sta n d s u p a g a i nfo r th esecondpart of the sermon.After that, he 135
    • c o m e s d o w n fro m th e P u l P i t a n d theMUADHIN makesthe secondcall for thepra y e r I A A MA H a n d a tw o ra kaatc o n g r e g a t i o n a lp r a y e r i s a c c o r d i n g l yp e r f o r m e d w hi ch i s th e sa me i n allrespectsto the Fajr PraYer.Upon completing the Jumah Prayer,ap e r s o n m a y co me u P w i th vo l u ntar Yp ra y e r s ,w h i ch i f d o n e a t th e mo sque,c o n s i s t s f f o u r ra ka a ts a chtw o ra kaats o (ep e r f o r m e d e pa ra te l y)b uf,d o n ea t h om e s it(u p o n o n e s re tu rn fro m th e mo sque) ,consists only of two rakaats as thePr o p h e t PB U H ),u seto d o . ( dTH E P R A Y E R S T H ET WO F E A S TS OFT h e s ea r e : the 1. T h e p r a y e ro f th e F e a st f B re a ki ng o F a s t i n g f t h e mo n th o f R a ma d a n o (known asldul-Fitr Prayer) r36
    • 2 . Th e p r a y e ro f th e F e a sto f l mmo l a ti on( k n o w na s l d u l - A l - A d h a r a Y e r ) . PWe s h a l l n o w d i scu ss th e mo d e ofp e rf o r m i n g a c h o f th e se P ra ye rs. e I D U L - F I TP R A Y E R R1.Up o nc o m p l e t i on f th e o b l i g a to ry sti ng o faof the blessed month oI " Ramadan"Muslims celebrate the occasion ofb re a k i n gt h e F ast b y fe sti vece l e b ra ti onswh ich l a s t f o r t h re e d a ys.T h e Mu sl i m swelc o m et h e f e astw i th p ra ye r n d p ri vate asupplications nd by giving praise to aAlmighty Allah (SWTI This prayer isp e rf o r m e d s f ol l o w s: aa ) .O n t h e f i r s td a yo f S h a w a a( t h em o n t h lt h a t f o l l o w sR a ma d a nth e p e rso ng o e sto ) l d M o s q u eo r p r a y i n g r o u n dh a v i n g gtheund e r t a k e n h e fo l l o w i n g re co mme n ded tacts: t37
    • (1) .T a k e nt o t a l a b tu ti o n(Gh u st). (2l. D r e s s e d i n th e b e st o f cl o thes (preferably new clothings). (3 ) . As s u m e d a B re a ki n go f th e F a st by eating at leasta few piecesof dates.This is i n a c c o r d a n ce i th th e tra d i ti o no f the w P ro p h e t( P B U H ), n d a n o d d n u mb er is a pre f e r r e d . e .3, S , j , g a n d so o n . i(4 ). l t i s t h e p r a cti ce u n n a h ) h e ad to (S tot he l d p r a y i n gce n te rb y w a l ki n g .Up o n a r r i v a l a t th e p l a ce o f p ra ye r theperson sits and waits for the prayer tobegin.b). Af t e r a b o ut 2 0 mi n u te s fro m cl ears un r i s e , h e l m a msta n d su p fo r th e p rayer ta n d l o u d l y s i g n i f i e st h e e n t e r i n g i n t op ra y e r b y r e ci ti n g th e ,T a kb i i rat illhraam" that is "ALLAHU AKBAR". Thewho l e c o n g r e g a ti o n l so fo l l o w s su i t by a 138
    • reciting the "Takbiirat i l-l hraam".e). A s u s u a l ,w ith a n y o th e r p ra ye r,theperson thereafter comes up with theopen i n gs u p p l i ca ti o n o w n a s" D U A AL knISTIFTAAH.d ). After that, the lmam says,"ALLAHUAKBAR" for 6 more times,and thec o n g r e g a t i o nw o u l d f o l l o w l i k e w i s e .Between each recitation of "ALLAHUAKBAR" every person recitesto himselfin a l o w v o i c et he fo l l o w i n gsu p p l i ca tion:ALLAHTJ AKBAR KABIIRAA, WAL-HAMDIJLILLAH KATHIRAA, WASUBH A N N A - L L A H I B U K R A T A N W AASILAA. WAS SALLALAHUALAA ALAA ALIHI WAMUHAMMADIN WASALLAMA TASLIMMAN KATHIIRAA.w h i c h m e a n s- "Allah is great, allthanks and praises are due to Allah, Glory be to Allah, and may 139
    • Allah blessHis messenger and grant himsalvation." No t e : Be s i d es e a b o vesu p p l i ca ti on th the person may recite any other re c o m e n d e dsu p p il ca ti o n s. m e ). A f t e r c o m p l e ti n g e re ci ta ti o n s f the th o words of greatness which total up to s e v e n , t h e l ma m w o u l d th e n se e k the protection of "Allah 6Wfy yo^ the cursed satan in a low voice by saying ..AUZU BILLAHI MINAL SHAYTANIRAJllM". He would thereafter silently invoke Allahs name by saying: BISM ILLAH I -R-RAHMA NI -R- -RAHllM" and then recite "AL-FATHAH"(t h eo p e n i n g h a p te r f th e H o l yOu r.an) c o ina lo u dv o i c e . h e fo l l o w e rs n g re g ation) T (cowo u l d t h e n s a y " A me e n " to g e th e rl o udlya f t e rt h e l m a m co mp l e te s ci ti n g e ,.Al re thFa t i h a h ". a c hfo l l o w e rw o u l dth e n re cite E" A l - F a t i h a h "si l e n tl y.l t i s re co mme nded 140
    • that the lmamthereafter recites whole theof c h a p t e r 8 7 o f th e H o l y Ou ra n i .e."SABIHISMA" Glorified be the name ofthy Lord, the Most high). The followersa re r e q u i r e d t o l i ste n to th e l ma m sre c ita t i o n .f ). T h e l m a m t h e n ra i se sh i s h a n d s u ptot h e l e v e l o f h i s sh o u l d e rso r e a rs a ndperforms "Rukuu "saYing "ALLAHUAKBAR".Thereafterhe raiseshis headupf ro m b o w i n g s a yi n g " S A MIA A L L A HULIMAN HAMlDA" followed bY thecongregation saYing "RABBANNAWA L A K A L H AMD " . T h e l ma m a n d the congregation thereafter proceed to prostration saying "ALLAHUAKBAR".g ).Af t e rt h e p r ostra ti o n s, e l ma m w o uld th res u m e t h e s ta n d i n g p o si ti o n fo r the s eco n d r a k a a t a n d th e co n g re g a tion w o u l df o l l o wh i m u p a c c o r d i n g l Y .h ). T h e r e a f t e r, th e l ma m w o u l d say"ALLAHU AKBAR" for 5 times and t h e t4 l
    • congregationwould performlikewise,andwould recite the private supplicationbetween each "Takbiiratil lhraam" asalreadydiscussedin point 4 above.i ). Then,the lmam recites"AL-FATHAH,and for this secondrakaat it is preferredthat he thereafter recites the whole ofchapter 88 of the Holy Ouran i.e. .At-Ghasiya", (The Disaster) and thecongregation would listen attentively. j ). Thereafter,the lmam completestheRu k u u( b o w i n g ) n d S u j u u d(p ro stration) apos i t i o n sn t h e ma n n e ra l re a d y i scu ssed i dand sits back for the words of witness"At-Tashahud". Then, the lmamconcludesthe prayer with the words ofpeace i.e. "ASSALAMU ALEYKUM WARAHMATULLAA" and of course, theenti r e c o n g r e g a ti o nw o u l d fo l l o w thelma m i n a l l t h e sea ctsa s i s th e cu sto mina ll p r a y e r s . r42
    • k ).After concluding praYer, lmam the thewo u l d c l i m b t he p u l p i t to d e l i ve r theFestival Sermon, and starts the samewit h n i n e r e c i ta ti o n s o f " A L L A HUAKBAR" with the congregationsayingafter him the same.After listeningto thes e r m o n , t h e c o n g r e g a t i o nd i s p e r s e s .Listeningto the sermon is not obligatorybut is r e c o m m e n d e d .Not e :W h e n g o i n g h o me a fte rth e p ra yer ,it is a recommended practice to useanother route different from the routeu s e d i n c o m i n g to th e mo sq u e /p l a ceofp ra y e r . I D U LAD H A P R A Y E R2."IDUL ADHA", (Feast of lmmolation)prayeris performed the 1Othdayof the on12th month o f lsl a mi c " H i j ra " C a l e n darand i s p e r f o r m e de xa ctl y i n th e sa mema n n e r a s e n u me ra te da n d d i scu ssed l du l F i tr P ra ye r.abov ef o r t h e r43
    • S A L A T U L - t S T t S O U AR A t N S E E K T N G (PRAY E R )Dro u g h ti s a n atu ra lca l a mi ty h i chw hen wit b e f a l l s c a u s e s u n d u e h a rd sh i p sanddis a s t e rt o a l l l i vi n g ma tte r.l t i s fo r thisre a s o n t h a t t h e P ro p h e (P B U Hma d eit a , t )custom on the Ummah to resort to thisprayerwheneveraffectedby this calamityand seek the mercy and grace of Ailah(SWT)toshower on them His bounty ofrain.T h is p r a y e ri s p e rfo rme d mi l a rto th e ld si(F e a s t ) r a y e r si n a l l re sp e cts.t ma y be p lperfo r m e da n yti me d u ri n g th e d a yl ightexceptthosetimeswhen the performanceof v o l u n t a r y r a ye rs s p ro h i b i te dMu slim p i .s c h o l a r s r e l a rg e l y f th e o p i n i o n a t the a o thbestt i m e f o r i t s p e rfo rma n ces th e sa m e it ime f o r t h e p e r fo rma n ce f th e l d p ra yer s oi. e . a f t e r a b o u ttw e n ty (2 O)mi n u te sfromc l e a rs u n r i s e . t44
    • In the sermonat the end of the prayer, thelmam (leader) will exhort thecongregationof the need to repent andreturn to Allah (SWT)pointing outthatthelack of rain is the result of the sins ofmankind.The lmam would thereafter raise hishands in prayer and the congregationwould also do the same. lt is confirmedthat the Prophet (PBUH)used to raise hishands in prayer until his armpitsappeared. While in this situation, thelmam and the congregation are requiredto invokeAllah (SWf)as much as possibleand c a l l u p o n H i m fo r fo rg i ve n e ss n d to ashoweron them His bounties.Allah(SWf)s ay s in t h e H o l y Ou ra n :"...ask forgivenessfrom your Lord, for Heis Oft-forgiving, He will send rain to you inabundance".(Q.uran :1O-1 1) 71 145
    • Note:lt i s d e s i r a b l e a t th e h e a do f th e Muslim thstate or his representativegives priorn o t i c e t o t h e Mu sl i m co mmu n i tyof theneed to perform "Salatul-lstisqua"at ac e r t a i n f u t u r e d a te . T h i s i s to e n a bleaslarge a congregationas is possible toattend the prayer.E C L I PS E A Y E R aI a tu l - K u so of) PR (STh e e c l i p s eo f th e S u n a n d th e Mo on ar et w o n a t u r a l p h e n o me n a w h i ch , whent h e y o c c u r , ca u se d i sma y a n d u n resttot h o s ew h o w itn e ssth e m. F o rth i s re ason,it i s t h e t r a di ti o n i n l sl a m to p e rfor m as p e c i a l p r a ye r w h e n th e se p h e n o m enao c c u r r e q u e sti n g l l a h , th e A l mi g hty,to Ab l e s s t h e M u s l i m N a t i o n ( U m m a h )b y (PBUH)c l e a r i n gt h e e cl i p se T h e P ro p h e t .says: 146
    • "The sun and the moon are two of thesigns of "Allah (SWff and are noteclipsed the death or livelihood any for ofperson.Therefore,when you witness theeclipse of the sun and moon resort toprayer." (Reported lmam Bukhari) byThis prayer is composedof two rakaatsw h ic h a r e p e r f o r m e dn co n g re g a ti o a n d i nfor wh i c h n e i t h e ra fi rst ca l l (A d h a n n o r a )s ec on d c a l l ( l q a ma h ) i s re q u i re d . l t i sp e rf o r m e d n t h e fo l l o w i n gma n n e r: i1 . After reciting "AL-Fatihah". the lmamwould recitea long passage from the HolyO u ra n w i t h t h e co n g re g a ti o n i ste n i ng lattentivelyto the recitation.2 . Up o n c o m p l e ti n gth e re ci ta ti o n ,th elma m co m e su p wi th th e b o w i n g" R u ku u "p os it i o na n d a s u su a l , th e co n g re g a ti onwo u ld f o l l o w h i m a cco rd i n g l y. 147
    • 3. The lmam thereafter, raisesup f rom the" R u k u u ", b u t i n ste a do f co n ti n u i n g to onthe prostration "Sujuud" position, heonce again resumes the recitation ofsome passages from the Holy Ouran.4. After the above recitation,the lmamc o m e s u p w i th a n o th e r" R u ku u " .5 . T h e l m a m th e n , ra i se s u p fro m theRukuu position and proceeds toprostration ujuud". "S6 . T h e l m a m h a sth u s,co mp l e te d e fir st thra k a a t a n d f ro m th e S u j u u d "p o si tion, , hew o u l d r e s u m e th e sta n d i n gp o si tiontob e g i nt h e s e co n dra ka a tw h i ch w o uld beperformed exactlyas the first rakaatin them a n n e rd e s cri b e d b o ve . a7 . U p o nr a i s i n gth e h e a dfro m th e secondprostration the secondrakaat, lmam of thewould sit for " A t-T a sh a h u d "a n d would 148
    • t h e n c o n c l u d et h e p ra ye r a s u su a l w i th " T a s l e e m ". No t e :U p o nc o m pl e ti n g e e cl i p se ra yer th pa s dis c u s s e di,t i s re co mme n d e d a t th e thlma m d e l i v e r s bri e fse rmo ni n w h i ch h e aspeaksof the lessonsto be learnedfromt he m a n i f e s t a t io n so f th e e cl i fi se . H edraws t h e a t t e n ti o no f th e u n mi n d fu ltothe greatnessof "Allah 6WD. and thatHe possesses unrestricted powerto act inany wa y H e w i s h e sw i th H i s cre a ti o n s.T H EW I T R( O D DN U M B E RP R A Y E R ) T h e " W i t r " ( O d d N u mb e r p ra ye r) i s a volu n t a r y r a y e rt ra d i ti o n a l l p ra cti ce d y p y b t h e P r o p h e ( P B U Hr e g u l a r l y h e t h e rh e t ) ww as p r e s e n t a t h i s h o me p l a ce a s a res id e n t , r w a s on a j o u rn e y.S u ch w a s ot he im p o r t a n c e t ta ch e d th i s p ra ye rb y a tot h e P r o p h e t( P B U H )t,h a t s o m e M u s l i mj u r i s t sa n d s c h o l a r s r eo f t h e o p i n i o n h a t a ti t is a n e c e s s a ryp ra ye r. T h e p ro p h et r49
    • ( P B U H )e x h o r t i n gt h e U m m a h ( M u s l i mNa t i o n ) t o t he i mp o rta n ceo f th e W itrprayersays:"Attah 6WD /s One and loves Witrtherefore O! people who believe in theAuran perform Witr prayers" (Reportedb y l m a m sD a w o u da n d T i r m i d h i )Th e t i m e f o r th e Wi tr P ra ye rb e g i n sfr omt h e e n d o f l sh a (E ve n i n g )p ra ye r andc o n t i n u e s nti l th e F a j r(D a w n l p ra y er u andis performed as the last prayer of the night. Preference is given to itsp e r f o r m a n c en th e l a te rp a rt o f th e night ia s c a n b e no te d fro m w h a t h a s been c o n f i r m e d y A i sh a(ma yA l l a h b e p l eased b w i t h h e r )t h at:"The Prophet (PBUH) used to offer Witrprayers in all the later part of thenightsuch that his Witr praYers used to befinished by about dawn". (Reported bylmamBukhari) 150
    • T h e Pr o p h e t p BU H ) l so sa i d : ( a "Make the Witr prayer your last prayer of the night". (Reported lmam Bukhari) byIt is known as Witr (Odd Number)prayerbecause of its nature, in that, it iscompleted in units (rakaats) of oddn umbe r s , h u s , l , 3 , 5 , 7 , g , a n d I 1. T h e tm i n i m u m n u m b e ro f r a k a a t s n t h e W i t r iP ra y e r s o n e a n dt h e ma xi mu m h i chth e i wP ro p h e t ( P B U H ) u se d to p e rfo rm w a se lev en .H owe v e r ,M u s l i m s l a rg e l y p e rfo rm th i spra y e ri n t h r e e u n i ts(ra ka a ts) h i ch ma y wbe per f o r m e di n ei th e r o f th e fo l l o w i n gtwo methods:a. T h e w o r s h i p p e r ma y p e rfo rm tw or ak aats s i m i l a rt o th e F a j rp ra ye r) n d i n ( ado in g so , m a y g o fo r th e sh o rt a n d /o rm e d ium p a s s a g eso f th e H o l y e u r,a n l5l
    • preferablychapter87 "SabihismaRabikalA A l a a - ( G lo ri fyth e n a me o f th e Lor d,M o s t H i g h ) wh i ch ma yb e re ci te di n thef ir s t r a k a a t , w h i l e , ch a p te r 1 0 9 "Al-Kafiruun" (The non-believers) maybere c i t e d n t h e se co n d ka a t. s u su al, i ra A thewords of witness are recitedat the end ofthe two rakaatsfollowed by the Tasleemt o c o n c l u d eth e se fi rst tw o ra ka a ts. Thep e r s o nt h e n sta n d su p to p e rfo rma thir dra k a a to n i t s o w n . C h a p te r1 1 2 " A |-lklas"o f t h e H o l y Ou ra n ma yb ere ci te di n thisu n i t . l t i s th e p ra cti ce to re cite asupplication obedience Allah (SWf) of toknown as " A u n u u t" i n th i s l a st rakaata n d i f a p e rso n w i sh e s to re ci te thiss u p p l i c a t i o n ,e m a yd o s o u p o nr e s u m i n g hs t a n d i n gf r o m t h e R u k u u p o s i t i o na n daftersaying:SAMIA ALLAHU LIMAN HAMIDA"followed by "RABBANA WALAKALHAMD" r52
    • T h e OU N U U T o e s a s fo l l o w s: g.ALLAHUMMA AHDINII FIMAN AFEYTA,HADEYTA. WAAFINII FIMANWATAWALANII FIMAN TAWALEYTA,WABARIKLII FIMA ADEYTA. WAAINIISHARA MAA OADHEYTA. FA INNAKATAADII WALAA YUADAA ALEYK.INNAHU LAA YADDILU MAN WALEYTAWALAA YAIZU MAN AADEYTA.TABARAKTARABBANA -WA TA AL EY T A" . h i ch me a n s - w"O Lord. lead me to true faith with thoseYou have guided, pardon me with thoseYou have pardoned,protect me with thoseYouhaveprotected,blessfor me what Youhave given me, keep me safe from evilsYou have ordained. lt is You Who decreesand it is not decreed upon You, no oneunder Your care is brought down and noone to whom You show emnitY can beexalted, O Lord, You are the Most Praised,Most Sublime." 153
    • Or, the person may recite any of others u p p f i c a t i o n so f o b e d i e n c e ( Q u n u u t )wh i c h t h e Pr o p h e t B U H ) se dto say in (P uhis prayers.Up o n c o m p l eti n gth e re ci ta ti o no f thiss u p p l i c a t i o no f o b e d i e n ce ,th e p er sonwoufd say "ALLAHU AKBAR" and then,proceedto prostration, thereafter,sits upfor the recitation oI (At-Tashahud) andc o n c l u d e st h e p ra ye r a s u su a l w i th the(Tasleem). And thus, is the Witr Prayerdone.b. Alternatively, the person may performthe Witr p r a ye r b y p ra yi n ga l l th e thr eera k a a t s o n t in u o u sl y i th o u t b re a k. c w Afterru k u u i n t h e th i rd ra ka a t, th e p er sonwo u l d r e c i t eth e Ou n u u t su p p l i ca tion asdiscussed aboveand would then proceedto prostration, then recitesAt-Tashahuda n d c o n c l u de s th e p ra ye r w i th theTasleem. 154
    • TARAWIHPRAYERT he ls l a m i cF a s t in g n th o f R a ma d a ns Mo ia ble s s e dm o n t h i n w h i ch Mu sl i ms a regenerally exhorted to come up with asma n y o p t i o n a l c ti vi ti e s s i s p o ssi b l e r a a fogreat rewards are awarded for deedsperf or m e d u r i n gth i s h o l y mo n th .l t i s i n da ppre c i a t i o no f th i s th a t th e P ro p h et(PB UH ) t r a d i t i o na l i ze d r th e Mu sl i m foUmma h a v o l u n ta ry p ra ye r to b ep e rf o r m e d u r i n g th e n i g h ts o f th i s h o l y dm ont h .T h i s v o l u nta ry ra ye ri s kn o w na s p"Tarawih" or " O.iyaam".The virtue of this prayercan be notedfromt he f o l l o w i n g s ayi n g o f th e P ro p h et(PBUH):"Anybody who performs Tarawih prayerd u ring t h e m o n t h o f R a ma d a n i th d e e p ws e n s eo f b e l i e fa n d scru ti n yw i l l h a veh i sp re v io u s s i n s f o rg i ve n " . (R e p o rte db ylmamBukhari) 155
    • I n d e e d ,t h e Pro p h e t(P B U H )ma n i festedthe importance of this prayer bypersonally leading its initialc o n g r e g a t i o ns l th o u g hh e d i d n o t i nsist aon its performancefor fear it was madeobfigatoryon the Ummah. The mother oft h e f a i t h f u l A i sh a (ma y A l l a h b e p l e asedwith her) says: "Many people performed Tarawih witht he P r o p h e t PB U H ) n th e fi rst n i g h t and ( ima n y m o r e i n th e se co n d n i g h t. In thet hi r d n i g h t , eve n a l a rg e r co n g re gationattended the Mosque to perform thepra y e rw i t h t h e P ro p h e (P B U H )b uh e did t tn o t g o o u t f o r th e m. l n th e n e xt mo r ningt he Pr o p h e t PB U H to l d th e m th a t l saw ( )y o u r a s s e m b ly u t n o th i n gp ro h i b i ted e b mf ro m c o m i n g ou t to yo u e xce p tth e feart ha t i t b e m a d e o b l i g a to ryu p o n y ou" . ( R e p o r t e d y l ma m A t-T i rmi d h i ). bAf te r t h e d e a th o f th e P ro p h e t(P BUH)t h e r ew a s n o l o n g e ra n yfe a ro f th i s p rayer 156
    • being made obligatoryand it was CaliphUma r w h o d u r i n g h i s re i g n re -a cti vi te dth e pe r f o r m a n c e o f th i s p ra ye r i ncongregation. Sincethen, the Ummahhaspracticed this prayerin congregation it butis permissiblefor someoneto perform ito n ind i v i d u a l b a si s, a l th o u g h mu chpreferenceis given to performingit withthe congregation can be notedfrom the asfollowing saying of the Prophet(pBUH):"Whoever prays Tarawih with theco n g re g a t i o ni l l t he l ma m l e a ve sw i l l b e trewarded as if he prayed the wholen ight " . ( R e p o r t e d l ma ms A h ma d a n d byTirmidhi)This prayeris performedin rakaats (units)of two each exceptthe lastrakaatwhich isalways prayed oddly as one. lt isconfirmedthat the Prophet (PBUH) usedtoperform eleven rakaats when prayingTarawih. r57
    • SA L AT U L . I S S T IK H A R A(P R A Y E R TOSE E KAL L A H SGU ID A N C E )I t i s n a t u r a lt h a t i n h i s d a y-to -d a a ffair sa ym u s l i m i s co n fro n te d w i th i mp or tantis s u e s r g q u i ri n g d e ci si o n ma ki n g andwhich mpy force the person to undergom u c h t h l n k i ng , a n xi e ty a n d e ve n wor r ybefore the person is able to decideaffirmativelyor negatively. is with due ltregardto such situations that the Prophet(P BU H ) a c cu sto me d fo r th e MuslimUmmah a voluntary prayer to which aperson may resortto and through whichhe,/she seeks from Allah (SWf) trueg u i d a n c e a n d th e a b i l i ty to re a ch theproperdecision overthe particular matter.T h i s p r a y e r i s kn o w n i n A ra b ic asSALATUL-ISSTIKHARA and itsim p o r t a n c e is su ch th a t th e P rophet(P BU H ) u s e d to te a ch h i s co mp anionsabout it the same way he used to teachthem the verses of the Holy Ouran. The 158
    • c o mp a n i o nJ a b i r (ma y A l l a h b e p l e a se dw it h h i m ) s a i d t h a t th e P ro p h e t(P B U H)used to exhort us to practicelsstikhara lora ll our a f f a i r s .The manner of performingthis prayer isthat the personcomesup with a voluntaryprayer of two rakaats(units) at anytimedurin g t h e d a y o r n i g h t a n d u p o nc omple t i n gh e s a m eth e p e rso nre ci te s t ap riv at e s u p p l i c a ti o ni n w h i ch h e ,/sh eseeks the guidance of Allah (SWT).Thes u p p lic a t i o n o e s as fo l l o w s : g,ALLAHUMMA INNI ASTAKHYIRUKABI I L M I KA W A A S T A A D IR U K A B IAU DRA T I KA W A A S -A L U K A M INFADHLIKA-AL-AZIM, FA INNAKATAAARU WALAA AAARU WATALAMUWALAA ALAMU. WA ANTAALLAMUL-AUYYUB. ALLAHUUMA IN KUNTATALAMU ANNA HADHAL-AMRA (Herethe person makes a mention of the matterfor which guidance is sought) KHEIRUNLEE FII DINII WAMAAASHII WAAAAI- 159
    • BATA AMRII FAADURHU LII, WAYASSIR-HU LII THUMMA BAARIK LIIFIIHI. WAIN KUNTA TA LAMU ANNAHADHAL-AMRA (Also at this point theperson makes a mention of the matter forwhich guidance is sought)SHARRUN LEEFII DINII WA MAAASHII WAAAABATA ANNII WASRIFNIIAMRII, FASRIFHU.ANHU WAQDUR LEE AL-KHEYRAHEYTHU KANA THUMMA ARDHINIIBtHil"W h i c h m e a ns:"O Lord. I seek Your guidance, throughYour knowledge and power; and I ask Youof Yourgreat bounties; for YoudecreeandI do not decree; and You know and I knownot; You are the knower of invisible. OLord, if You know that this matter (andhere the person sfates the matter forwhich guidance is sought) is of benefit tome in my religion, in my livelihood and in its outcome, decide it for me and make it 160
    • easy for me and then blessitfor me. And ifYou know that this matter (and here henames it again) is bad for me in myreligion, in my livelihood, and in itsoutcome, turn it from me and divert mefrom it and decreegood for me wherever itmay be and make me pleased with it".Having seekedAllahs guidance as above,the person then resumes his/her routineaffairs and in the meantime awaiting thedue response from Allah 6Wn whichc o u ld a p p e a r t o th e p e rso n b y w a y o ff eelin g s i n t h e p e rso n sh e a rt o f e i th erc onf id e n c e r o t h e rw i seT h u s,w h e reth e o .pers o nf e e l s i n hi s,/h e rh e a rt a se n seofvig u o r , o p t i m i s m a n d sa ti sfa cti o n b o ut athe in t e n d e d n d e rta ki n g , e n th e p e rson u thmay construethis as a positiveresponsefrom Allah (SWD and may accordinglyproceed on with the intendedundertaking. Where,however, theoppositeis true and the personsdoubts,and/ o r w o r r i e sa re n o t cl e a re d th e n th e , 161
    • person may avoid the intendedun d e r t a k i n g or i t co u l d me a n d o o m for fhim,/her. Allah (SWf) says:"....lt is possible that ye dislike a thingwhich is good for you, and that ye love athing which is bad for you. But Allahknoweth and ye know not". (Auran2:216)indeed, the essenceof tnis prayer is to testsomeones trust in Allah (SWf) , hence,the needto abideby the guidanceof Allah6W f ) a c c o r d i n g l Yw h e th e r th i s maymean pursuing or abandoning the intended undertaking. Allah (SWT) alsosays:"....And if anyone puts his trust in Allah,sufficient is Allah for him, for Allah surelyaccomplishes His purpase: Verily, for allthings has Allah aPPointed a dueproportion". (Ouran 65 :3) t62
    • SALATUL-JANMA(FUNERAL PRAYER)lslam has set certain rules andregulationswith regardto attendingto adeceased personand some of these rulesare as follows:1. ln most cases, death is precededbys ic k n e s s n d i t i s th e d u ty o f th e Mu sti m s awho happen to know the sick person topay h i m a v i s i t a n d ma kesu p p l i ca ti o ntosAllah (SWT)torhis recovery. Indeed, sick aMus li m h a s a r i g h t to b e vi si te db y o th erM u s li m sw h o a r e a cq u i a n te d i th h i m. w2 . l t a n dw h e n a M u s l i mi s a b o u t o d i e ,i tis the practicethat the personis directedto the Qiblah (the sacred mosque inM ak ka )a f t e r w h i ch th e " sh a h a d a ,,(th ewords of witness) is proclaimedover thepers o n a n d h e , /sh e i s a l so u rg e d top r o c l a i m h e s a m e .T h u s , : t r63
    • ,LAA ILAAHA ILLAL LAAH".WhiChme a n s :"There is no god but Allah".T h i s i s i n d u e re g a rd to th e fo l l o wings a y i n go f t h e Pro p h e t B U H ): (P"Exhort your dying ones to affirm theShahada".(Reported lmam Muslim) by3. Where the persondies,the eyesare tobe closed, body covered with garmentsa n d t h e p e o p le ro u n dh i m a re re q u i red a toavoidtalkingof anythingelse,exceptthatwh i c h i s g o o d ,su cha s sa yi n g r e xa m ple fo- "O Allah forgive him and have mercY onhim." This /s in accordance with thefollowing saying of the Prophet (PBUH|"Do not say over your dead ones excepts u p p l i c a t i o nfo r th e a n g e l ssa y" A meen" son y o u r s u pp l i ca ti o n s" .{R e p o rted bylmamMuslim) t64
    • 4. I n l s l a ma M u s l i m i s re sp e cte w h e th er da liv e o r d e a d ,a n d th e re fo re ,i a Mu sl i m fd ies, t h e r e l i g i o n mma n d s s to g i vethe co ub o d yt o t a la b l u t i o n(Gh u sl a n dto p e rfu me )it properly.5 . A d e c e a s e d a l eMu sl i mi s g i ve na b a th monly b y o t h e r ma l e Mu sl i ms, a l th o u gh,nothingforbidshis wife from givinghim ab a t h . L i k e w i s e, a d e ce a se d Mu sl i mwo ma n i s g i v e n a b a th o n l y b y o th erMu s l i mw o m e n ,al th o u g h n o th i n g rb i ds , foa h u s b a n d f r o m g i vi n g a b a th to h isdeceased wife.6 . T h e d e c e a s e d o u l db e w ra p p e di n a shs hrou d .l f t h e d ece a se ds a w o ma n , she is hou l db e w r a p pe di n a sh ro u dco mp o singof f ive p i e c e so f wh i te g a rme n ts, h i l e , a wdec e a s e d a l e s h o u l db e sh ro u d e d i th m wt h re e p i e c e so f w h i te g a rme n ts. 165
    • 7 . l f a w o m a n d i e s w h e re th e re a re noother women nearby to undertake theritualbath or if a man dies in a similars it u a t i o nw h e re th e re a re n o o th e r m ennearby,then, the deceased personis onlyg ive n a d r y a b l u ti o n(A T -T a ya mmu m ) byrub b i n gt h e e a rth o ve r h i s,/h e rfa ce andhan d s ,b e c a u sei n su ch ca se s,co mpleteb a t h i s i m p o s si b l eP ro p e rfu n e ra lp rayer .is then performedover the deceased andthereafterburied accordingly.8. T h e f u n e ra l p ra ye r i s a co l l e ctiveobl i g a t i o n n t h e re si d e n ts f a p a rti cular o oarea. This is known as "FARDH-AL-KIFAYA" in Arabic and if no one comesout to perform the prayeron a deceasedMuslim of that community, thec o m m u n i t y s a w h o l e i s d e e me d n ful in a sithe sight of Allah 6Wf), but, if it isperformed by some of the people,then,t h e r e s t o f t h e co mmu n i ty re a b so l ved a ofthe sin. 166
    • 9. Women are not supposed follow the tofuneral procession can be noted from asthe following confirmationby Umm Atiya(mayAl l a h b e p le a sew i th h e r)w h o sa id:"We were forbidden by the Praphet{PBUH) without enforcement to followfuneral processions".(Reported lmam byBukhari)HOW THE FUNERAL PRAYER ISPERFORMEDThe prayer over the deceased persont ak est h e f o l l o wi n gfo rm.1. T h e f u n e r a lp r a ye rh a s n e i th e rA d h a annor lqamair.2. T h e d e c e a s e di s l a i d d o w n o n thegrou n d w i t h t n e h e a d d i re cte dto w a rdsthe Kaba. t67
    • 3. Where the deceased is a male, thelmam would stand facing towards themiddle part of the dead body,while, if thed e c e a s e di s a w o ma n th e l ma m w ouldstandfacingtowardsthe headof the deadbody.Meanwhile,the congregation wouldb e st a n d i n gb eh i n dh i m i n ro w s.4. The funeral prayer is performedwitho n e s t a n d i n gon l y a n d h a s n e i th e rb ows(Ru k u u s ) o r p ro stra ti o n s u j u u d s). n (S5 . .T h e l m a m be g i n sth e p ra ye rb y ra i singu p h i s h a n d su p toth e l o b e s f h i s e a rsand ocomes up with the words of greatness i.e."Allahu Akbar". The congregation wouldf o ll o w l i k w i s e6 . T h e n , e v e r yb o d yi n cl u d i n gth e l m amwoufd recite "Al-Fatihah".7. After completingthe recitationof theA l- F a t i h a h t h e l ma m, o n ce a g a i n co mes ,up with the words of greatness i.e."ALLAHUAKBAR", and the congregation 168
    • would follow likewise. After this, thelmam a n d t h e c on g re g a ti o n o u l d re cite wfor themselves in a low voice thesupplication the ProphetsABRAHAM fora n d M U H AM MA D , (ma y p e a ce a ndb less i n g s e u p o nth e m),w h i ch i s u su ally bre c ite db y t h e M u sl i msd u ri n g th e i r d ailyprayers in the second part of the At-T a s h a h u d . T h e su p p l i ca ti o n g o e s asf ollo w s : ALLAHUMMA ALAA SALLIMUHAMMADIN WAALAA AALIMUHAMMADIN KAMA SALEYTA ALAAIBRAHIMA WA ALAA AALI IBRAHIMA,WABARIK ALAA MUHAMMADIN WAALAA AALI MUHAMMADIN. KAMAABARAKTA ALAA IBRAHIMA WA ALAAAALI IBRAHIMA INNAKA HAMIDUNMAJIDUN". which means:"O Lord give peace and blessings toMuhammad and his family like Youblessed Abraham and his family and 169
    • shower Your blessings on Muhammadand his family like You showered onAbraham and his family in the two worlds.You are the Most praised, the Mostwonderful."8 . T h e l m a m wo u l d th e re a fte rp ro claimthe words of greatness i.e. "ALLAHUA KB A R " f o r th e th i rd ti me a n d thec o n g r e g a t i o n u l d fo l l o w l i ke w i se . wo9 . T h e l m a ma n dth e o th e rme mb e rs f the oc o n g r e g a t i o n o u l d th e re a i trr ry,a ke w thef ollo w i n g p r i v a te su p p l i ca ti o nfo r thed e c e a s e d i f h e w e re a n a d u l t maleMuslim. The supplication onsistsof cprayer for self, for the deceasedpersonand f o r t h e M u s l i msa t l a rg ea n d i t g o e sasfollows:ALLAHUMMA IQFIR LIHAYINNA WAMAYITINAA, WA SHAHIDDINAA WAAAAIBINAA. WA SAAIIRINAA. WAKABIIRINA. WA DHAKARINAA WA 170
    • UNTHANAA. ALLAHUMMA MANAHYEYTAHU MINNAA FAHYIHI ALALISLAM, WAMAN T,+WAFEYTUHU MINAFATAWWAFAH UALAL IIMAAN.ALLAHUMMA IAFIR LAHU WAR.HAMHU, WAAFIHI WAAFU ANHU. WA-KRIM NUZULAHU. WA-WA-SIIM UDKHA LAH U, WAAA SILH U BIL -MAA -IWATHALAJI, WALBARAD, WANNAAHIMI NA - D - D U N U B I K A MA Y U N A AATHOUBUL ABYADHU MINA DANAS,WABADIL.HU DAARAN KHEIRAN MINDAARIHL WAZOWJAN KHEIRAN MINZOWJ IHI,WAD. KHILH U JA NNATA.WA A I D H U M I N A D A B IL -A A B R I WAADHAEI-NAAR, WAAFSAH LAHU FIIAABRIHI, WANAWAR LAHU FIIHI.which means:"O Allah forgive those of us who are stillalive and those who have passed away,those present (at the congregation) andthose who are absent, and our young and t7 l
    • the elderly, our male and female lots. OAllah, whomever Thou wishest to keepalive from amongst us make him liveaccording to lslam and whomever Thouwishest to die from amongst us, let himdie in the state of being a believer (withfaith).O Allah forgive him and have mercy uponhim and keep him safe and sound andexcuse him for his faults, and grant himrespectable place in the heaven, andmake his grave spacious, and wash himwith water, snow and ice and purify him ofall his sins like a piece of white cloth iscleared from dirt, and grant him a newhouse better than his (previous)houseand a family better than his (previous)family and a wife better than his (previous)wife, and allow him to enter the paradise,and protect him from the torture of thegrave and the hell-fire." 172
    • 1 0 . lf t h e d e c e a se d s a n a d u l t w o ma n, it h e n t h e a b o ve su p p l i ca ti o nsh a l l berepe a t e d n f u l l an d th e o n l y ch a n g ew ill ib e t h a t t h e s u p p l i ca ti o n a l l b e g i ve n a shf emin i n er e a d i n gi n th e A ra b i c l a n g u a ge.Thus: ALLAHUMMA rcFIR LIHAYINNA WAMAYITINAA, WA SHAHIDDINAA WAAAAIBINAA. WA SAAIIRINAA, WAKABIIRINA. WA DHAKARINAA WAUNTHANAA, ALLAHUMMA MANAHYEYTAHU MINNA FAHYIHI ALALISLAMI. WAMAN TAWAFEYTUHU MINAFATAWWAFAH U ALAL IIMAAN.ALLAHUMMA IAFN LAHA WAR-HAMHAWAAFIHA WAAFU ANHA WAAKRIMNUZULAHA, WA-WA.SII MUD-K HA L AH A , W AA A S IL H A B IL -MA A IWATHALAJ I WALBARADI.WANNAAI HAMINA-D-DUNUBI KAMA YUNAAATHOUBUL ABYADHU MINA DANAS.WABADILAHA DAARAN KHEIRAN MIN t73
    • DAARIHA. WAZOWJAN KHEIRAN MINZOWJIHA, WAD-KHILHAJANNATA, WA-AIDHA MIN-ADABIL.AABRI WAADHABI-NAAR. WAAFSAH LAHA FIIAABRIHA, WANAWAR LAHA FIIHI,"which means: "O Allah forgive those of us who are stillalive and those who have passed away,those present (at this congregation) andthose who are absent, and our young andour elderly, our male and famale lots. OAllah, whomever Thou wishes to keepalive from amongst us make him liveaccording to lslam and whomever Thouwishest to die from amongst us, let himdie in the state of being a believer (withfaith).O Allah forgive her and have mercy uponher and keep her safe and sound andexcuse her for her faults, and grant herrespectable place in the heaven, andmake her grave spacious, and wash her 174
    • with water, snow and ice and purify her ofall her sins as like a piece of white cloth iscleared from dirt, and grant her a newhouse better than her (previous) houseand a family better than her (previous)family and a husband better than her(previous)husband, and allow her to enterthe paradise, and protect her from thetorture of the grave and the hell-fire."1 1. l f t h e d e c ea se di s a b o y, th e n thef ollo w i n gs u p p l ica ti o n o u l d b e re ci te d: w,AI-LAHUMMA IJALHU DHUKHRANLIWALIDEYHIWA FARADAN WA AJRANMUJAABAN ALLAHUMMA THAAIL BIHIMAWAASIINAHUMA WA-AZZIM EIHIUJUURAHUMA WA ALHIA-HU BISALIHISALAFIL MUMINIIN WAJALHU FIKAFALAATI IBRAHIM WAAIHIBI RAH M A T AK A A D H A B A L JA H IIM . which means: 175
    • "O Allah, make him forerunner of hisparents and make him a reward and atreasure for them, make him one who willpleads for his parents and accept hispleadings. O Allah heavy him in theirscales and grant them big reward andjoinhim with the good helievers and make himunder the sponsorship of Abraham andprotect him from the hell fire."12 . l t t h e d e c e a se ds a g i rl ,th e n th e a bove is u p p l i c a t i o wo u l d b e re p e a te dn fu l land n it h e o n l y c h an g e w o u l d b e th a t thes u p p l i c a t i o nm u st b e g i ve n a fe mi niner e a d i n gi n t h e A r a b i cl a n g u a g e .1 3 . T h e l m a m w o u l d th e re a fte r, ro c laim pt he w o r d so f g r e a tn e ss r th e fo u rthtim e foa n d t h e c o n gre g a ti o n o u l d a l so say it wa f t e r h i m . l m me d i a te l yth e re a fte r,thel m a m t u r n s h i s f a c eo n l yt o t h e r i g h ts i d ep ro c l a i m i n g th e w o rd s o f p e a ce i.e.,,ASSALAMU ALAYKUM WARAHMATULLAAH" to signify the t76
    • completion of the prayer. Thec o n g r e g a t i o n o ul d a l so fo l l o w l i ke w i se, wa n d t h u s ,t h e f u n era lp ra ye ri s co mp l e te d.Note:( 1 ) l f a p e r s o nj o i n s t h e f u n e r a l p r a y e rwh ile t h e l m a m i s a b o u tto co mp l e te e ths a me , t h e n , t h e p e rso nw o u l d co n ti n u ewit h th e c o n g r eg a ti o nu n ti l w h e n th elma m c o n c l u d e sth e p ra ye r, th e n , th eperson would complete by himselfwhatever he missed of the prayerf ollow i n gt h e a b ovep ro ce d u re .(2 1lf a l a t e - c o m e r a rs th a t th e b o d yo f fethe deceasedmay be taken away beforeh e c o m p l e t e st h e p ra y o ve r h i m, th e n,s uc h a p e r s o nm a y o n l yco meu p w i th th ewords of greatness i.e. "ALLAHUA KB AR " f o u r t i m e s w i th o u t n e ce ssa rilyrec it in g t h e r e q u i re dsu p p l i ca ti o n s. h e Tpers o n t h e r e a f t er,co me s u p w i th th e t77
    • words of peace, thereby, ending theprayer.(3 ) l f a p e r s o n i s u n a b l e to p ra y over adeceasedpersonbefore burial,then, it ispermitted for him to pray over thedeceaseds grave.{4) lf a personwho is far away istold of thedeath of another,then such a personmaypray overthe deceased personin absentiawith the intentionas thoughthe deceasedis actuaf before him/her. fy(5 ) F u n e r a lp ra ye r i s a l so re co mmendedover a baby born dead after completingf o u r m o n t h s i n si d eth e mo th e rswom b.However, no funeral prayer is requiredover a baby born dead beforecompletingf o u r m o n t h s i n si d eth e mo th e rsw om b. 178
    • A SUMMARYOF THE DIFFERENT TYPESOF PRAYERSWe shall now summarise the mostcommon different typesof prayerwhich amuslim will get exposedto in his day today life.A, The Obfigatory Prayers (Al Faraidh).These are the Five Daily Prayers asfollows:(l ) The Fajr (Dawn) Prayer(2) The Dhuhr (Noon) Prayer(3) The Asr (Afternoon) Prayer(4) The Maghrib (Sunset) Prayer(5) The lsha (Evening) PrayerB. The necessary (Wajib) Friday . prayer.congregationalC. Other confirmed TraditonalPrayers.Thus: t79
    • (l ) The Prayers of the Two Feasts(the ldulFitr and ldul Adha).(2) The Prayer for seeking bounty ol rainfrom Allah.(3) The Prayer during the Eclipse of theSun and Moon.D. The twelve (l2) definite voluntaryprayers performed before and/ or after the obligatory prayers.E. The Witr (Odd Number) PraYer.F. The Tarawih (Month of fastingsupererogatorY)PraYers.G. The prayer for seeking Allahsguidance.H, The Funeral Prayer. 180
    • CONTENTS PagePREFACETO TIIE BOOK I - VIAS-SALAAT 1 Introduction 1 The Virtuesof the Prayer 3WUDHU (ABLUTTON) ............ 5 for Conditions the Performance ofWudhu 6EssentialActsof Wudhu ......... 7VoluntaryActs of Wudhu 8How theWudhuis performed............ 8ImportantPointson Wudhu 11Wiping Overthe Socks 15 How Wiping Overthe Socks Done. t 6 isWhentheWipingPrivilege Ceases .".. 1 6MatterswhichInvalidate Wudhu.. t 7 theGHUSL (TOTAL BATH) T9 whenGhuslis Required as Occasions an obligatory Act 19 Occasionsfor which Ghusl is pre- ferred 21 l8r
    • Page EssentialRequirements Ghusl...... 22 of How Ghusl Performed is 22 ................... Acts Forbidden Persons to who are requiredto PerformGhusl 25MENSTRUATION (HAIDH) 26POST.CHILDBIRTHBLEEDING(NTFAS) 26Acts Forbidden WomenExperiencing to Menstruation Post-Childbirth and Bleeding 27AT-TAYAMMUM (ABLUTIONusrNc THE EARTT{)......... 28 Instances whenAt-Tayammum is Permitted 29 The Earth(Soil)to be usedfor At-Tavammaum 31 How to PerformAt-Tayammum............31 Matters which Nullify At-Tayammum .. 32THE TIMINGS OF THE OBLIGATORYPRAYERS 33 t82
    • Pages PageADHAAN (CALL TO PRAYER) ....... 36 The Virtuesof Adhaan ............. 36 How the Adhaanis performed............ 3 8 What SomeoneSupplicates Upon Hearing the Adhaan 40 The Supplicationafter the Adhaan ....... 4 l IQAMAH (Second 42 Call to Pra.............. Notes (RegardingAdhaan andlqamah.. 43PERFORMANCE OF THE SALAAT .. 45 Conditions for the Prayer (Shuruud- Salaat) 45 Categories the Acts of theSalaat...... 50 of Pillars of the Salaat(Arkanu-Salaat) 5 1 ... Necessary Duties (Wajibatu-Salaat).. 54 PreferredActs of the Salaat (Sunna- nu-Salaat) 56 How the Salaat 60 isperformed .............. Performanceof Fajr the Prayer 61 Performance the Dhuhr Praver ..... 79 of Performanceof the Asr Prayei 81 Performance the Maghrib Prayer.. 8 1 of Performance the Isha Prayer ......... 84 ofFORGETzuLNES S PROSTRATIONS(SUruUDSAHW) 85 183
    • Page Where"SujuudVariousInstancesSahw"Becomes 86 Apparent...................PRTVATESUPPLICATIONSRECITEDUPON COMPLETINGPRAYERS ...... 89THINGS WHICH INVALIDATE THEPRAYER(MUBDILATU-SALAAT) ... 98THINGS WHICH ARE NOT PRE- lOOFERRED TTM PRAYER ................. INOTI#R IMPORTANT NOTESRE-GARDINGPRAYER 102 ..........CONGREGATIONALPRAYER 109 Prayer.. 112 Purpose the Congregational ofTHE PRAYER OF A TRAVELLINGPERSON (MUSAFIR).............. 116PERFORMANCEOF THE PRAYER BYONE WHO IS SICK I2O lZ2VOLUNTARYPRAYERS................... Times WhenPerformance Voluntary of Prayers Prohibited.............. is L26 184
    • PageJUMAH PRAYER (FRIDAY CON-GREGATIONAL PRAYER) r27 The Performance the Jumah of Prayer 130TI{E PRAYERS OF THE TWOFEASTS 135 Idul-Fitr Prayer Idul-AdhaPrayer 136 t42SALATUL-ISTISQUA (RAIhI SEEK-rNG PRAYER) ........... 143ECLIPSEPRAYER (SALATUL-KU-sooF) r45THE WrTR (ODD NUMBER.)PRAYER 148TARAWIH PRAYER t54SALATUL-IS STIKHARA (PRAYERTO SEEKALLAHS GUIDANCE)..... t57 185
    • PagesSALATUL-JANAZA (FUNERALPRAYER) 162 How the FuneralPrayeris Performed 166A SUMMARY OF TIIE DIFFERENTTYPESOF PRAYERS........... 178 r86
    • ,/ vUKJt j" eJ" r!)r ).L, f*)l atlt." .)lrr&-U irtrJt ;,-/.tll - a t t / V i A ( s 5 se i t v t ^ . j JJtt O, 6* F rlr! ,;lKlr rb gL{ e.-r
    • rultltl irlJt{ ultl(,| lir :.-i1l{1,;r,- g.Jl J-.ir -*!lrtCi - t . i->:Al Dtall oE3i - Y . l+* u tpto+l-ut+tl-rlr iy...,l Jo:-) - Y D[.4.J1iio - L . r{*],l r3a., - o ;t(.i . i)[.all o>tlo, - f . i..^+l D[.oJirt+l fJ., - V . JU.ell;ri U.. - ,t.jr-Klb ,$ r.11-e C>[rrL-&Jl Dt, - t i/-Jo^Jl tJt: .;jl+l Dt - .
    • rU,.l)!.r UrrtJ 03tJl r.rt* C.,Ut-*ll.i 1 t10 JU-)l y.Ayt./.ena t.r.tv :rJu- t.r.Yo :iJ -:l;C; 6JrJlJrUi)lJ ::.Hl .rJr..Jlc.,!l:) i,Ul LUJIrt-12)l.e
    • S1-ll rLil -A C_ prTgq .,i5
    • 3L.ll rL* ct prTgta .iJi;