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    English 009 English 009 Document Transcript

    • TheTruthAbout BY Dr. ManehHammad al-JohaniTb CooFEflyc For f Cdd|# b Oicr Cdt nlyldi.rJ.lbrA||. F|sl oto.l.Dd Tel.: 2dm28. . 2SfieaEt POBor 5l5U English 82
    • tsLAHtC STUOTES ISLAMIC STUDIES NO. 1 NO. THETRUTHABOUT THE TRUTH ABOUT JESUS IE$US BY BYDr. Mlnch Hemmrd Al-JohrnlDr. Maneh Hammad AI-Johanl
    • PREFACE PREFAGE The controvsrsy the pcrsonality The controversy about the personality of Jesus Christ is the major Jcsus is thclifference between Islam and Christianity. This difference keeps the followerslifferencc betwecn and differcnce keepsthe followers.r the two religions apart. Muslims look at Jesus Christ as a great Prophet oflf thc religions Jesus as a grcat:Iod and love and respect him as much as they love and respect Abraham,iod and love and respcct as much as thcy love and respcct~oses and Muhammad. Christians on the other hand consider Jesus as God orVloses and Christians thc othcr hand considcr Jcsusas,on.on of God. a concept that Muslims cannot accept. Islam teaches that Jesus God, a conccpt acsept. teachcs Jesuslever made such a claim for himself. As a matter of fact all the cardinalrcver made such a himsclf. a mattcr factloctrines of Christianity that are rejected by Islam center around theloctrines are rejected center the.ersonality of Jesus. Specifically these are:rcrsonality Jesus. Specifically these arc: . The Trinity Trinity~. The Divinity of Jesus!..The Jesus~. The Divine Sonship of Christl. Sonshipk Original Sin. andf. Sin, andi. Atonement.f. Atonement. It is clear that all these dogmas are the result of over-exhalting Jesus Christ is clcar thcsedogmasare the rcsult over-exhaltingJesusChristrbove wants bc. Thesediffercncesfocusing personalitylbove what God wants him to be. These differences focusing on the personality)f Jesus have overshadowed the many similaritic:s between Christianity andrf Jesus haye overshadowcdthe many similaritics between Christianity andslam. Some examples are the moral system and the emphasis on humaneslam. Some examples are the moral system and the emphasis humane)rinciples. They have even over-shadowed the beliefs that Muslims associaterrinciples. have even over-shadowed the beliefs Muslims associatcvith Jesus Christ such as the Virgin Birth of Jesus, being able to speak in thevith Jesus such as the Jesus,being able spcak the;radle,:radle, performing miracles, and the second coming of Jesus Christ. miracles,and the second coming JesusChrist. articles prcsenting The following two articles aim at presenting a true picture of Jesus in Islam picture Jcsus lslam.nd explaining why the Christians deviated from his original teachings. The first,nd explaining the Christiansdcviated his original teachings. Thc firstIrticle also indicates that many scholars and thinkers, who are still within therrticle also indicatcs many scholarsand thinkers, are the Christianity,arc gradually comingold of Christianity, are gradually coming to agree with the Islamic points of agrce the lslamic pointsiew about Jesus, many casesiew about Jesus, in many cases without realizing it. This corresponds to my realizing corresponds onviction that the more scientific and biblical studies advance, the more they the more scientificand biblical studiesadvance,the morc theyvill agree Islam. other words,thc Islamicviii agree with Islam. In other words, the Islamic truth is more evident with the is more evident the)assage time. thelassage of time. God in the Holy Quran hints to this in the following verse: Quran hints the verse: We shall show them Our signs in the horizons and in themselves, till it shall show signs horizons and in themselves,s clear to them that it is the truth. (41:531 them it (41 :53) lt. J. M.J.
    • It{TFODUCTIOTUINTRODUCTION Thc lslamic view Jcsus lics bctwecntwo cxtrems. The Jcws, who The Islamic view of Jesus lies between two extremes. The Jews, whorcjcctedJcsusas a Prophet God, calledhim an impostor.The Christiansonrejected Jesus as a Prophet of God., called him an impostor. The Christians onthe other hand, considerhim to bc the son God and wonhip him as such.the other hand, consider him to be the son of God and worship him as such.Islamconsidcrs Jesus onc thc grcat Prophets God and respccts as as himIslam considers Jesus as one of the great Prophets of God and respects him asmuch as Abraham, Mosesand Muhammad.This is in conformity with themuch as Abraham, Moses and Muhammad. This is in conformity with theIslamicpoint of vicw thc oncness God,theoncncss Divineguidancc, andIslamic point ofview of the oneness of God, the oneness of Divine guidance, andthe complimcntary role thc subscqucnt mcssages Godsmcsscngcrs.the complimentary role of the subsequent messages of Gods messengers. The Thccsscnce lslam,whichis thc willingsubmission the to God,wls revealcdessence of Islam, which is the willing submission to the will of God, was revealedto Adam who passed on to his chidlrcn. followingrevelations Noah,to Adam who passed it on to his chidlren. All fohowing revelations to Noah, toAbraham,Moses, Jesus and finally Muhammadwerein conformitywith thatAbraham, Moses, Jesus and finally Muhammad were in conformity with thatmessagc addition somcelaboration definetherelationbetween man andmessage in addition to some elaboration to define the relation between man andGod, man and man, man and his environment, and live.according GodsGod, man and man, man and his environment, and to live.according to Godsinstructions. Thus, any contradiction among revealed r~ligions is viewed byinstructions. Thus, any contradictionamong rcvealcdreligionsis viewcdbyIslam as a man-madc elcmentintroduced into thcscreligions. The positionIslam as a man-made element introduced into these religions. The position ofJesus the threemajor religions: Judaism, Christianityand Islam,shouldnotJesus in the three major religions: Judaism, Christianity and Islam, should notbe an cxoeption.be an exception. Although the Quran docsnot prcscnta dctailedlife-account Jcsus, Although the Quran does not present a detailed life-account of Jesus, ithighlightsthe important aspccts his birth, his mission,his asccnsionhighlights the important aspects of his birth, his mission, his ascension to toheaven and passess judgcmcntson the Christian beliefs concerning him.hcaven and passessjudgements on thc Christianbcliefsconcerning him.MARY The Quranicaccount Jesus startswith the conception his mother, The Quranic account of Jesus starts with the conception of his mother,Mary. Thc wife Imran, Marys mother,vowedto dedicate child to the hcrMary. The wife of Imran, Marys mother, vowed to dedicate her child to thescrvice God the temple.Zacharia,who took charge Mary, used findservice of God in the temple. Zacharia, who took charge of Mary, used to fiRdfood with Mary. Whenheasked howshcgot she hcr that wasfromfood with Mary, When he asked her how she got it she answered that it was from answercdGod. The Quranicverscs read:God, The Quranic verses read: When Lord, you, dedication, lmran said. have When the wife of Imran said, Lord, I have vowedto you, in dedication, within womb. Pleaseaccept mq yott are thewhat is within my womb. Please accept it from me, you are the Hearer and shegave hirth Lord,lKnowe,, And when she gave birth to her she said, Lord, I have given birth Knower. And she said, havegiventa her, female... And have namcd her dnd commendto her, a female... And I have named her Mary and commend her to You toYou seed, protacttham the accursedSatan. Lord receivedwith her seed, to protect them from the accursedSatan. Her Lordreceivedthe child with gracious favour, and by His goodness she grew up comely, favour, goodnasssDa comely, charge of hel Whenever ZachariaZacharis taking charge of her. Whenever Zacharia went to her in theZachariasenctuary, provisioned Mary, said, how comes thissanctuary, he found her provisioned.. Mary, he said, how comas this to FromyouT From God, sha answa red. Truly Godprovisions for whomsoever Heyou? God, she answered. Truly God provisions whomsoevarwill without reckoning. (3:35-71will without reckoning. (3:35·7) - 5 s_ _-
    • GLAD TIDINGS AND JESUSS BIRTHGLAD TIDINGS AND JESUS·S BIRTH Whcn Mary bccameIa womrn, thc Holy Spirit (the Archangcl Gabricl) When Mary became woman, the Holy Spirit (the Archangel Gabriel)appcaredto her as ra mrn bringing her the ncwsof a son.We readthe following appeared to her as man bringing her the news of a son. We read the followingdialoguein thc Quran bctwecnMary and thc angcls: dialogue in the Quran between Mary and the angels: MEry, God gives you good Whan the angels said, ·Mary. God gives Yougood tidings of a Word When dngels said, of a Wordfrom Him whose name is Afsssre Jesus. son of MarY;high honoured shallfrom Him whose iamers Messiah Jesus, son ofMary; high honouredshall hhe he in this world and thd next. near stationed to God. He shall speak tohe be in world and the next, near stationed to God. He shall speak to cradle. and of age.and righteoushe shall be.Lord, saidMaryman in the cradle,and of age. and righteous he shallbe. • ·Lord·. saidMary.men in how shatt have a son seeing no mortal has touched me?· Even so he ·how shall II have a son seeing no mortal has touched me7 ·Even so· hesaid. God creates what He will.• When He decrees a thing He does but say said,·God creates will. decrees does sa| u to it. "Be"n and it is. (3:45-7)to it, uBe • and it is.(3:454 Mary conccivcd child miraculopsly retircdto a distantplacewhere conceived the the miraculoJ,lsly and retired and distant place whercshcawaitedhcr dclivery.The Quranin a chaptershe awaited her delivery. The Quran chapter entitledMarytellsus how entitled Mary tells us howMary felt and what the Jcwstold her when shebrought the child home: felt and what the Jews her when she brought the child home: She concaived him and withdrew with him to a distant place. And the Sheconceived him withdrew with him place. Andbirthpangs surprised her bY the trunk of the palm-tree.She said. ·would I birthpangssurprised by the trunk the palm-tree. She said,wouldhad died before this. and become a thing forgotten. The one from belowhad hefore this, hecome forgotten. • The Doher cal:~d to hp.... ·00 not grieve; see, your Lord hasset below you I rivulet tal!.td he,, see. Lordhas set aand shake you thepalmtrunk, there shallcometumbling uponand shake toward you the palmtrunk, and there shall come tumbling uponyou dateslresh ripe. Eattherefore. drink, and be comforted;and ifyou dates fresh and ripe. Eat therefore, and drink. andbe comforted; andif mortal, say,"l have vowed AllMerciful fast,you should see any mortal. say, "1 have vowed to the All-Merciful a fast,you should see today wilt not speak any man." Then shebroughtand today I will not speak to any man. " Then she brought the child to her Mdry, you have surelyfolk carrying him; and they said. Mary. you have surely committed afolk they said, monstrous thing. Aaron, Your was not wicked man,monstrous thing. Sister of Aaron, your father was not a wicked man, norwas your mother a woman unchaste. • Mary pointed to the child; but they was your mother a woman unchaste. pointed to the child; they How shall we speak to one who is still in the cradle. a little child? Hesaid, How shattwe speakto one who is stitlinthe cradle,a little child?He said, Lo. am Gods servant;God hasgiven me the Bookand made me asaid. Lo, II am Gods servant; God has given me the Book and made me a said, Prophet.Blessed hasmade me, wherever may be;and He hasenioinedProphet. Blessed He has made me, wherever II may be; andHe has enjoined Hame to pray, and to give the alms, so long as live, and likewiseto cherishme to pray. and to give the alms, so long as II live. and likewise to cherishmy mother; He has not made me arrogant or wicked. Peace he upon me,my mother; He has not made me arrogant or wicked Peace be upon me, th,edaV was born, and the day die, and the day am raised up alive-the day II was born, and the day II die. and the day II am raised up alive.(19:22-23)(l9:2223)NOT THE SON OF GOD NOT THE SON OF GOD In the same chapter, following the above quotation, God assured In the same chapter, following the above quotation, God assured Muhammadand the wholeworld that what wasmentioned aboveis fhe truthMuhammad and the whole world that what was mentioned above is the truth might not bclicve Jcsus not thc sonof it. isabout Jesus although the Christians might not believe it. Jesus is not the son ofabout Jesus althoughthe ChristiansGod. Hc was,obviouslyenough,the son of Mary. The verses continue:God. He was, obviously enough, the son of Mary. The verses continue: -6-
    • Thatis Jesus, son of Mary, in word of truth, concerning which they are That Jesus, son ofMary, oftruth,doubting. lt is not for God to take a son unto Him, Glory be to Himl When Hedoubting. It Godto take Him. Himldecrees a thing, He but says to it "8e", and it is. (l9:34-Sldecrees thing. but says "Be", is. (19:34-5) After this strong statementabout thc nature of Jesus,God directed this strong statement about the nature Jesus, God directedMuhammad call the Christians a fair dcal:to worshipthe one God:Muhammad to call the Christians to fair deal: worship the one God: Surely God is my Lord, andyour Lord, so sarveHim. Ihis rs the straight Surely Lard,and your Lord, serve Him. This is straightpath. f l9:36)path. (19:36) The rejection of the idea God having son is reported laterin thc samc The rejection the idcaof God havinga sonis rcported later the samechapter with even stronger words:chaptcrwith cvcnstrong€r words: The All-merciful And they say, The All-merciful has taken unto Himself a son. You And say, taken son. Youhave indeed advancedsomething hideous. The heavens dre well nigh rent advanced hideous. The heavensareof it and the earth split asunder, and the mountains well nigh fall down the split asunder, the mountainscrashing for that they have attributed to the All-merciful a son: and itcrashing that they have the son:behoves not the All-merciful to take a son. None is there in the heavensbehoves the All-merciful take son.None there heavens earth comes the as servant.(l9:88-931and earth but he comes to the All-merciful as a servant. (19:88-93) The Quran recognizes fact that Jesus the had no humanfather but this The Quran recognizes the fact that Jesus had no human father but thisdocs not make him the son God God Himself.By this criterionAdamdoes not make him the son of God or God Himself. By this criterion Adamwould havebeen more entitled be the son God because he had neithcra hewould have beenmore entitled to be the son of God because had neither afathernor a mother. So,the Quran draws attention themiraculous to creationfather nor a mother. So, the Quran draws attention to the miraculous creationof both in the following verse: both the followingverse: likenesso/ Jesus, Gods sight, rsas likeness;He Truly the likeness of Jesus, in Gods sight. is as Adams likeness: He fruly him, "8e", was. (3:59)created him of dust. then said He unto him, "Be", and he was. (3:59)created ol dust, then said He The Quran rejccts concept the Trinity as stronglyas rejects the the The Quran rejects the concept of the Trfnity as strongly as it rejects thesonship Jesus.This is bccause God is One. This is the cssence allsonship of Jesus. This is because God is One. This is the essence of all Thrce,by reason and by simplearithmetic, notaremonotheistic revelations. Three, by reason and by simple arithmetic, are notmonotheistic rcvelations.one.The Quranaddresses Christians thc followingvcrses thc chapter the in inone. The Quran addresses the Christians in the following verses in the chaptercntitled*Women".entitled "Women". People the Book, go not beyond bounds your religion, People of the Book, go not beyond the bounds in your religion. and saysay as to God but the Truth. TheMessiah, Jesu,s, of Mary, was only the sannot as to God but the Truth. The Messiah. Jesus, son ofMary, was only theMessenger of God, and His Word that He committed to Mary, and a spiritMessenger God, His Word that He committed to Mary, a spiritfrom Him. So believe God and His Messengers, sdy not.Three,from Him. So believe in God and His Messengers, and say not. Three, you. God One God. Glory be to - HeRefrain. better is it for you. God is only One God. Glory be to Him - that HeRefrain, better isshould have a sonl To Him belongsall that is in the heavensand in theshould have a son! To Him belongs all that is in the heavens and in theearth, God suffices for a guardian.earth, God suffices for a guardian. The Messiah will not disdainto be a servantof God,neither the angels The Messiah will not disdain to be a servant of God, neither the angels who are closeto Him. Whosoaverdisdainslo serva Him and waxesproud,who are close to Him. Whosoever disdains to serve Him and waxes proud, _7_ -7 -
    • He will .ssuredly muster them to Him, .11 of them.Ha will issuradly mustcr thcm dl them. thc bcliavcrt , do dccds righteousnass,He will paythem As for the believers, who do deeds of righteousness, He willpay themthair rewards and He will givc thcm mora, of His bounty; astheir rewards in full, andHe willgive them more, ofHis bounty; liS for them themwho disdain lind wax proud, them He will punish with a SIlVllre disdain and wax proud. thcm Hc will punish E scvcrcpunishment, and thllY shall not find for them, aparl from God, a friend orpunishment, thay shall find lor apart God, efriand helpar. l4:t 7l -Jlhelper. (4:171-3) The vcrses continuc draw theattcntionof pcople, pcople, the proof The verses continue to draw the attention ofpeople, all people, to tbe proofwhich Muhammadbrought.God knowsthat pcoplefrequentlyinhcrit certainwhich Muhammad brought. God knows that people frequently inherit certainideas and bcliefs which include, among other things, the mistakesandideas and beliefs which include, among other things, the mistakes andinterpretations prcviousgenerations. They haveno way discovcringinterpretations of previous generations. They have no way of discovering suchsuchmistakcs thcmsclvcs. Thus God prescntsthc Quran as amistakes for themselves. Thus God presents the Quran as a proof to such suchpeoplc.He says:people. He says: o men manifest proof hasnaw come toyou O men, a manifestproofhas now come to you from your Lord; We have Lord; We have sent you clear light.sent down to you a clear light. As for those who believe in God, and hold those believe God,fast Him, Ha will surely admit them Him, and bounty,fast to Him, He will surely admit them to mercy from Him, andbounty, and guide straight path. l4:173-51will guide them to Him on a straight path. (4:173-5) The dcnial Jesuss divinity (and that matter Marys divinity) is The denial of Jesuss divinity (and for that matter Marys divinity) ispresented the Quranasa topic dialogue the Day of Judgemcnt atpresented in the Quran as a topic of dialogue at the Day ofJudgement between betwcenGod Alniighty and Jesus. the mcsscngers the nationswillbcgathcred andGod Almighty and Jesus. All the messengers and the nations will be gathered inhont God and Hc ask the messengcrs thcy wercrcccived their howfront of God and He will ask the messengers how they were received by theirpcoplcsand what they said them. Among thosc who are goingpeoples and what they said to them. Among those who are going to be bequcstioncd Jcsus: isquestioned is Jesus: O you sdy And when God said, 0 Jesus son of Mary, did you say unto men, men, And God said, Jesus Mary, "Take mother gods, dpart from God7" He said,ToYou he"Take me and my mother as gods, apart from God?" He said, To You be lt not tu say have to. lf said it, Ywgloryl It is not mine to say what I have no right to. If I indeed said it, You*new it. soul, and doknew it, knowing what is within my soul, 8nd I do not know what is withinYour soul; You thc unseen.Your soul," You know the things unseen. I only said to them what You did Ywcommand me: "serve God, your was witnegscommand me: "serve God, my Lord and your Lord." And I was a witness them, whila but when Ywover them, while I remained among them; but when You did t8ke me to take Yanrsnlf,Yw Ywr*lt the Watchgr You witness YourseN, You were YourseN the WatchJfJr over them; You are the witness ofeverything. lf Yw them, areYwr seruants,ilYw forgivethem,everything. If You punish them, they are Your servants, if You forgive them,You are the Almighty, the All-wise. God said,This day theYou are the Almighty, the All-wise. God said, This is the day the truthful shall protited truthfulnass.For await gardensunderneathshall be profited by their truthfulness. For them awaitgardens underneath rivers therein forevar, heing wall-pleasedwhich rivers flow, therein dwelling forever, God being well-pleased with well-plcased with Him; That mighty tiumph.them and they well-pleased with Him: That is the mighty triumph.(5:tt&t9)(5:116-19)JESUS,SMtSSlOt{JESUSS MISSION Now onc might ask If thc Quran dcnicr thc and thc sonrhip Now one might ask : If the Quran denies the Trinity and the sonship of Jcsus,what was thc real mission Jcsusaccording thc Quran?Jesus, what was the real mission of Jesus accordins to the Quran? -8-
    • Jesuswas a link in a long chain of prophets and messengcrs Jesus was a link in a long chain of prophets and messengers sent by God to scnt by God tovarious societiesand nations whenever they neededguidance or deviated fromvarious societies and nations whenever they needed guidance or deviated fromthe teachingsof God, Jesuswas espcciallyprcpared by God to be sent ro thcthe teachings of God. Jesus was especially prepared by God to be sent to theJews who had dcviated from the teachingsof Mosesand other Messengers.Jews who had deviated from the teachings of Moses and other Messengers. As Ashc was miraculously supported by God in conception,birth and childhood, hche was miraculously supported b.y God in conception, birth and childhood, hewas also supportedby numcrousmiraclesto prove that he wasa m€ssengerwas also supported by numerous miracles to prove that he was a messenger from fromGod. However, the majority of the Jews rejectedhis ministry. The Quran tellsGod. However, the majority of the Jews rejected his ministry. The Quran tellsus aboutJesussmission the following versesus about Jesuss mission in the following verses which are a continuation of the in which are a continuation theverscsquoted earlier in which the.glad tiding was brought to Mary:verses quoted earlier in which the, glad tiding was brought to Mary: And He wilt teach And He will teach him the 800k, the wisdom, the Torah, the Gospel the Book, the wisdont, the Torah, the Gospel him Messenger the childrbn israel saying, "land make him a Messenger to the child/en of israel saying, "1 have come toyou with a sign from your Lord I will create for you out of clay as the with Lord. will likeness bird; will breathelikeness of a bird: then I wl?1 breathe into it, and it will be a bird, by the it. witl hypower God. will also healpower of God. I will also heal the blind and the leper and bring to life the hlind hring tifedead, the power God. t will informdead, by the power of God. I will inform you too of the things you eat, and things eat, and whatwhat you treasure up in your houses. Surely in that is a sign for you if you houses. Surely that sign if Likewise will confirm the uuthare believers. Likewise I will confirm the t."uth of the Torah that is before the Tarah rsme. and make lawfulme, and to make lawful to you certain things that before were forbidden certain things that before were forbidden you.unto you. I have come to you with a sign from your Lord: so fear God, and with from Lord; God, and Surelyobey me. Surely God is my Lord and your Lord; so serve Him. This is a Lard serye fhisstraight path", (3:45-51 lstraight path". (3:45-51) another verse the Quran, Jesusco.nfirmed validity the In another verse of the Quran, Jesus cqnfirmed the validity of the Torah thewhich was revealed Mosesand he also brought the glad tidings thc comingwhich was revealed to Moses and he also broughtthe glad tidings of the coming messenger aftcrof a final messenger after him. This is clearly indicated in the following verse: is clearly indicated the versc: chiklren And when Jesus son of Mary said, children of Israel, I am indeed the And when Jesas son of Mary of lsrael, indeed theMessenger to you, confirming the Torah that is before me, andgiving goodMessenger confirming the that before and giving goodtidings of a Messenger who shall come after me, whose name shall be the of Messenger who shall name shall thepraised one (note that this is translation of Ahmad which is Prophet (note that this is translation Ahmad which is ProphetM u hamma d snam e) ( 61: 6)Muhammads name). (61:6) The messe nger.of whom Jesus gaveglad tidingsis referred in both the old The messenger.ofwhom Jesus gave glad tidings is referred to the oldand new tcstamentsrof Bible.The old testamentand new testaments~of the Bible. the testament containsseveral contains several prophecies propheciesthat apply only to fhe Prophet Muhammad. I quote only one of thosewhichthat apply the Prophet Muhammad. I quote one those whichapplies to none except Prophct Muhammad. This prophecy which wasapplies none except Prophet Muhammad. This prophecy which wasaddressedto Moses said that God will send among the brethren of theaddressed Moses said that send among the "brethren theIsraelites, prophet like Moseswho will be a foundcr,a leader,and an exemplarIsraelites, a prophet like Moses be founder, leader, and exemplarof a community of believers. rcad this in the following verses Deut. Ch.of community believers. We read this the following verses of Deut. ofr8:18: I will raise up for them a prophet like you from among their brethren; will raise them 8 prophet like from among brethren; _9_
    • and II witt put My words in his mouth, and he shall spaat tothem all that IIand will put My words in hismouth" and he shall speak to them allthatcommand him. And whoever will not give heedto My words which he shallcommand him. And whoever will giva heed to My words which he shallspeak in My name, II Myself will reguire it of him. (Deut l8:18-2O) in My nam8~ MyseH will require it of him. (Deut 18:18-20) Any onc who is familisr with Prophet Muhammads lifc, can easily secthat Anyone who is familiar with Prophet Muhammads life, see thatno onc fits thc above description better than Prophet Muhammad. It wasno one the better than Prophet Muhammad. It wasProphct Muhammad, not Jesus, who like Moses was born from ordinaryProphet Muhammad, not Jesus, who like Moses was born from ordinaryparcnts, got marricd, founded a faithful community, establisheda great law andparents, married, faithful community, establisheddied death.dicd a natural death. Carcful study of thc New Tcstament shows that this same prophet is Careful of the Testament shows samereferred Jesus 14:16,17:referred to by Jesusin John 14:16,17: And t witt pray the Father, and He will give you another Counselor, to And I will pray the and will give dnotherbe withba with for ever~ even the Spirit of you for ever, even the Spirit of truth. l^ater in John specificdcscription of this Spirit of Truth and his role is given Later specific description ofthis Spirit of Truth givena s we r c ad in J oh n 16: :1 3 ,1 4 .:as we read John 1 6 13,14.: When the Spirit of Truth comes, he will guide you into all the truth, for When the Spirit of fruth comes~ he will guide you into a/l the truth, fOI his own authority~ but whateverne will not speak on hfs own authority, but whatever he hears he willne witt not speak hears willspeak and he will declare to you the things that are to come. He will glorifyspeak and witl dectare the things will glorifyMe...Me... the conclusionusuallyattributed The terms of the prophecy do not warrant the conclusion usually attributed terms the prophecyto this prophecy, namely that it refers to the Holy Ghost. The Holy Ghost this prophecy, namely that refers the Ghost. Thc Ghostcxplanation is excluded a previous versc which reads:explanation is excludelt by a previous verse in John which reads: Nevertheless / tell truth: fi rs advantages that Nevertheless I tell you the truth: it is to your advantages that I goaway, for if I do not go away, the counselor will not come to you. if not counselor will not come you. is clcar the Bible that the Ghost used visit men beforeand It is clear from the Bible that the Holy Ghost used to visit men before and the Jesus. was Ghost beforc he wasduring the life-time of Jesus. John was filled with the Holy Ghost before he was the and Jesushimsclf reccivedthc Ghost the shape a dove.born and Jesus himself received the Holy Ghost in the shape of a dove. The characteristics counselor, as can be derived the prophecy, The characteristics of this counselor, as can be derived from the prophecy,are the following:are thc1. He will not come until Jesus leaves. l. Hc not come Jesusleaves.2. He will stay forever, with the believers.2. He stay forever, the believers.3. He will glorify Jesus.3. Hc will glorify Jesus.4. He will speak what he hears from God.4. Hc will speak what he hears from God. are applicable only to Prophet Muhammad, as the These characteristics are applicable only to Prophet Muhammad, as the Thesc characteristicsfollowing brief remarks show:following bricf remarks show:J. l. that cameafter Jcsus.There Prophet Muhammad was the only messenger that came after Jesus. There Prophct Muhammad was the only mcsscnger was a period of six centuriesbetweenthem.Jesussmission limited to was was a period of six centuries between them Jesuss mission was limited to thc "lost sheepof the children of Israel", but Muhammads was a universal the Mlost sheep ofthe children of Israel", but Muhammads was a universal _10_ _t0_
    • message. This explains the second characteristic. mcssagc.This explains thc sccond characteristic-2.2. Only Prophet Muhammads messagewas intcndcd by God to be a Only Prophet Muhammads message was intended by God to be a universal and everlastingmessage.This agreeswith the statemcntthat thc universal and everlasting message. This agrees with the statement that the counselor will stay forever with the faithful. will with the3.3. No other prophet glorified Jesusas much as Prophet Muhammad did. glorified Jesus as as Prophet Muhammad The Jews called him an impostor and accused mothcr of immorality. Jews called accused his mother of They tricd to crucify him. Prophet Muhammad consideredJesus asgreat tried to considered Jesusas great Prophet and the "Word of God". The Quran attributedto him miracles Prophet and the "Word of Quran attributed miracles that are not menti<,ned the Bible. Mary is consideredthe most chastc are mentiuned in Bible. considered chaste woman and the best of all women in paradisc. Thus did Muhammad and best of women paradise. really Jesus. really glorify Jesus.4.4. The fourth characteristic appliesneatlyto Prophct Muhammad.Thc characteristic also applies neatly Prophet Muhammad. The also Quran was revealedto Prophet Muhammad through the angelGabriel. Quran was revealed Prophet angel Gabriel. When thc angelfinishedrecitingthe Quran, Prophet Muhammad usedto the angel finished reciting the Quran, Prophet used convey verbatimto his companions what he heardfrom the angel without convcy verbatim his companions what he heard the angelwithout adding, changing forgetting anything. Quran also describes adding, changing or forgetting anything. The Quran also describes Prophet Muhammad saying "He does not speak out of his own fancy. He Prophet Muhammad saying"Hi does speak his own fancy.He utterswhat is revealed (53:4,5). we comparethis with, *He utters what is revealed to him." (53:4,5). If we compare this with, "He will tf speak his own authority", we seethe strikingsimilaritybetween the not speak on his own authority", we see the striking similarity between the the counselorand those Prophet Muhammad. These characteristics of the counselor and those of Prophet Muhammad. These characteristics predict unequivocal and other prophecies in the old and new testaments predict in unequivocal and other prophecies the old and newtestaments termsthe advent ProphetMuhammad who is rejected the Jewsand terms the advent of Prophet Muhammad who is rejected by the Jews and and bias rather than Christians on the basis of misunderstanding and bias rather than on the Christians the basis misunderstanding thc basis carefulstudy the Bible,the Quran and modern findingsin the basis of careful study of the Bible, the Quran and modern findings in the field of comparative religion. field comparativc religion.JESUS RAISED TO HEAVENJESUS RAISED TO HEAVEN *the straight It is a sad fact of history that not many follow "the straight path", to which many It is a sad fact historypeople wcre called by Jesus. He was followed by a few disciples who wcrepeople were called by Jesus. He was followed by a few disciples who were only that, but thc non-bclicvcrsplottcd (asinspired by God to support him. Not only that, but the non-believers plotted (asinspired by God to support him.they did to Muhammad six ccnturies later) to kill Jesus,but God had a bctterthey did to Muhammad six centuries later) to kill Jesus, but God had a betterplan for him and his followcrs as thc Quran tclls us in thc following verscs:plan for him and his followers as the Quran tells us in the following verses: who will And when Jesus perceived their unbelief, he said, wfJo will be my And when Jesus perceived their unbelief, he said, be myhelpers in the cause of Godl The Apostles said, we will be helpers of God. helpers in the cause of G od? fhe Apostles said,we will be helpers of G od. We believe in God; be witness of our suhmission. Lord, we believc in thatWe believe in God; be witness of our submission. Lord, we believe in that _11_ - ll -
    • Youhave scnt down, and we followthe Messenger. lnscribe us thereforeYou have sent down, and we follow the Messenger. Inscribe us therefore those hcar witness. devised. God devised,with those who bear witness. And they devised, and God devised, and God is the best devisers.When God said.Jesus. will take you to meGod is the best of devisers. When God said, Jesus, II will take you to me will raise you to Me, you those whodo notbelieve.and will raise you to Me, and II will purify you of those who do not believe. II will will set unbelievers till Ressurrection Day.will set your followers above the unbelievers till the Ressurrect;on Day. above Then you return, decide between you, asThen unto Me shall you return, and I will decide between you, as to whatyou were variance on. unbelievers, punishyou were at variance on. As for the unbelievers, I will punish them with a punishment this world and the next; they haveterrible punishment in this worldand the next; they shall have no helpers. helpers.(3:52-6) As thc aboveverses indicate,Jesuswas raiscdto heaven As the above verses indicate, Jesus was raised to heaven before he died. beforche died.This means that according the Quranhewasnot crucified. wastheplanThis means that according to the Quran he was not crucified. It was the plan ofthc enemies Jesusto put him deathon thc cross, God savedthe enemies of Jesus to put him to death on the cross, but God saved him and but him andsomebody elsewas crucified.This plot and the falseaccusation Mary arcsomebody else was crucified. This plot and the false accusation of Mary areconsidered thc Quran to be some thc sins the non-believing byconsidered by the Quran to be some of the sins of the non-believing Jews. All Jews.this is clear in thc following quomtion:this is clear in the following quotation: And unbelief, And for their unbelief, and their uttering against Mary a mighty against their saying, We slewcalumny, and for their saying, We slew the Messiah, Jesus son of Mary,the Messenger God... yet they slayhim,the Messenger of God... yet they did not slay him, neither crucified him, crucified him, likeness that was shown them. Those who areonly a likeness of that was shown to them. Those who are at variance varianceconcetningconcf:tning him surely are in doubt regarding him, they have no exceptknowledge of him, except the following of surmise; and they did not slay slay ol certainty... indeed; Godhim of certainty... no indeed, God raised him up to Him; God is Almighty, God There not one the peopleAll-wise. There is not one of the people of the Book but will assuredly Book assuredly his ddath, tha f,essunectionbelieve in him before his death, and on the Ressurrection Day he will be II will awitness againstthem. (4:t 56-91witness against them. (4:156·9) Who was the personcrucified instead Jesus? Who was the person crucified instead of Jesus? The Quran does not The Quran does notelaborate this point nor does give any answcrto this question. onelaborate on this point nor does it give any answer to this question. The Theinterpreters the Quran have suggested few names.Butinterpreters of the Quran have suggested a few names. But all these are a theseareindividualguesses supported thc Quran the sayings the Prophctindividual guesses not supported by the Quran or the sayings of the Prophet not byMuhammad.Muhammad. This means that Jcsus comcbackbeforethe Day of Judgement. This means that Jesus will come back before the Day ofJudgement. Again Againthc SecondComing is clcarly mentioned thc Quran. However,thcthe Second Coming is not clearly mentioned in the Quran. However, theexplanators the Quran understood last vcrsc the abovequotation: theexplanators of the Quran understood the last verse of the above quotation:there is not one of the people of the Book but will assuredly believe in him not ona ol Eook will assurcdlybelievabefore his dcath,belore his death, and on the Resurrection Day he willbe a witness against the ResurrectionDay will he witness againsttham, to mcanthat Jcsus comcbackandall theChristians theJcwswillthem, mean Jesus will come back and the Christians andthe Jews andbelievein him bcfore he dies. This undcrstandingis supportedby authenticbelieve before he dies. This understanding supported authenticBylngs of thc Prophct Muhammad.sayings the Prophet Muhammad. _ 12_ -12-
    • P O I N TS TO B E CO NS I DER EDPOINTS TO BE CONSIDERED After rcading this prescntation a believing Christian might say .This is After reading this presentation a believing Christian might say "This is what the Muslims, whom we always considered as heathens or infidcls, saywhat the Muslims, whom we always considered as heathens or infidels, sayabout Jcsus." But the point of view which the Quran presentsdeservesabout Jesus." But the point of view which the Quran presents deserves serious seriousconsideration, to say thc least, by those who are really concerned about God,consideration, to say the least. by those who are really concerned about God,faith and even Christianity itself for the following reasons:faith and even Christianity itself for the following reasons:l.I. The Quran is the last vcrsion of Gods revelarionand what it saysis the The Quran is the last version of Gods revelation and what it says is the ultimate truth. This might not mean much for those who do not believein ultimate truth. This might not mean much for those who do not believe in the Quran as such. However, the history of the Quran, modern textuai the Quran as such. However, the history of the Quran, modern textuai criticism and scicntific researchof the content of this scripture lcave no criticism and scientific research of the content of this scripture leave no about the doubt about the truth it contains. The frequently made statements that contains. The frequently made statementsthat the Quran is the word the Quran is the word of Muhammad who copied his information from Muhammad who copiecihis from Jcwish and Christian sourcesis made by people who Jewish and Christian sources is made by people who do not know the not thc history history of the world, the Quran or Muhammad. The first Arabic the the Quran Muhammad. Thc first Arabic translation the Bible appeared translation of the Bible appeared two centuries after Muhammads c€nturies Muhammads mission. If we add mission. If we add to this Muhammads illiteracy and the scarcity of this Muhammads illiteracy and the scarcity religious books any languageoutsidechurchesand temples the sixth religious books in any language outside churches and temples in the sixth ccntury we can understand the absurdity century we can understand the absurdity of this allegation. this allcgation.2.2. The oneness and universality of Gods message requires that people onenessand universality Gods messagcrequires people accept the mcssengcrs God. Rcjecting one accept all the messengers of God. Rejecting one of them amounts to thcm amounts rejccting rejecting them all. The Jews reject Jesuss mission and Muhammads Jcws reject Jesuss mission mission; the Christians reject Muhammads mission; whereas the mission; the Christians reject Muhammads mission; whereas the accept thcnt all, Muslims accept them all, but reject incorrect historical interpretations reject incorrect historical intcrpretations and human elements these missions. and human elements in these missions.3..3 Becauseof the Quran, Muslims love and rcspectJesusas they love and Because the lovc and respect Jesus as they love and respcctthe Prophet Muhammad. Morcover, the Quran rcports some of respect the Prophet Moreover, the Quran reports some Jesuss miracles which are not reported in the present gospcl. For Jesuss miracles are reported the present gospel. example,the Quran tells that Jcsusspokcin thc cradleand wasable to tell example, tells Jesus spoke the cradle was able pcople what they ate or trcasuredin their houses,to mcntion just a few. people treasured houses, mention few.4.4. It is common knowledge that the divinity of Jesus was introduced by It knowledge of Jesus was introduced Saint Paul and his followers and was establishcdon thc dead bodics of followers was established the dead bodies of millions of Christians through history which evokcd thc Castillos well- of Christians evoked the Castillos known remark "To burn a man is not to provc a doctrine." known "To burn not to prove doctrine."5.S. Thc choicc of the present four gospels was imposcd in the conferenceof The choice of the present four gospels was imposed in the conference of Nicca 325 C.E. undcr thc auspiccs of thc pagln Empcror Constsntinc for Nicea C.E. under the auspices of the pagan Emperor Constantine for -13- _ _13
    • politicel purpolcs. Litcrally, hundreds of gorpelc and religious writinp political purposes. Literally, of gospels writings wcrt considcred apocqryha, i.c. books of doubtful aufhenticity. Some of were considered apocrypha, i.e. books of doubtful authenticity. of those books were written Jesuss If they were not more thorc books wcrc writtcn by Jesuss disciples. If thcy wcrc not morc authcntic than the four gospcls they were of equal authcnticity. Some of authentic than four lospels they of authenticity. of them still arc availablc such as the Gospel of Barnabas and the still are available Gospel of Barna6as Shepherd of Hermas which agrcc with the Qutan. thapherd of Hermas which agree with Quran.6. Thc Unitarian concept and thc humanness of Jssus is not only held by The Unitarian the humanness of Jesus not only Muslims brrt also by Jewsand by somc early groups of christianity suchas blt also Jews some ofchristianity such as the Ebionites. Cerinthians, the Basilidians, the Capocratians and thc thc Ebionites, the Cerinthians, thc Basilidians,thc C;apocratians the Hypisistarians to namc scveral early sccts.The Arians, Paulicians and Hypisistarians name several sects. Paulicians Goths also acccptcd Jcsus as a prophet of God. Evcn in the modcrn age accepted Jesus as of Even modern age thcrc are churchcs in Asia, in Africa, the Unitarian church, and Jehova there are churches Africa. church. Jehova Witnesses who do not worship Jesus as God. Witnesscs Jesus as7..7 Most scrious studies of the Bible have shown that it contains a large serious studies of have contains large additions which neither Jesus the writers the gospels podion of additions which neither Jesus nor the writers of the gospels portion said. church, as Heinz said, *put words said. The church. as Heinz Zahrnt said, "put words into the mouth of the Jesus he nevcr spoke actions he ncver Jesus which he never spoke and attributed actions to him which he never somc members performed." Those conclusions were arrived at by some members of the performed." Those conclusions were the specialists. church. However, they are kept secret or available only to the specialists. church. Howevcr, thcy arc kept sccrct available One .those, has shown most what the church saysabout One of ,those, who has shown that most of what the church says about Jesus is baseless is Rudolf Augustein in his book Jesus Son of Man, Jesusis basclcss is Augustein his Son of (published in Germany 1912 and translated into English 1911). (published Gcrmany 1972and translated English 1977).8..8 The problem presentChristianity is the personality Jesuswhich is The problem with present Christianity is the personality of Jesus which is completely misunderstood Jesuss nature,, mission and claimed death and completelymisundcrstood,Jesuss nature missionand claimcd death and rcsurreCtion, are challengedby studies the field. One thosc is a resurreCtion, are all challenged by studies in the field. One of those is a lncarnate which appeared I977 (edited book entitled The Myth of God Incarnate which appeared 1977 (edited entitlcd The Myth by John Hick) and written by seven theologian scholars in England. Their John and written seventheologianscholars England. conclusion is that Jcsus,was*a man approved specialrole conclusion is that Jesus .was "a man approved by God, for special role God, withiq the divinc purpose, and..... the later conception as God withiQ the divine purpose. and..... the later conception of him as God incarnate .... is a mythological poetic way of expressinghis significance incarnate .... is a mythological or poetic way ofexpressing his significance for us." us." refutc thc findings The best George Carey could say in his attempt to refute the findings of Thc bcst Gcorgc C-areycould say in his attcmpt those theologians is that unless one takes Jesus as God Incarnate one those theologians is that unless one takcs Jesusas God Incarnatc one wont bc able to understandJesussmission or explain its impact on wont be able to understand Jesuss mission or explain its impact on people.This definitely is avery weakargumentbecause great prophcts people. This definitely is a very weak argument because all great prophets all such as Abraham, Moses, and Muhamqad have had a tremcndous such as Abraham, Moses, and Muhammad have had a tremendous impact on peoplc and nonc of thcm claimed hc was God or a son of impact on people and none of them claimed that he was God or a son of God. God. _ 114_ _ 4_
    • 9..9 concept thc Trinity is coursc, available cven thc prcsent The concept of the Trinity is not, of course, available even in the present Bible. There are statem~nts which negate it such as "The Lord our God is Biblc. Therc arc statemqnts negate such asThe Lord is one Lord (Math. 12:29) one Lord (Math. 12:29) and many others. others.t0.10. It is worth noting that Jesus never claims divinity even in the present text is noting Jesusncver claims evcn the prcsenttcxt of the Bible. The expression "Son of God" cannot be said to have come thc Biblc. cxprcssion God" cannot bc said have comc from Jesus himself. Hasting in The Dictionary of the Bible says Jesus himsclf. fhe Dictionary of the BrDle says "Whethcr Jesusused "Whether Jesus used it of himself is doubtful."ln my reading of the Bible, himsclf is doubttul." In rcading the Bible, found instances I found only two instances in John Chapter 5 and II where Jesus uses "son Chapter and I I whereJesususes rcfer himself. instanceswere used of God" to refer to himself. Other instances were used by others. Even others. Even those arc vcry limited. Howcver, cvcn thc "son those are very limited. However. even if the title "son of God" was used by wasused Jesus himself one should remember the following points: Jesushimself one should rcmember thc points: a biblical scholar said,*semitic usage nev€rhaveall.owed literal a) As a biblical scholar said. "semitic usage would never have allowed literal sensc eventhough such an expression be interpretcdliterally the sense even though such an expression would be interpreted literally in the Hellenistic world of Jesus followers". Hellenistic Jesusfollowers". The Tcstamcnt Greck words uscd are pias and paida, b) The New Testament Greek words used for "son" are piss and paida, which means servant or son in the sense of servant. are translated son in which meansservant orson the sense servant, translated are reference to Jesus and servant in reference to others in some translations reference Jesusand refcrencc others sometranslations thc Biblc (Mufassir, P. l5). of the Bible (Mufassir, P. IS). c) The title "son c) The title "son of man" which is a self-designation of Jesus and occurs 81 man" which is a self-dcsignation Jesus and occurs8l times the gospclsis thc clearest times in the gospels is the clearest description and emphasis by Jesus on descriptionand emphasis Jesuson his humanity. The classical interpretationgiven this title is that is his humanity. The classical interpretation given to this title is that it is used emphasizcthe human side used to emphasize the human side of Jesus. Now the question which Jcsus. thc question which suggests itself is : Do contemporary Christians emphasize this aspect of suggests itsclf is contemporaryChristiansemphasize this aspect Jesus? Jesus?THE POPE CONTRADICTS THE BIBLET HE POPE CO NT RA DI CT S T H E BIB L E Biblical account Jesuss crucillxion is The traditional Biblical account of Jesuss crucifixion is that he was he was the orders and plans pricst and arrested and crucified by the orders and plans of the chief priest and arrested and crucified the Jewish elders. This account was denied in the 1960s by the highest Jewish clders. This account was denied the 1960s thc highest Catholic Christianauthority, the Pope. He issued statemcnt which he Catholic Christian authority, the Pope. He issued a statement in which he a said the Jews had nothing withJesusscrucifixion. said the Jews had nothing to do with Jesuss crucifixion. This definitely This definitcly does contradict thc Biblical account.You might say This is a political does contradict the Biblical account. You might say:: This is a political decree. agrees what Muslims are saying: thc church had decree. This agrees with what Muslims are saying: the church had introduced many elements into christianity and was influenced by many introduccd many elements christianity and was influenced many factors which madc its view christianity not factors which made its view of christianity not only changeable but, by changeable but, and large, contradict the early forms of christianity. and large, contradict the early forms christianity. _ 15_ - 15-
    • RELIGION VS.. SCIENCERE LI G I O N V S SC IEN C E Thc religious vicws concerning Cod, the Bible, and Mans rclation to God The religious views concerning God, the Bible, and Mans relation to God which the church prescnted forccd people into an unfortunate choicc: cithcrwhich the church presented forced people into an unfortunate choice: either scienceor God. Most cducated people have come to the conclusion that oncscience or God. Most educated people have come to the conclusion that one tnnt bc a scientist or an educated person and be a christian. Thus manycant be a scientist or an educated person and be a christian. Thus many philosophers,scientistsphilosophers, scientists and the majority of the people lost hope of reconciling and the majority of the people lost hopc of reconciling rcligion and scinence.religion and scinence. This unfortunate understanding later on was generalized This unfortunate undcrstandinglater on was generalized includeeyeryreligion as a result the inlfuence wcsterncivilization, whiclrto include every religion as a result of the inlfuence of western civilization, whichwas mainly christian. This whole issuewould not have risen the first placewas mainly christian. This whole issue would not have risen in the first place ifthe teachings Jcsuswere not distorted tamperedwith. This is because,the teachings of Jesus were not distorted or tampered with. This is because, as asIslam views the mattcr, there is no contradictiori whatsoeverbetweenreligionIslam views the matter, there is no contradiction whatsoever between religionand science. Scientific facts areand science. Scientific facts are just one source of our knowledge of God. The one source knowledge God. Theothcr sourccis rcvelationas is containedir-r original teachings Jesusother source is revelation as it is contained i" the original teachings of Jesus and the irnd ihe presenttcxt the Quran. Both religion and true scientificknowledgearein the present text of the Quran. Both religion and true scientific knowledge are the samc sourcc: God. So He wont contradict Himself.from the same source: God. So He wont contradict Himself. Thus, concepts Thus, concepts like the Trinity, The Son of God, Original Sin. the thc The son God, original sin. theAtoncment,etc.,whichAtonement,etc.,which were the product of distorti-on and mis-understanding in werethe product distortionand mis-understandingthe history Christianity,drove peoplc awaythe history of Christianity, drove people away not only from Christianity but Christianityalso from other religions, including Islam, which is not afflected with thesealso other religions, including Islam, which is afflected theseproblems. This is due the fact that many peoplcproblems. This is due to the fact that many people think that because Islam is a because Islam isreligion (the meaning the veryreligion (the meaning of the very word is limited in western languages) it must be is limited westernlanguages) must be$imilar Christianity. Very few peoplesimilar to Christianity. Very few people will have the interest and the ability to havethe interestand the tudiscover the falsehooddiscover the falsehood of this assumption. assumption.EVIDENCES FOR THE QURANtC A C C O U N TE V I D E N C E S F O R T H E O U R A N I C ACCOUNT This implicit assumption is one of the causes of hesitation and This assumption is one of the causes hesitation andunwillingnessof many people to accept the Quranic view of Jesus.This is inunwillingness many people accept the Quranic view Jesus. isspite of thc fact that this point of vielv is supported by:spite the fact vic;.w is supported by:a) early history Christianity continued three decades aftcr The early history of Christianity which continued for threc decades after Jesuss disappearance as sect as Judaism. Jesussdisappcarance a sect within Judaism.b) Thc practiccof many Christian sectsand scholarsthroughout the history The practice of Christian sects and scholars the of Christianity. Christianity.c) The findings of many Biblical scholarsand scientificrescarchwhich was findings of Biblical scholars and scientific research was applied to the Bible. applied the Bible. _ t 616_ _ _
    • d)d) The instinct of many peoplc (some of whom think they are Christians) The instinct of many people (some of whom think they are Christians) who belicve in the One God, but cant acceptJcsusas God or Thc Sonof who believe in the One God, but cant accept Jesus as God or The Sonof God. God. It is worth noting that the main differcnces bctween thc Quranic account It is worth noting that the main differences between the Quranic accountand what modern researchand scholars have found is that the Quran said whatand what modern research and scholars have found is that the Quran said what it says now about Jesus and his rnission fourtecn centurics ago and neverit says now about Jesus and his mission fourteen centuries ago and neverchangcd its stand.changed its stand.R E ASONS HO LDI NG P E OPL E F R OM ISL A MREASONS HOLDING PEOPLE FROM ISLAM Some of the other reasonswhich might account for the rejcction of the Some of the other reasons which might account for the rejection of theQuranic account include:Quranic account include:a)a) The time-honored brasagainstIslam which was partly the product the The time-honored bias against Islam which was partly the product of the Crusades and the product the Arab-lsraeli conflict in the Middle Crusades and partly the product of the Arab-Israeli conflict in the Middle East. East.b)b) Confusion. people although they Confusion. Many people although they do not accept Christianity. do not accept Christianity, not where the not know where the truth is. is.c)c) Social Pressure Social Pressure and Academic Reputation. Many people were afraid Reputatian. people were afraid acccpt Islam bccause to accept Islam because they felt they would be mocked, alienated from they felt they would be mocked, alienated their relativesand peers thcy openly rejectedChristianity and accepted their relatives and peers if they openly rejected Christianity and accepted Islam. At the academiclevcl, especially Islam. At the academic level, especially among orientalists, if one writes among orientalists, one writes favourably about Islam and the favourably about Islam and the Quran no body will review his work, rcview his quote even consider quote from it or even consider it a scholarly work. He could be even scholarly work. Hc could be evcn destroyed professionally. The Washington Post (January 5, 1978) dcstroyed professionally. The washington Post (January i, l97E) reported that a Universityof Richmond Professor,Dr. Robert Alley lost reported University Richmond Professor, lost thc chairmanship of the Department of Religion there becausche holds the chairmanship the Department Religion there because he holds the view that Jcsusneverclaimed to be the son of God. Afterconsidcrable the view Jesus never claimed be the son of After considerable rcsearchinto newly found ancient documents,Dr. Alley concludedthat: research newly ancient documents. concluded that: The (Eiblelpassages whereJesus ralts about the son of God are The (Bible) passages where Jesus talks of are later additions..... what the church said about him. Such a ctaim of Jater what the church said about him. Such claim of deity for himself would not have been consistent with his entire life- deity for himself would not have been consistent with his entire life- style as lt/e can reconstruct. For the first three decades a{terJesus stlla as we can reconstruci For three after Jesus death Christianity continued as a sea within Judaism. The first death Christianity continued as sect within Judaism. three decades of its existence of the church were within the three decades of its of church were within the synagogue. That would have been bevond belief if they lthe synagogue. would have beyond belief if they (the followers) had boldlv proclaimed the deity of Jesus. followers) had boldly proclaimed of _t 717_ - -
    • ISLAM: THE NATURAL CALLl8tAif : THE IIIATURAL CALL Dcspitc thescfactors, and some others which II did not mention, there have Despite these factors, and some others which did not mention, there havebeenmany peoplewho havc submittedto truth. The Islamic point of view aboutbeen many people who have submitted to truth. The Islamic point of view aboutJesusand othcr major issuesstrikes thosc who getintroduccd to it assomethingJesus other major issues strikes those who get introduced to it as somethingwhich makes lot of sense and somethingwhich they hold implicitly withoutwhich makes a lot of sense something which they hold implicitly withoutknowing it. This, and othcr characteristicsmade lslam the fastest growing it. other characteristics made Islam the fastest growingreligion in thc world throughout history. lt appealseven to faithful Christiansreligion in the world history. It appeals even Christiansbecause discoverbccausethey discover that:a) lslam does not abolish Jesus,it rather puts him in the right position in the Islam does abolish Jesus, puts position long line of men who brought real salvation to humanity. In reality they of salvation humanity. In reality they arc adding a new dimension to their understandingof God, prophct- are dimension understanding of prophet. revelation. hood, and revclation.b)5) When Christianity and Judaism (or for that matter any religion) are Judaism religion) are lookcd at from the tslamic perspectivethey fit in neatly in thc universal looked Islamic perspective neatly the universal framcwork of the oncness God and Hip plansfor mankind. Moreover, framework of the oneness of and Hi,S plans mankind. Moreover, onc will understand clearly why there ar€ some gaps or discrepancicsin one will understand there are some gaps discrepancies the Biblical account about certain issues. thc Biblical account about certain issues.c) Islam docs consider the the long chain revelation. lt lslam does consider itself the final link in thc long chain of revelation.It promisesthe followcrs previousfaiths Ereat rewards they add belief promises the followers of previous faiths great rewards if they add belief in Islam belief Prophct said, Islam to their belief in their previous faith. The Prophet Muhammad said, previousfaith. is revealed "He who has believed in his religion then believed in what is revealed to has believed his religion then believed me will be rewarded twice (by God)." That is once for believing in his faith me be rewardedtwice God).fhat is oncc believing his faith and the other recognizing and bclieving Islam. and the other for recognizing truth and believing in Islam. Gods great prophets. To sum up, Islam considers Jesus as one of Gods great prophets. His sum up, Islam considersJcsus as one and lead man hismission was to preach the Oneness of God and to lead man to his Lord. He nevermission was preachthe Onencss ncver be other than a servant and a Mcssenger God. Thcclaimed to be other than a servant and a Messenger of God. The Quranicclaimedaccount his and mission is supported overwhclming evidence.account of his life and mission is supported by overwhelming evidence. The Jesus. HeMuslims do believe in and are awaiting the Second Coming of Jesus. He will believe and are awaiting the Secondcome back as God the non-christians, as Jesus,Gods servant.come back not as God to judge the non-christians, but as Jesus, Gods servant.His is correct the misconccption people have dcvelopedaboutHis coming is to correct the misconception which people have developed abouthis pcrsonality and his mission. According to a saying of the PrOphethis personality and his mission. According to a saying of the PrpphetMuhammad, he will stay for forty years which is going to be the happiest yearsMuhammad, he will stay for forty years which is going to be the happiest yearsof life on this earth. At that timc everybody will beleivein him as the mcss€ngct,of life on this earth. At that time everybody will beleive in him as the messenger,not the Son of God. However, what about thosc who will not be able to livc tillnot the Son of God. However, what about those who will not be able to live tillhis second -coming? They better do it now!his second coming? Thcy better do it now! _18- - 18_
    • FURTHERREADINGS ISTAMFURTHER READ·INOS ON ISLAM AND CHRISTIANITY CHRISTIANIWM. M. Pickthall, The Meaning of the Glorious Ouran Pickthall, The the Glorious AurdnT. B. Irving, et aI., The Ouran : Basic TeachingsT. B. Irving, et al., The Auran Easic TeachingsHamudaAbdulati, lslam FocusHamuda Abdulati, Is/am in Focus Qutb, lslam : The MisunderstoodReligionM. Qutb, Is/am: The Misunderstood Religion Bawany,lslam : The FirstB. A. Bawany, Islam: The First and Final ReligionB.Maurice Bucaillc,The &ible, THe O,uranMaurice Bucaille, The Bible, THe Ouran and Science ScienceMauricc Bucaille, fheMaurice Bucaille, The Origin of ManLordsaleand laura Ragg, The Gospel BarnabasLordsale and Laura Ragg, The Gospel of BarnabasMuhammadAta-ur-Rahman, Jesus : Prophet lslamMuhammad Ata-ur-Rahman. Jesus: A Prophet of Is/amRudolf Augustein,Rudolf Augustein. Jesus Son of Man Jesus SonJohn Hick (ed), The God lncarnateJohn Hick (ed). The Myth of God IncarnateS. S. Mufassir,Jesus the Q,uran.S. S. Mufassir. Jesus in the Quran.Some these booksand othersabout Islamcan be obtainedSome of these books and others about Islam can be obtained from: from: World Assembly Muslim Youth (WAMY) World Assembly of Muslim Youth (WAMY) P. O. Box 10845 P. O. Box 10845 Tel. (01)4et1663 Tel. (01)4641663 Riyadh I1443,SaudiArabia Riyadh 11443, Saudi Arabia the nearest IslamicCenterin your part the world.Or the nearest Islamic Center in your part of the world. _19_ -19-
    • rt{TRoDucTtorIINTRODUCTION Thc lrlamic rocount Jccurr and mislion ir quitc rcaronebleand puts The Islamic account of Jesuss life and mission is quite reasonable and putsJcrur hir plape rmong thc grcat mceccngcrg GodJesus in his right place among the peat messenaen of God to humanity. humanity.Although the lthmic vicw Jeuu aSrccs whet mrny pcoplc inrtinctivelyAlthoup the Islamic view of Jesus agrees with what many people instinctively is romctimes rcjcctcd becaurc this is what lrlam reys about him.think, it is sometimes rejected because this is what Islam says about him.Howcvcr,thosewho comc Islam an opcn mind and freefrom bitsHowever, those who come to Islam with an open mind and free from bias willsubr1it thc logc and belicvabillty thc Isbmic accountof Jesus.subm,it to the logic and believability of the Islamic account ofJesus. The Islamic The Islamicposition is erpociallyappreciated thore who havestrugglcd byposition is especially appreciated by those who have struggled with the various the variousChristian dogmasthat sre ccntcredaround thc pcrronality JesusChrist.Christian dogmas that are centered around the penonality of Jesus Christ. Thc following is a lcttcr which receivcdfrom one the vicwerswho The following is a letter which I received from one of the viewers whofollow my program:follow my program: ISLAM IN PERSPECTIVE, televised by the Saudi PERSPECTIVE, tclevisedby the SaudiArabian Telcvision, Sccond Channel.Arabian Television, Second Channel. It is a response to a two-episode is a r€$ponsc a two-episodcdiscussion Jegus callcd:JESUSdiscussion of Jesus called: JESUS IN ISLAM. I include this letter here for the includethis lettcr here thefollowing rcasons:following reasons:l.I. The writer is an expeft on this topic as a studcnt religion and an The writer is an expert on this topic as a student of religion and an objcctiveseeker truth. objective seeker of truth.2.2. The writcr wasa belicvingChristianwho knowsChristiansfeelings The writer was a believing Christian who knows Christians feelings and and beliefconcerning belief concerning Jesus Christ. JesusChrist.3.3. Thc writers explanation how the ChristiansdeviatedfromJesuss The writers explanation of how the Christians deviated from Jesuss instructionsand missionis quite plausiblcand accounts the prescnt instructions and mission is quite plausible and accounts for the present Christianbeliefabout Jesus. Christian belief about Jesus. would like thank thc writer hcr kind pcrmission includeherletter I would like to thank the writer for her kind permission to include her letter this publication.in this publication. t. J. M.J. _20_ -20-
    • CHRISTIANS THE SON GOD?WHY DO CHRISTIANS CLAIM THAT JESUS IS THE SO{ OF GOD?Dear sir,Dcer rir,Arsalamo Alrilum rile RahmrtullahAssalamo Alaikum Wa RahmatullahOPINION REGAR.DINGTHE DISCUSSIONON YOUR PROGRAMOPINION REGARDING DISCUSSION PROGRAMI nas vcry intcrcstodin your discussionon TV sinccthis is a topic which was very interested discussion since is a which ha-/e discussed rnany times, both as studcnt of religion, and outsidc theI hevc discucsGd many times, as student relliion, and outside thelcarning cnvironment, in many parts of thc world.lcarDinI environment, many parts of the world. As sn English Muslim convcrt, now living in Saudi Arabia, | find the sharp an Enalish convert, liviDI Saudi I the sharpcontrat between societies, thought-provoking from many new points.contrut betwecnsocieties, thoulht-provokinl many new points. Focussingupon thc naturc of Jesusand Mary as cxplainedin thc Koran, Focussinl upon the nature Jesus and as explained the Koran, the Gospel the New Testamcnt,wc $oe tu,o opposingvicws -and in the Gospel of the Ncw Testament, we see two oPposinl views - that ofrnd isSonof Godandthat thc Koran neglectingallChristian teachinl that Jesus is Son ofGod and that of the Koran neglecting allChrigtiantcachingthat Jcsusruch cleims. thcn, becomes ncaessary ask thc qucstionsuch claims. It then, becomcsnecessary to ask the question WHY was it wasnccccsary thc eerly Christhns makesucha claim about Jcsus,whenafternecessary for the early Christians to make such a claim about Jesus, when afterall he never made any such claim himselflell hc ncvcr rnadc any such himself? answerbecomes clear if we study the basisfor the It is my opinion that answer bccomec tt clcar if wc study thc basis thc uponGod andreliaions of Islam and Christianity. As Muslims we base faith upon God andrcligions Is}rm and Christianity.As Muslimswc base our alone,and upon thc Koran Godsword His ProphctMuhammadupon Him alone, and upon the Koran - Gods word to His Prophet Muhammadupon whom we also bclievc as I truc Prophct(PBUH) in whom we also believe - as a true Prophet of the one God. the one God.Muhammad (PBUH) is Gods scnfant, raitMul and obcdicnt andMuhammad (PBU H) is Gods servant, - faithful and obedient and totallyhuman hc rcmainsthe instrument Godspurposc lcad His peoplebackhuman - he remains the instrument of Gods purpose to lead His people back toHim apin. again. Now, asI total contrast turn Christianity a religionbuilt not around wc Now, as a total contrast we tum to Christianity - a reliaion built not around thcre vvrs nobookuntil 150ycarsaftcrJesussdcath.God, or His book - for there was no book until ISO years afterJesuss death.God, His bookChristianity becamebuitt around thc personality Jcsushimsclf. By leyingChristianity became built around the personality of Jetus himself. By laying uponthe magncticand wonderfulpcrsonalityof Jesusmore and more stress upon the magnetic and wonderful personality ofJesus andmorc and morestress andunableand un-willing dcscribcthc Prophetscffcctupon who came himunable and un-willing to describe the Prophets effect upon all who came to him evcrydaytcrms morc and morcattributcsarc addcd his rcputation- a manin everyday terms - more and more attributes are added to his reputation - a manwho could perform miraclcs,bring back thc dead lifc, hcalthc lcpcr,curcthcwho could perform miracles, bring back the dead to life, heal the leper, cure the is indecda wondcrful man - blesscd God - born by byblind - all by Gods will, is indeed a wonderful man - blessed by God - born byblind GodsGods do His scrvioc. after his dcath,thcmagicdpersonalitymustGods will to do His service. But after his death, the magical personality must Butbc kept dive and Son GodEppcar$ suitably qualify his actions.be kept alive and Son of God appears to suitably qualify all his actions. stronglyflavouredby theGreco-Roman gods,allsuper Living in a society, strongly flavoured by the Greco-Roman gods, aU super Living a socicty,hum8n, thc cducatcdcarly Chrirtians mustsurelyalso havebeeninfluenccdhuman; the educated early Christians must surely also have been influenced inthought by their surroundings.Paul himsclf, onc thc grcat teachcnthouJbt by their surroundings. Paul himself, one of the great teachers of _ 2 21 _ _ t -
    • Christianity, was a Hellenized Jew, who never saw or met Jesus during hisChristienrty, wrs Hellcnizcd Jcw, saw Jcsus duringlifetime. Vet many of his reported sayings show the influence of the times inlifetime. Yet of saylngs of timcs hc The Living Lordwas vcry realwhich he lived. The Living Lord was very real to him. him, The miraculous nature ofJesuss birth, also could help to give credence to miraculous ofJesussbirth, credence as son is I* I :the idea of Jesus identity as son of God. But it is child-like in its 1+ 1 = 2 type idea of Jesus typc i.G.,God Mary - Maryphilosophy. i.e., G~ blew into the womb of Mary - Mary had Jesus, therefore Jcsus,thcreforeGod is Jesuss father and Jesus is His son. isfcsussfathcr Jesus is son. t#hat What Christians fail to see, and to understand is that in Jesuss birth and scc, undcrstand is inJesussbirthconception we see a touching and wonderful revelation ofthe Kindness of9od. $ee revelation of thc Kindnessof God. We are told by both K.oran and Christian writings that Mary was a young are Koran Mary wariwoman of exceptional purity of both mind and body, brought into the world exccptional of thcalready pledged as Gods servant, blcssedalready pledged as Gods servant, blessed by God, while in His service in the serviccsynagogue so that she herself could produce small miraculous occurrences bysynagoguc so she herself smallmiraculou$ occurrencesGods will. How natural then, that God, having chosen her to be the vehicle by choscn hcr be vehiclewhich His new Prophet should be born on earth - chooses a means by which bc chooses meansnone of her blessed purity is touched. She serves her God, but in so doing He innonc blesscd is touched. She serves soHis infinite kindness preserves her prec;ious purity. Surely this needs no infinite kindness preserves precious needsembellishment - claims Sonshipembellishment - no claims to Sonship of God. Gods creation yes, but not Son Gods creation yes,by Paternity. That is obviously not the intention. The fact that so much time elapsed before any of the sayings of Jesus or his so elapsedbefore sayings Jesus histeachings were written, also allows for the "Oral tradition, by which they wereteachings were also thc "Oral tradition, werepassed on, to have substantially changed the original. And yet through the threepasscd have substantially changcd yct threesynoptic gospels (John being written last and obviously full of religious dogma) gospels being writtcn last religious altcration - picture Jesusas quiet,Mathew, Luke and Mark despite any alteration - a picture of Jesus as a quiet, and Mark despite magnetic personality - greatyet magnetic personality - a Prophet inspired by God, with a great love o.f 8/1 of a//humanity, sent to sharpen out awareness of God, in all the aspects of life; Jesus s€nt sharpen awarenessof aspectsof Jesustries opcn cycsand hearts greater awarcness - an unselfishtries to open our eyes and our hearts to a greater awareness of God - an unselfishappraisal of ourselves from our thoughts, to our actions, and to enlarge Faithappraisal of oursclves thoughts, actions, enlargeand Trust in God. Only by so doing by the simple Faith and Trust of a child isand God. so the simple and isGods Kingdom come - this idea is repeatcdmany timesGods K.ingdom to come on Earth - this idea is repeated many times in many ofhis reported sayings. His closeness to God was evident from the strength that hehis reportcd sayings. closeness was evident the strcngth he praycrs, he was givcn pcrform miracles.drew from prayers, and the power he was given by God, to perform miracles.Yet in all this power and in the performance of Gods wonders NEVER does he performance Gods wonders NEVER does he Son" we areproclaim himself Son of God. In Jesus sense of the word Son" we are all himself Jesus scnse thechildren of God, His sons and daughters, here on earth, and as such Jesus taughtchildren sonsand daughters,here earth,and assuchJesustaught peoplc Ourthe people to pray to Our Father, which art in Heaven. Heaven. Of the actual volume of words he spoke or must have spoken in his actual volume words he spoke must have spoken histeachings only a pitiable few, and not all reliable, have been recorded. Jesusteachings pitiable few, and reliable, have becn recorded. Jesus _ 2 22_ _ 2 _
    • seemcdto bc primarily concerncdwith thc poor, thc oppresscd, outcast,the seemed to be primarily concerned with the poor, the oppressed, thc outcast, the thesick -- and not tolerantof thc sanctimonious mcaninglcsssick and religious cant of and not tolerant of the sanctimonious and meaningless religiouscant of the so-called *pious. His call was to the hearts of ,men, and his theme wasthe so-called"pious." His call was to thc heartsof ,tnen,and his thcme washumanity and lovc. Did he mcanto establisha church?II bclievehc did --but not humanity and love. Did he mean to establish a church? believe he did but notin the scnscwe scethc churchtoday - Jesuswas practicalaswell asspiritual.IIin the sense we see the church today - Jesus was practical as well as spiritual.believche wantcdto crcatca societyof peoplewhoscFaith in God bound thcmbelieve he wanted to create a society of people whose Faith in God bound themto one anothrr rcgardless raceor creed,in e family-typccaring relationshipto one another regardless of race or creed, in a family-type caring relationship of under Gods guidance. It is not really evident from his teachings that hc sawundcr Gods guidancc.lt is not really evidentfrom his teachings that he sawhimselfas a grcatshininglight in this process. tendedmore to rcgardhimsclf himsC?lf as great shining process. He tended morc regard himselfas a tool in the handsof God,as the hands of God. raising unbelievable heights,the early Christianfollowers By raising him up to unbclicvable heights, the early Christian followers thebrought upon themselves endless problems of theoretically explainingthebrought upon themselves the endless problemsof theoretically explaining thecrucifixion - and from this comesthe doctrincof the sufferingservants,crucifixion and this comes the doctrine of the suffering servants, raiscd raisedfrom the Jewishancicnttexts- spokenof in Isaiah,thc doctrine of Sacrificefor the Jewish ancient texts spoken Isaiah, the doctrine of Sacrificethe sins of man, and the consequentialthe sins exclusiveness of Jesus - which very man, and the consequential exclusivencss Jesus- which is vcryimportant to the early Christians. pagancould be cquallyfaithful to manyimportant the early Christians. A pagan could be equally faithful manygods- but in Christianitythis could not bc - ONLY by faith in Jesus th€gods Christianity this could be - faith Jesus can the can - by accepting death the sakeChristian hopc to gain salvation - ONLY by accepting hisdeath for thesake ofChristianhope gain salvation hismanh sin -and ONLY by bcliefin his resurrection(foras of God, God mustmans sin belief his resurrection (for as son God,God must son him up again)can thc Christianhopc gain Paradise. othcr path i3lift him up again) can the Christian hope to gain Paradise. Any other path isdeath although this placcsJesusabsolutelybctwccnGoddeath and pcoplc- a - although this places Jesus absolutely between God and His people - a life on Earth.position he never occupied in his life on Earth.position he neveroccupied his Doctrineon doctrinebecomcs intertwined, wcfind thehistoryof the Doctrine on doctrine becomes intertwined, and we find in the history ofthe andchurch,cndlcss mcctings, thcories and argumcnts to thc Nature Jesus hechurch, endless meetings, theories and arguments as to the Nature of Jesus - he as -has bccomc now, fact, lessa tangible reality, and more ln uncarthly scmihas become now, in fact, less a tangible reality, and more an unearthly semi-spiritual bcing, wrappcd endle$ doctrinc and dogma- far indeedfrom thespiritual being, wrapped in endless doctrine and dogma - far indeed from thesimple,gcntlcpersonality, whomGod placed muchpowcrin orderthat he sosimple, gentle personality, in whom God placed so much power, in order that he incould bring awarcncss His peoplc.Has not thc church thcn defcatcdJesusscould bring awareness to His people. Has not the church then defeated Jesuss toown objcctive - rimplicity?own objective - simplicity? We find in thc "Trinity - Father - Son.and Holy Ghort, pcrhapsthc We find in the "Trinity" - Father - Son-and Holy Ghost, perhaps theculminarion of thc cfforts of pcoplertnrggling for lsupremacy in religiourculmination of the efforts of people strugling for a Supremacy in reliJiousexpressionand achievingan enigma, few Christiam can adcquetclyexpleinexpression and achievinl an eniJllUl, few Christians can adequately explaintoday.today. Gods spirit ir ar real in the daysof Moscsard Abrahem ar it is in thc titDc Gods spirit is as real in the days of Moses and Abraham as it is in the time of Prophet Muhemmed(PBUtl). It doccnot nccdto bc hcH in theconfinerof rof Prophet Muhammad (PBU H). It does not need to be held in the confines ofa*man-mrde- trienglc. Nor did Jcsusrsrociatc himrclf with any theory of thirMman-made" trianale. Nor did Jesus associate himself with any theory of thiskind. kind. _23 _ -23-
    • It is sad,that in the coming of Islam, Chrirtianr fclt thcy cewthc coming It is sad, that in the coming of Islam, Christians felt they saw the coming (r thcfrkc prophetor Anti4hrist told ofin thc Boot of RcvehtiontoJohn(Nethe fake prophet or Anti-ehrist told ofin the Book of Revelation to John (Ne1Tcstamcnt). It is evensadderthlt thc noble who orgenizrd thc 2nd CruradTestament). It is even sadder that the noble who organized the 2nd CrusadagainsttheMuslims was offered a copy of a translated Koran to read •-and auagainst the MuelimswasofferedI copy of a tranststodKoren to read andcal it aside.It is sad bccausc reflcctsan attitndc to lclam soen itit aside. It is sad because it reflects an attitude to Islam seen even until today cvcn until todaykept alivc in thc hietory of thc Cnrsadec, foundedon a total ignorancc.Itkept alive in the history of the Crusades, and founded on a total ignorance. It ii andfor Musliml, now to rsscrttheir faith and for Christians st lcastbc willingtfor Muslims, now to assert their faith and for Christians to at least be willing t tobe madc aw&rcof the mcaningof Islam. I am surethat to mlny Islam and ilbe made aware of the meaning of Islam. I am sure that to many Islam and i1teachings will bc as a mountainstrcamin the descrt,to the parchedsoulsoteachings will be as a mountain stream in the desert, to the parched souls (Jmany scarching truth. formany searching for truth.Wassalam.Wassalam. Your••in~.r.ly, Yourr rincercly, AZIZ (Mnl ZAHRA AZIZ (Mr.)
    • 1 .,/ - tt ,- J :> : ,~- ;// , .·, ,