5. AUTONOMOUS MAINTENANCE AND SMALL GROUP ACTIVITIESAutonomous MaintenanceThe principal way in which the production department participates in TPM is throughautonomous maintenance- cleaning, inspection, and simple adjustments performed by operatorssystematically trained through a step-by-step programme.The purpose of an autonomous maintenance program is threefold. First, it brings production andmaintenance people together to accomplish a common goal – to stabilize equipment conditionsand halt accelerated deterioration. Operators learn to carry out important daily tasks thatmaintenance personnel rarely have time for. These tasks include cleaning and inspection,lubrication, precision checks, and other light maintenance tasks, including simple replacementsand repairs in some environments.Second, an autonomous maintenance program is designed to help operators learn more about howtheir equipment functions, what common problems can occur and why, and how those problemscan be prevented by the early detection and treatment of abnormal conditions. Third, the programprepares operators to be active partners with maintenance and engineering personnel inimproving the overall performance and reliability of equipment.Traditionally, the general attitude on the shop floor has been “I run it, you fix it”. Operators wereresponsible only for setting up workplaces, operating the equipment, and checking the quality ofprocessed work. All management of the equipment’s condition was the responsibility ofmaintenance staff. By now it should be clear that this way of thinking does not promote optimalequipment performance.The alternatives are sad indeed, because as operators you can easily prevent many breakdownsand quality problems by learning how to recognize abnormal conditions. A great deal of thislearning can come about simply through your physical contact with the equipment – by taking alittle time to tighten loose bolts, lubricating dry parts and cleaning away dirt, and by noticing dirtor grime on friction surfaces and switches – conditions that can shorten equipment life.While these tasks are easy enough to do, in very few factories are they done well. Often you canfind clogged drains, empty oil supply equipment, and other results of neglect.Autonomous maintenance teaches you, the equipment operator, to understand your equipment.Equipment knowledge is no longer limited to operation; now it also includes a lot of thingstraditionally regarded as maintenance work. This approach is becoming increasingly important asfactories introduce more robots and automated systems. Most important, you need the ability tolook at the quality of the products and the performance of the equipment and notice whensomething is not right.This depends on the following three skills: 1. Knowing how to distinguish between normal and abnormal conditions (the ability to establish equipment conditions).
2. Knowing how to ensure that normal equipment conditions are met (the ability to maintain equipment conditions). 3. Knowing how to respond quickly to abnormalities (the ability to restore equipment conditions).When you have mastered all three skills, you will understand the equipment well enough torecognize the causes of future problems. You will realise when the machine is about to producedefects or break down. You will also be able to respond quickly. The following list describessome of the skills operators need.The ability to detect, correct, and prevent equipment abnormalities and make improvements.This includes understanding the important of 1. Proper lubrication, including correct lubrication methods and methods for checking lubrication. 2. Cleaning (inspection) and proper cleaning methods. 3. Improving equipment to reduce the amount of debris and prevent its accumulation and spread. 4. Improving operation and maintenance procedures to prevent abnormalities and facilitate their prompt detection.The ability to understand equipment functions and mechanisms, and the ability to detectcauses of abnormalities. 1. Knowing what to look for when checking mechanisms. 2. Applying the proper criteria for judging abnormalities 3. Understanding the relations between specific causes and abnormalities. 4. Knowing with confidence when the equipment needs to be shut off. 5. Being able to diagnose the causes of some types of failures.The ability to understand the relationship between equipment and quality, and the ability topredict problems in quality and detect their causes 1. Knowing how to conduct a physical analysis of the problem. 2. Understanding the relationship between product quality characteristics and equipment mechanisms and functions. 3. Understanding tolerance ranges for static and dynamic precision, and how to measure such precision. 4. Understanding the causes of quality defects.The ability to make repairs. 1. Ability to replace parts. 2. Understanding of life expectancy of parts. 3. Ability to deduce causes of breakdowns. 4. Ability to take emergency measures. 5. Ability to assist in overhaul repairs.Obviously, anyone who masters all these skills has achieved a very high level indeed, and no oneis expected to do hat quickly. Instead, each skill should be studied and practiced for whatevertime it takes to acquire proficiency.
Implementing Autonomous Maintenance in Seven StepsTable below outlines the seven developmental stages of an autonomous maintenance program.These stages or steps are based on the experiences of many companies that have successfullyimplemented TPM They represent an optimal division of responsibilities between production andmaintenance departments in carrying out maintenance and improvement activities.A Step -by -Step ApproachIt is very difficult to do several things at the same time. That’s why autonomous maintenancetraining takes a step-by-step approach, making sure each key skill is thoroughly learned beforegoing on to the next. Autonomous maintenance is implemented in seven steps: Step 1 : Conduct initial cleaning and inspection Step 2 : Eliminate sources of contamination and inaccessible areas. Step 3:Develop and test provisional cleaning, inspection and lubrication standards. Step 4: Conduct general inspection training and develop inspection procedures. Step 5 : Conduct general inspections autonomously. Step 6 : Organise and manage the workplace. Step 7:Ongoing autonomous maintenance and advanced improvement activities.
Seven Steps for Developing Autonomous MaintenanceStep Activity Goals for Equipment Goals for Group Members (workplace diagnosis) (TPM group diagnosis1.Conduct Thoroughly remove debris and Eliminate environmental causes Develop curiosity, interest, prideinitial contaminants from equipment of deterioration such as dust and and care for equipment throughcleaning (remove unused equipment parts) dirt; prevent accelerated frequent contact deterioration Develop leadership skills Eliminate dust and dirt; improve through small group activities quality of inspection and repairs and reduce time required Discover and treat hidden defects2.Eliminate Eliminate the sources of dirt and Increase inherent reliability of learn equipment improvementsources of debris; improve accessibility of equipment by preventing dust concepts and techniques, whilecontamination areas that are hard to clean and and other contaminants from implementing small-scaleand lubricate; reduce time required for adhering and accumulating improvementsinaccessible lubrication and cleaning Enhance maintainability by Learn to participate inareas improving cleaning and improvement through small lubricating group activity Experience the satisfaction of successful improvements3.Develop Set clear cleaning, lubrication and Maintain basic equipment Understand the meaning andcleaning and inspection standards that can be conditions(deterioration- importance of maintenance bylubrication easily maintained over short preventing activities) cleaning, setting maintaining our own intervals; the time allowed for lubrication, and inspection standards (What is equipment daily/periodic work must be clearly control?) specified Become better team members by taking on more responsibility individually.4.Conduct Conduct training on inspection Visually inspect major parts of Learn equipment mechanisms,general skills in accordance with the equipment; restore functions, and inspection criteriainspection inspection manuals; find and deterioration;enhance reliability through inspection training,skills training correct minor defects through master inspection skills Facilitate inspection through general inspections;modify innovative methods, such as Learn to perform simple repairs equipment to facilitate inspection serial number plates, colored Leaders enhance leadership skill instruction labels, thermotape through teaching group members gauges and indicators see learn through participation through covers etc. Sort out and study general inspection data; Understand the importance of analyzed data.
5.Conduct Develop and use autonomous Maintain optimal equipment Draw up individual daily andinspection maintenance check sheet conditions once deterioration is periodic check sheets based onautonomously (standardize cleaning, lubrication, restored through general general inspection manual and and inspection standards for ease inspection equipment data and develop of application) autonomous management skills Use innovative visual control systems to make cleaning Learn importance of basic data- lubrication/inspection more recording effective Learn proper operating methods, Review equipment and human signs of abnormality, and factors; clarify abnormal appropriate corrective actions. conditions Implement improvement to make operation easier.6.Organize Standardize various workplace Review and improve plant Broaden the scope ofand manage regulations;improve work layout etc. autonomous maintenance bythe workplace effectiveness,product quality, and standardizing various Standardize control of work-in- the safety of the environment management and control items process defective products, dies, Reduce setup and adjustment time; jigs, tools measuring Be conscious of the need to eliminate work-in-prices instruments, material handling improve standards and equipment, aisles, etc. procedures continuously, based Material handling standards on the on a standardization practice and shop floor Implement visual control actual data analysis systems throughout the Collecting and recording data: workplace Managers and supervisors are standardization primarily responsible for Control standards and procedures continuously improving for raw materials, work-in-process, standards and procedures and products, spare parts, dies, jigs, promoting them on the shop and tools floor7.Carry out Develop company goals; engage in Collect and analyze various Gain heightened awareness ofongoing continuous improvement types of data; improve company goals and costsautonomous activities;improve equipment based equipment to increase reliability, (especially maintenance costs)maintenance on careful recording and regular maintainability and ease of Learn to perform simple repairsand advanced analysis of MTBF operation through training on repairimprovement Pinpoint weaknesses in techniquesactivities equipment based on analysis of Learn data collection and data, implement improvement analysis and improvement plans to lengthen equipment life techniques span and inspection cyclesOrganisation & Tidiness Standards in Autonomous MaintenanceFOCUS ELEMENTSOperator’s responsibility Organize standards for operator responsibilities; adhere to them faithfully (including data recording)Work Promote organized and orderly operations as well as
visual control of work-in-process, products, defects, wastes and consumables (such as paint)Dies, jigs and tools Keep dies, jigs and tools organized and easy to find through visual control, establish standards for precision and repairMeasuring instruments and fool- Inventory measuring instruments and fool-proofproof devices devices and make sure they function property; inspect and correct deterioration; set standards for inspectionEquipment precision Operators must check precision of equipment (as it influences quality) and standardize proceduresSMALL GROUP ACTIVITIESOperators and maintenance personnel from small groups and they continue to refine theinspection process and to generate improvements that increase the equipment life andeffectiveness. They are increasingly involved with maintenance in gathering and analysingequipment data such as the results of daily inspection, downtime statistics, oil and grease usage,quality defect data, tool wear records and so on. And they continue to build analytical anddiagnostic stills by working on increasingly challenging improvement projects that reflect coolingimprovement goals, such as reliability and maintainability improvement or quality activities. Atthis stage, the operators become full partners in the equipment management process and zerodown time and zero defects become achievable targets.