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Linux Administration for Developers

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Linux administration background needed for Open Source developers. specifically those using RubyOnRails

Linux administration background needed for Open Source developers. specifically those using RubyOnRails

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Transcript

  • 1. Linux Administration for Developers by Mahmoud Said
  • 2. Outline● Why● Linux Basics● Servers● WTF● More monitoring tools 2
  • 3. Why● Free● Hosting Open Source web apps● Developing Open Source apps● Robustness● Development by Community 3
  • 4. WhyAdmin Common Knowledge Developer 4
  • 5. Linux Basics 5
  • 6. Filesystem“Everything is a file” ● Regular files ● Directories ● Symbolic links ● Hard links ● Devices ● Sockets 6
  • 7. Filesystem - Filenames● Case sensitive● Can contain any character except “/”● Extensions are only used for user convenience● Examples: README .bashrc index.html My World conf.old database.yml.bak 7
  • 8. Filesystem – File pathes● Sequence with nested directories ending with or without a file● Relative: config/database.yml● Absolute: /etc/nginx/nginx.conf● Special pathes: ~/ #home of current user / # root .. # parent directory 8
  • 9. Shells● Interface to execute user commands● Hide the details of the OS● Text based Commands● Can be scripted 9
  • 10. Famous Shells● sh The Bourne shell (obsolete) Traditional, basic shell found on Unix systems, by Steve Bourne.● csh The C shell (obsolete) Once popular shell with a C-like syntax● bash The Bourne Again shell (most popular) An improved implementation of sh with lots of added features. 10
  • 11. Scripting● Commands to the shell can be scripted● The script can be passed to the interpreter, or it can be executed by specifying the interpreter at the beginningbash init.sh.old #!/bin/bash./init.sh.old echo “bash script...”ruby setup.rb #!/usr/bin/ruby./setup.rb puts “ruby script...” 11
  • 12. Common bash commandspwd cat findls less sortcp more wccd vim aliasman nano echomkdir tail lnmv head chmodrm grep chownrmdir crontab 12
  • 13. Bash Keyboard commands● TAB # auto completion● CTRL+R # search commands history● CTRL+D # exit the current shell● CTRL+P # previous command (also “up”)● CTRL+N # next command (also “down”)● CTRL+L # clear screen 13
  • 14. Standard I/O & piping● Redirect output to a file using “>”● Append output to a file using “>>”● Obrain input from a file using “<”● Redirect output as input to another process (piping) “|” 14
  • 15. Servers 15
  • 16. ssh access● Using password● Public/private key pair ssh user@35.231.23.120 -p5022 ( default 22) 16
  • 17. Important paths/usr/local/project Root directory (capistrano convension)/var/log/ all important logs/etc/ system configuration files/etc/init.d/ startup scripts 17
  • 18. Uploading/Downloading files● scp scr_file user@server.com:/dst_path/● wget http://www.akhbarak.net/traces.log.gz 18
  • 19. Server Anatomy Web server MemcacheApplication server Indexer Database 19
  • 20. WTF!! 20
  • 21. WTF● Something wrong● Too few details● Admin/dev related 21
  • 22. Identifying the problem● Browser/Firebug● Isolating the request● Logs – Application logs – Web server logs – Other logs● Rails console 22
  • 23. System status● System load/CPU (top)● IO (iotop)● Memory (free -m, top)● Check processes (ps aux | grep ruby)● …. 23
  • 24. Monitoring Tools 24
  • 25. Newrelic.com● Multiple technologies● Performance analysis● Server monitoring● Traces of errors & slow requests 25
  • 26. Thank You 26