The Viet Minh League for the Independence of Vietnam
Key Figures <ul><li>Le Duc Tho was involved in politics and in 1930 helped to establish the Indochinese communist party. He was twice imprisioned for his politcal activities. In 1945 he joined with Ho Chi Minh and Vo Nguyen Giap in establishing the Vietnam Revolutionary League. He was the Vietminh’s leader until 1954 in South Vietnam. He went on to form the National Liberation Front (Viet Cong) in South Vietnam. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Ho Chi Minh was apart of communism and who later on became President from 1946-1969 of North Vietnam. </li></ul><ul><li>He lead the Viet Minh Independence movement in 1941. </li></ul><ul><li>He defeated the French Union party in 1954, which lead them to the Northern Vietnam victory. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Vo Nguyen Giap attended Hanoi University and later taught history there. He joined the Communist Party and was involved in numerous demonstrations against French rule. He escaped into China in 1939 following his arrest, where he met with Ho Chi Minh. </li></ul><ul><li>Giap organised resistance to the Japanese occupation between 1942 and 1945. </li></ul><ul><li>Following the Japanese surrender Vo Nyugen served in the provisional Government under Ho Chi Minh. </li></ul><ul><li>He successfully lead the offensive against the French at Dien Bien Phu in December 1953. </li></ul>
What is Viet Minh? <ul><li>Viet Minh was a Vietnamese national movement formed in 1941 by Ho Chi Minh. The major aim of this movement was to try and obtain liberation for the people of Vietnam from under French rule. Another objective was to oppose the occupation of their country by the Japanese. </li></ul>
World War II <ul><li>Japan occupied French Indochina during the Second World War so the Viet Minh was required to commence another campaign. Funding from United States and China. </li></ul><ul><li>In August, 1945 Japan surrendered leaving public buildings in Hanoi to the Viet Minh. The nationalist organisations proclaimed independence, Ho Chi Minh declared on </li></ul><ul><li>September 2, the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. </li></ul>
First Indochina War <ul><li>Following the Japanese surrender the Chinese moved in to help with repatriation of soldiers. A three way understanding with the Vietnamese, Chinese and French meant the Viet Minh agreed to French dominion in exchange for independence. Negotiations breakdown and ten years of war with France ensues. In 1949 Communist China sheltered and supplied heavy weapons to the Viet Minh to fight the French, are were able to control many rural areas and moves towards French occupied territory. </li></ul>
The Battle of Dien Bien Phu <ul><li>The French commander General Navarre was convinced that a battle with the Viet Mihn under the command of General Vo Nguyen Giap would provide a speedy victory and return Vietnam into a French colony. December 1953 saw a defensive complex organised at Dien Bien Phu. </li></ul>
<ul><li>This location was chosen strategically as it would block the route use by the Viet Minh to return to there Laotian camps. Navarre’s plan worked although instead of a frontal attack General Giap ordered multiple trenches joined by tunnels to encircle the French troops. </li></ul><ul><li>Giap assembled more than 70,000 Viet Minh soldiers which was 5 times that of the French troops. </li></ul><ul><li>General Giap employed Chinese supplied howitzers and anti-aircraft guns creating havoc for the French forces. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Navarre appealed for United States help but Dwight Eisenhower, President required confirmation from his western allies before he would consider intervening, British Prime Minister, Winston Churchill declined. </li></ul><ul><li>On March 13, 1954, General Giap launched his attack, lasting fifty-six days and resulting in the French army forced to retreat by the Viet Minh troops. </li></ul><ul><li>May 7, saw the French surrender, with casualties over 7,000 and prisoners in excess of 11,000. </li></ul>
North Vietnam <ul><li>Following the Battle at Dien Bien Phu and the French left and in a meeting of the Geneva Conference, Vietnam was divided into North and South. </li></ul><ul><li>On October 11, 1954 civil administration was transferred to Viet Minh over North Vietnam and Ho Chi Minh was appointed Prime Minister to operate as a socialist state. </li></ul><ul><li>Unifying elections were to take place in 1956 but later South Vietnam refused with claims that Ho Chi Minh’s communist connections could not be trusted. </li></ul>
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