Mobile marketing and mobile social media - Definition and classification


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Definition of mobile marketing and mobile social media. Classification of mobile marketing and social media. Ambient awareness. Very good article.

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Mobile marketing and mobile social media - Definition and classification

  1. 1. Business Horizons (2012) 55, 129—139 Available online at you love something, let it go mobile:Mobile marketing and mobile social media 4x4Andreas M. Kaplan ´ESCP Europe, 79 Avenue de la Republique, F-75011 Paris, France KEYWORDS Abstract Social media applications–—including collaborative projects, micro-blogs/ Social media; blogs, content communities, social networking sites, and virtual worlds–—have be- Mobile marketing; come part of the standard communication repertoire for many companies. Today, with Mobile social media; the creation of increasingly powerful mobile devices, numerous social media applica- Geo-localization; tions have gone mobile and new entrants are constantly appearing. The purpose of Smartphone; this article is to take account of this evolution, and provide an introduction to the Foursquare; general topic of mobile marketing and mobile social media. Herein, we define what Facebook Places; mobile social media is, what it is not, and how it differs from other types of mobile Google Latitude; marketing applications. Further, we discuss how firms can make use of mobile social Gowalla; media for marketing research, communication, sales promotions/discounts, and Groupon Now relationship development/loyalty programs. We present four pieces of advice for mobile social media usage, which we refer to as the ‘Four I’s’ of mobile social media. Finally, we conclude by providing some thoughts on the future evolution of this new and exciting type of application. # 2011 Kelley School of Business, Indiana University. All rights reserved.1. Mobile marketing and mobile social become such an essential part of our lives that it ismedia: The new revolution hard to imagine functioning without them. Once upon a time, people needed a dime and a publicHow many of your friends own an iPad? When was the phone to arrange meeting times and places withlast time you met someone who did not have a friends. Now, however, this methodology seems asmobile phone? And how would you feel if you had ancient as dinosaurs and black and white exchange your Blackberry or Android for, let’s say, Indeed, 90% of Americans own a mobile phone, witha Nokia 3310–—one of the most popular 2G phones, one-third of these being a smartphone; that is, asuitable only for making calls and sending text hand-held computer capable of multiple functionsmessages? Over the past decade, mobile devices in addition to placing calls. In this environment, itsuch as cellular phones and tablet computers have should come as no surprise that three out of four U.S. companies are either planning to or are cur- rently engaged in mobile marketing. The first mobile device capable of offering location- E-mail address: based services–—and, therefore, capable of supporting0007-6813/$ — see front matter # 2011 Kelley School of Business, Indiana University. All rights reserved.doi:10.1016/j.bushor.2011.10.009
  2. 2. 130 A.M. Kaplanmobile marketing–—was the Palm VII, a PDA intro- as any marketing activity conducted through a ubiq-duced by Palm Computing in May 1999. It allowed uitous network to which consumers are constantlyusers to obtain zip code based weather and traffic connected using a personal mobile device. Mobilereports, and Web browsing for an impressive $300 per marketing therefore requires three conditions. TheMB of transmitted data. Two years later, in December first of these is a ‘ubiquitous network,’ a term first2001, NTT DoCoMo launched the first commercial coined by Mark D. Weiser (1991), chief scientist atlocation-based service on GPS with features such Xerox PARC in Palo Alto, California. Contrary toas a friend finder, a restaurant guide, and a mapping common belief, a ubiquitous network is not neces-tool. But it is probably safe to say that the mobile sarily one single network, but rather a combinationmarketing revolution only truly came to pass with the of different networks. A user can, for example, beJune 2007 launch of the iPhone. Since then, over 100 connected at home through a wireless LAN, switchmillion iPhones have been sold worldwide, giving to 3G when leaving the house, and log into a WiMAXusers access to more than 250,000 applications which network at work. The important factor is not theallow them to read books (Kindle app), to research network itself, but that the switch or ‘handshake’information (Wikipedia app), to make restaurant between different networks happens in a smoothreservations (Open Table app), and to keep in touch and invisible way. The second condition entails thewith their friends (Facebook app). user having constant access to this network. For a After the iPhone exploded onto the scene, com- mobile phone this stipulation is almost trivial, sincepanies such as Gowalla (founded in 2007) and many people rely so heavily on their phones thatFoursquare (founded in 2009) appeared on the land- they wouldn’t dare leave home without them. Forscape, specializing in a new form of mobile marketing other devices–—such as tablet computers–—constantcalled mobile social media. Soon thereafter, these access depends more on the user than on the tech-were followed by specialized applications of leading nology itself, as it requires a conscious decision toInternet companies, including Google Latitude (2009) not switch off the device but instead keep it con-and Facebook Places (2010). Today, the pure player nected 24/7. The last condition involves use of aFoursquare is generally considered to be the market personal mobile device. A mobile device is any toolleader in the area of mobile social media, with nearly that allows access to a ubiquitous network beyond10 million registered users and a growth rate of one specific access gate. The most common example30,000 per day. In essence, Foursquare allows one of a mobile device is a mobile phone, but a netbookuser to notify others about his or her location by also counts if it can access different types of wire-‘checking-in’ at a certain place. Mobile social media less networks (e.g., WLAN, 3G, WiMAX). For mobilediffer from traditional social media applications in marketing to make sense, this mobile device needsimportant ways, and the purpose of this article is to to be personal; that is, not shared with anyone else.highlight those differences and their implications for This requires that each household member has theircompanies. In honor of Foursquare, we are structur- own device and that each device can be identifieding this article in Foursquare, four square, 42, 4x4 uniquely, as through a built-in SIM 1.2. Mobile marketing: Classification of A definition of mobile marketing and mobile social mobile marketing applications media (Section 1); Within this definition, we use two variables to dif- A discussion of the business use of these applica- ferentiate between four types of mobile marketing tions (Section 2); applications: (1) the degree of consumer knowledge and (2) the trigger of communication. Regarding the Four pieces of advice on mobile social media degree of consumer knowledge, the use of a per- usage (Section 3); and sonal device allows companies to customize their messages to each individual user, similar to the idea A discussion of future–—and not so future–—trends of one-to-one marketing (Peppers, Rogers, Dorf, and challenges (Section 4). 1999). It is, however, important to realize that this technical ability for personalization does not imply1.1. Mobile marketing: What it is, and that all mobile marketing needs to be–—or evenwhat it’s not should be–—on a one-to-one basis. Also, we can differentiate between the degree of consumerMobile social media belongs under the wider um- knowledge of the network operator (e.g., the mo-brella of mobile marketing applications. For the bile phone company or Internet service provider)purpose of our article, we define mobile marketing and that of the initiator of the mobile marketing
  3. 3. If you love something, let it go mobile: Mobile marketing and mobile social media 4x4 131 Table 1. Classification of mobile marketing applications Trigger of communication Push Pull Victims Patrons ATT sent SMS text messages to Pop icon Britney Spears High 75 million customers suggesting they enabled fans to receive–—for watch American Idol and vote $2.99 per month–—Britney’s Diary: for candidates using their ATT phone a weekly text message about Degree of consumer her life during a concert tour knowledge Strangers Groupies Toyota teamed up with Fox Broadcasting Calvin Klein used Quick to insert 10-second commercials into Response codes on billboards Low 26 short mobile movies, so-called in New York to allow users to ‘mobisodes,’ for the TV show pull up an exclusive 40-second Prison Break commercialcampaign, as they are not usually identical. Regard- they’re dealing, such as current geographical posi-ing the trigger of communication, we differentiate tion in time or space. Additionally, these users willbetween push communication, which is initiated by nearly always agree to receiving information fromthe company, and pull communication, which is the company, for example by ‘checking-in’ at certaininitiated by the consumer (Table 1). locations. This makes mobile social media users a Within the first group (low knowledge/push), com- specific form of patrons in our mobile marketingpanies broadcast a general message to a large number classification. Similar to mobile marketing in general,of mobile users. Given that the firm cannot know we differentiate between four types of mobile socialwhich customers have ultimately been reached by media applications, depending on whether the mes-the message, we refer to this group as strangers. sage takes account of the specific location of the userWithin the second group (low knowledge/pull), cus- (location-sensitivity) and whether it is received andtomers opt to receive information but do not identify processed by the user instantaneously or with a timethemselves when doing so. The company therefore delay (time-sensitivity) (Table 2).does not know which specific clients it is dealing with Location-sensitivity in a broader sense is not newexactly, which is why we call this cohort groupies. In to marketing, and geographic factors have previouslythe third group (high knowledge/push), companies been considered in marketing decision making.know their customers and can send them messages Examples of this include retail location planningand information without first asking permission. We (Inman, Winer, Ferraro, 2009; Ozimec, Natter, refer to this group as victims. The last group (high Reutterer, 2010) and demand forecasting (Yang knowledge/pull) covers situations where customers Allenby, 2003). Today, however, technologies suchactively give permission to be contacted and provide as GPS, GSM, Bluetooth, and RFID make it possiblepersonal information about themselves. This allows to identify the exact location of a specific mobilefor one-to-one communication without running the device at a particular moment. Similarly, time-risk of annoying your clients, and we refer to this sensitivity allows the creation and transmission ofgroup as patrons. messages that are of relevance at a particular mo- ment. A company can, for example, spontaneously1.3. Mobile social media: Definition and decide to launch a sales promotion that is only validtypology for 1-2 hours and broadcast this information to all mobile devices within a certain range. We refer toBuilding on this definition of mobile marketing, as applications that are neither location- nor time-well as our previously-published definition of tradi- sensitive as slow-timers, and to applications thattional social media (Kaplan Haenlein, 2010), we take account of time and place simultaneously asnow define mobile social media as a group of mobile space-timers. Applications that only reflect one ofmarketing applications that allow the creation and these two dimensions are referred to as either space-exchange of user-generated content. Companies en- locators (location-sensitive but not time-sensitive)gaging in mobile social media will often have some or quick-timers (time-sensitive but not location-sort of knowledge about the consumers with whom sensitive). Based on this classification, it is evident
  4. 4. 132 A.M. Kaplan Table 2. Classification of mobile social media applications Location-sensitivity No Yes Quick-timers Space-timers Transfer of traditional social media Exchange of messages with Yes applications to mobile devices relevance for one specific to increase immediacy location at one specific point-in (e.g., posting Twitter messages time (e.g., Facebook Places; or Facebook status updates) Foursquare; Gowalla) Time-sensitivity Slow-timers Space-locators Transfer of traditional social Exchange of messages, with media applications to relevance for one specific No mobile devices (e.g., watching location, which are tagged to a YouTube video or reading a certain place and read later a Wikipedia entry) by others (e.g., Yelp; Qype)that space-timers are the most sophisticated form of friends, the reason may lie in the concept of ambientmobile social marketing applications. The remainder awareness; that is, awareness created through regu-of this article will therefore focus on this type of lar and constant reception, and/or exchange of in-mobile social media. formation fragments through social media. Knowing the places a person has been throughout the day,1.4. Mobile social media: Theoretical combined with some casual comments here andfoundations and implications there, might tell you more about your friend than a 2-page email. For firms, mobile social mediaLike any type of communication device, mobile social allow marketing messages to be distributed thatmedia require two actors: (1) a sender who is willing are relevant only for specific locations and/or timeto share information and (2) a receiver who is willing periods. The excitement that results from the expi-to listen to it. This raises two relevant questions. ration date of these messages can prompt moreFirst, why would somebody expend the effort to effective marketing communication. This is similarcheck in at a certain location, simply to provide to what can be observed in the context of priceinformation regarding their detailed whereabouts? promotions, where it has been shown that–—in addi-One reason for this lies in the concept of self-presen- tion to any potential financial windfall–—sweepstakestation and self-disclosure (Goffman, 1959; Schau and contests create value for consumers throughGilly, 2003), which states that people are willing their mere entertainment character (Chandon,to reveal information about themselves if this Wansink, Laurent, 2000).information is consistent with the way they wouldlike to be seen by others. For example, a trendsetterwill happily check in at Saks Fifth Avenue in New York,but probably be more reluctant to let everyone know 2. Mobile social media and the firm:that it’s time again for weekly grocery shopping at the Business use and potentialWal-Mart Super Center on Staten Island. A secondreason can be found in impulsiveness theory (Ainslie, By now, it should be clear that traditional social1975; Hoch Loewenstein, 1991; Thaler Shefrin, media offer a variety of opportunities for companies1981), which states that people constantly struggle in a wide range of business sectors. This is true forbetween displaying long-term control and giving into social media in general (Kaplan Haenlein, 2010), asshort-term temptations. People might therefore be well as specific applications like virtual socialwilling to post status updates and upload videos on worlds (Kaplan Haenlein, 2009) and micro-blogstheir way to work for exactly the same reasons they (Kaplan Haenlein, 2011a). Social media have, forwould purchase a candy bar at the drugstore check- example, been shown to be particularly powerful inout, although it is incompatible with their plan to live generating viral marketing phenomena (Kaplan a healthier life. Haenlein, 2011b) and supporting new product The second, and equally important, question is: launches (Kaplan Haenlein, 2012). Nevertheless,Why do others–—that is, friends and firms–—care to mobile social media–—and, particularly, space-timerread and react upon this type of information? For applications–—differ significantly from traditional
  5. 5. If you love something, let it go mobile: Mobile marketing and mobile social media 4x4 133social media. Next, we discuss how companies content, such as reviews for restaurants in closecan make use of these specific characteristics in proximity. In a similar spirit, the UK artist Cherylareas as different as marketing research, communi- Ann Cole relied on Facebook Places to promote hercation, sales promotions/discounts, and relationship 2010 album, Messy Little Raindrops (Hosea, 2011).development/loyalty programs. People passing by one of 114 poster locations in London and Cole’s hometown of Newcastle were2.1. Marketing research invited to check in at the respective billboard. Once this was done, they were automatically connected toMobile social media applications offer data about Cheryl’s presence on Facebook and entered into aoffline consumer movements at a level of detail drawing for two free tickets plus travel accommoda-heretofore limited to online companies. Any firm tions to one of her X-Factor shows. The check-in wascan now know the exact time at which a customer also shared on the artist’s and user’s Facebook pages,entered one of its outlets, as well as comments made which made it–—as well as the corresponding promo-during the visit. Historically, companies have gone tion of the album–—visible to all of the user’s Face-to great lengths to put a face to their anonymous book friends. Besides being an interesting example incustomer base. Today, though, applications like itself, such applications also demonstrate the poten-Foursquare make it easy to obtain general statistics, tial of mobile social media to track exposure andsuch as number of check-ins per time of day, gender, effectiveness of the medium.or age group; as well as individual ones, such as which The second type of communication is user-customers have checked in most often or most re- generated content (UGC). If your company doescently. Combining this information with sophisticated something truly extraordinary, chances are thatdata-mining techniques gives traditional grocery re- the Foursquare community will talk about it andtailers, music stores, and auction houses the ability to probably transform a simple company message intobecome as efficient as Amazon, iTunes, or eBay. While a viral marketing phenomenon (Kaplan Haenlein,social media in general have been claimed to give 2011b). On the 2010 Foursquare Day–—April 16, ormore power to end-consumers (Kaplan Haenlein, 4/16–—McDonald’s offered $5 and $10 gift cards to 1002010), mobile social media might return some of that users randomly selected among those checking in atpower back to companies. one of the restaurants. This promotion increased For some inspiration, consider a recent collabora- check-ins by 33% (from 2,146 to 2,865), resulted intion between Safeway–—North America’s second- over 50 articles and blog posts, and prompted severallargest supermarket chain–—PepsiCo, and Foursquare hundred thousand news feeds and Twitter messages.(Angrisani, 2010). During the 3-month pilot program, Not bad results for an investment of less than $1,000!Safeway offered a set of exclusive discounts on se- Given the high power of viral marketing, Foursquarelected PepsiCo products to all customers who linked is supporting the creation of UGC by offering a ‘shout’their Foursquare account to their VonsClub loyalty function, which allows leaving messages in the formprogram card. Discount coupons were, following of virtual graffiti at a location and awarding ‘Swarmpresentation of the loyalty card, printed directly at Badges’ if more than 50 Foursquare users check in atthe check-out and tailored to each customer depend- the same place at the same on his or her Foursquare habits. Are you a morningperson, indicated by many early check-ins at differ- 2.3. Sales promotions and discountsent places? Saving money on Tropicana orange juiceand Quaker Oats might just be for you. Do you own the As illustrated, Foursquare offers many ways of taking‘Gym Rat Badge,’ which can be earned by checking in sales promotions and discounts to the next the gym 10 times in 30 days? If so, you may Forget the old days, when coupons were printedappreciate that discount on SoBe Lifewater to hy- in newspapers and clipped by consumers. Today,drate after your next training session. Foursquare allows the tailoring of promotions not only to specific users, but also specific time periods.2.2. Communication The business newspaper Financial Times, for exam- ple, offers a premium subscription worthMobile social media communication takes two forms, $300–—but only to Foursquare users who check inthe first of which is company-to-consumer communi- regularly at certain coffee shop locations aroundcation. An example of this can be found in Metro the London School of Economics and New York’sInternational, a Swedish media firm, which uses Columbia University. If you have a new productFoursquare to communicate around its free daily to promote, follow the example of Virgin America.newspaper, Metro Canada. Customers who follow In launching its California-Cancun service, users whoMetro Canada on Foursquare receive location-based checked in through Loopt at one of three designated
  6. 6. 134 A.M. KaplanBorder Grill taco trucks in San Francisco and experimenting with combining these automatic up-Los Angeles between 11 am and 3 pm on August 31, dates with coupons that a customer’s friends and2010, could get two tacos for $1 and two flights to followers can later redeem. Additionally, it encour-Mexico for the price of one. In San Francisco alone, ages Tasti D-Lite store owners, who operate under a1,300 people checked in during the 4-hour window, franchising system, to engage with customers and80% of whom actually purchased tickets from Virgin obtain performance-based metrics for their rela-America (Olson, 2011; Quinton, 2010). tionship development efforts. This represents a Such promotions do not necessarily need to be win/win/win/win system for Tasti D-Lite, franchi-associated with tangible benefits. The coffeehouse sees, customers, and customers’ friends.chain Starbucks, for example, offers users a ‘BaristaBadge’ if they check in at five different Starbuckslocations. In a similar spirit, the German airline 3. Four I’s see more than two: MobileLufthansa created an Oktoberfest promotion on social media adviceFoursquare. Customers flying to Munich duringthe period of the Oktoberfest received a message While myriad opportunities exist by way of this novelinviting them to check in at three different venues communication channel, companies undertakingin Munich from a list posted on the Lufthansa the practice must also be aware of the associatedFoursquare page. Upon doing so, they received the challenges. Mobile social media offer two pieces‘Oktoberfest Badge’ and a s20 voucher toward their of information not available through any othernext ticket purchase. Sales promotions are often channel: data on the consumer’s time and place.considered the ugly duckling of marketing: necessary This makes it possible for businesses to see clients inand efficient, but terribly boring. Yet, with applica- a completely different light. And since it is com-tions such as Foursquare, they might just become the monly said that four eyes see more than two, webeautiful swan of mobile social media. have developed the ‘Four I’s’ of mobile social media usage to help firms entertaining this new environ-2.4. Relationship development and ment. First–—and to the greatest extent possible–—loyalty programs companies should try to integrate their mobile so- cial media activities into the lives of users, to avoidUltimately, long-term growth does not stem from the being a nuisance. Second, such integration can beone-time transactions that can be triggered by sales achieved by individualizing activities to take ac-promotions, but rather from repeat business and count of each user’s preferences and interests, andcustomer loyalty. Google Latitude offers customers provide the opportunity to, third, involve the userthe option to gain bronze, silver, or gold status at through engaging in conversation. If firms are reallyplaces where they check in regularly; American Eagle lucky, they might, fourth, even initiate the creationOutfitters remunerates such customers with a tiered of user-generated content and word-of-mouth,10%, 15%, or 20% discount on their total purchase; and which allows for tighter integration of activities intoat Foursquare, users loyal to a certain location–—that users’ lives. As we detail next, although these fouris, checking in most often during the previous pieces of advice are targeted toward space-timers,60 days–—become ‘mayor’ of that place, garnering they can be equally relevant for the other threepotentially considerable benefits. At Domino’s Pizza types of mobile social media applications (Figure 1).in the UK, the mayor receives a free pizza eachWednesday. Likewise, at the Golden Corral restau- 3.1. Integrate your activities into users’rant chain, mayors can eat and drink for free once lives, to avoid being a nuisancea day. Another option is to link your own loyalty program As privacy is key in the area of mobile social media,to Foursquare, similar to the aforementioned col- companies should avoid disturbing their customerslaboration between Safeway and PepsiCo. The New at all cost. Whereas computers are used mainlyYork-based company Tasti D-Lite, known for its fro- for business, searches, and transactions, mobilezen desserts, encourages customers to connect their devices serve primarily to communicate withFoursquare and Twitter accounts to their Tasti D-Lite friends. If a customer installs your application, ormembership cards (Clifford, 2010). Those who agree checks in at one of your outlets for that matter, thisto do so earn additional points for every purchase. In can be seen as a strong sign of trust and indicatesexchange, their Foursquare and Twitter accounts willingness to enter a commercial friendship withare automatically updated each time the card is your company (Price Arnould, 1999). Firms shouldswiped at a Tasti D-Lite store. This increases brand avoid abusing this trust; for example, by bombard-awareness for Tasti-D-Lite, and the company is ing their users with off-the-shelf advertising
  7. 7. If you love something, let it go mobile: Mobile marketing and mobile social media 4x4 135Figure 1. Mobile social media advice INDIVIDUALIZE your acƟviƟes to take INVOLVE the user account of user through engaging preferences and conversaƟons interests 4 I’s of mobile social media INTEGRATE your INITIATE the creaƟon acƟviƟes into your of user-generated users life to avoid content being a nuisancemessages or customer surveys. Otherwise, compa- shared, but rather belong to one individual. Thisnies risk the friendship breaking up before it has allows for highly personalized company-to-consumeractually started. Never forget that users can delete communication, an opportunity firms should capital-the application or block your messages with only a ize upon. One way of doing this entails customizingcouple of clicks. While this rule applies to all types messages based on the geographic area in which theof mobile social media applications, it has special user is present. This makes individualization a high-relevance for time-sensitive applications (quick- ly relevant option for location-specific applicationstimers and space-timers) since companies have a (space-timers and space-locators). The mobilehigher tendency to over-communicate if the infor- social media application Fearsquare, for example,mation is only relevant for a short period of time. compares check-ins to official police statistics, which One way of integrating your activities into the include–—among others–—robberies and violentdaily life of users is reflected by the ‘Louisville Tour,’ crime, to give people an impression of the safetya city tour organized in collaboration between of their current location. Another way is to rely onGowalla and the Louisville Courier-Journal, in an- stated information about customer tastes and pref-ticipation of the Kentucky Derby (Indvik, 2010). To erences. At the fast-food chain 4Food, usersallow visitors to get the most out of their trip to can customize their own burgers and then check inLouisville, Gowalla and the Courier-Journal created their ingredients, rather than themselves. Points anda series of eight suggested Gowalla check-ins at a 25-cent credit are awarded every time anothermajor landmarks, including Louisville Slugger Field customer orders the same burger, and winningand the Kentucky Derby Museum. For those inter- burgers are displayed on a leader board in theested more in entertainment than culture, the city restaurant.also offered the ‘Louisville Bar Crawl,’ comprised of Campaigns employing generic, as opposed to indi-a set of 10 restaurants, bars, and club venues that vidualized, messages usually perform less well; in-users could check in to. All users who checked into deed, these may even do more harm than good!either the 8 major landmarks or the 10 entertain- Consider the Foursquare promotion for Sylvesterment venues, or even both, were awarded a badge Stallone’s movie, The Expendables (Van Grove,as proof of their achievement. 2010). In 11 cities across the United States, users checking in at certain locations received messages3.2. Individualize your activities to take such as: ‘‘With over 250,000 ways to order youraccount of user preferences and interests burger it’s no wonder that Five Guys burgers are considered bad ass. Brought to you by The Expend-Another dimension in which mobile devices differ ables opening August 13!’’ and ‘‘Ask for Thad! Thefrom computers is that they are usually not most bad ass tattoo artist in San Diego! Brought to you
  8. 8. 136 A.M. Kaplanby The Expendables opening August 13!’’ In essence, 3.4. Initiate the creation of user-these messages combined general statements about generated contentthe specific location, which was already known tomost users checking in, with a reference to The Even when a firm respects all of the aforementionedExpendables that was often unrelated to the location rules and engages in integrated, individualized,itself. This lack of individualization resulted in harsh and involving conversations with its customers,criticism by the Foursquare community. corporate messages will never be as effective as word-of-mouth communication between consum-3.3. Involve the user through engaging ers. The Holy Grail of mobile social media usageconversations is, therefore, to initiate the creation of user-gener- ated content in order to ignite truly powerful viralThe real-time response capabilities of mobile de- marketing campaigns (Kaplan Haenlein, 2011b).vices, combined with the potential for geo-localiza- This is particularly true for space-locators, who gettion, allows for the creation of highly engaging their value from comments which users have madeconversations with current and prospective custom- and attached to certain locations. Negative com-ers. The most effective mobile social media cam- ments are certainly not good for your business, butpaigns therefore often involve the user in some form no comments might even be worse; in this case,of interactive story or game to create a shared no news can indeed be bad news. Check out theexperience between the company, the user, and Foursquare application of the restaurant guide,possibly even the user’s own social network. Time- Zagat ( Users whosensitive applications (quick-timers and space- check in at Zagat-rated restaurants can not onlytimers), especially, require high levels of involve- obtain the ‘Foodie Badge,’ but also have access toment as they rely on synchronous and instantaneous comments left by other users, including suggestionscommunication. In these cases, companies have a for activities or dishes to order at the specific venue.very brief time window in which to speak with their To engage the user community even further,customers; if they miss the occasion, there may not Foursquare users who obtain mayorship at certainbe a second chance. In April 2010, the NBA’s New restaurants have the chance to be featured on theJersey Nets partnered with Gowalla to distribute Zagat website in the form of a video interview in thetickets for the team’s game against the Charlotte ‘Meet the Mayor’ section (Maul, 2010).Bobcats (Dilworth, 2010). Five hundred tickets could In all honesty, triggering such user-generatedbe found throughout New York and New Jersey by content is far from straightforward and many com-checking in at various sports-related locations such as panies may not achieve this objective, no matterbars, gyms, and equipment stores. Fifteen percent of how much effort they put into it. Nevertheless, atall people who found a ticket actually attended the the very least, firms should pay close attention togame–—a huge success, given the Nets’ bad season avoiding negative comments made about their ac-and the fact that the game took place on a Monday tions within the Foursquare community; and withnight. such a demanding group of customers, negative Firms must, though, pay close attention to keeping comments may be plentiful. Starbucks received,their employees in the loop when organizing this type for example, harsh reviews when it became publicof event. Otherwise, they may find themselves in the that many mayors of Starbucks cafes are actually ´same situation as the retail clothing store chain Gap, the baristas working there. Other firms were criti-which organized a promotion granting 25% off all cized because they offered inappropriate compen-purchases to Foursquare users–—but did not inform sation to their mayors. Consider Pizza Hut, whereemployees. As a result, instead of applying the dis- mayors receive a single order of breadsticks worthcount, Gap staff members made fun of the event in $4; this compares poorly to the free pizza offered byfront of customers. One client, for example, received Domino’s and the free meal offered by Goldenthe response: ‘‘Oh, the hopscotch special with the Corral. Burger King was also blasted for its reward:magic code. Right, let me enter that in!’’ This re- a free cup of coffee–—with three check-ins at thesulted in feelings of insult and embarrassment, in- restaurant and a full-price burger purchase.stead of appreciation. Disappointed patrons sonegatively discussed the incidents on their blogsand Twitter accounts that many other users refused 4. What tomorrow brings: The futureto even give it a try. Events like this are always of mobile social mediacritical, but when they involve a highly interactivemedium such as mobile social media, they may turn The world of social media is evolving at warp speed;into public relations nightmares. what is considered science fiction today might be
  9. 9. If you love something, let it go mobile: Mobile marketing and mobile social media 4x4 137reality tomorrow. Still, there are several areas in it is likely to become the main channel of communi-which we think mobile social media will make the cation for most companies around the globe.most significant progress in years to come. Mostnotably, mobile devices will likely penetrate the 4.2. Communicator or tricorder: Theworld with increasing pace, becoming the only means mobile device as ultimate control centerof communication that allows true global reach ofcustomers in different countries and demographic In addition to being used by more and more people,groups. Also, the devices themselves will evolve mobile devices will evolve from simple cordlesssubstantially and transform from simple communica- phones to multi-function control centers. In Januarytors to–—in Star Trek parlance–—tricorders. By helping 2011, Starbucks launched the largest mobile pay-social media shrug off its chains, mobile social ment program in the United States (Protalinski,media has the potential to bridge the gap between 2011), consisting of an application that can turnthe virtual sphere and real life and, in doing any smartphone into a Starbucks card. Instead ofso, might prove to be an even more important evolu- paying for a non-fat latte using cash, customers withtion than the initial introduction of social media this app can simply wave their phone in front of aitself. sensor and be ready to go. The inspiration for this technology comes from Japan, where mobile phones4.1. Global reach: Anywhere, anytime, already commonly serve as keycards, personal ID,anyone airline boarding tickets, and so forth. Other compa- nies have developed mobile phones with inbuiltIn the United States, the penetration of mobile projectors that allow pictures and movies to bephones and personal computers is just about equal, shown on any surface, and virtual keyboards thatwith 9 of 10 Americans having access to both project a full typewriter-size keyboard on the deskdevices. In emerging markets such as the BRIC coun- surface with laser technology to recognize keytries (Brazil, Russia, India, China), however, the num- strokes. Compare the first 1G phones to today’sbers look very different. According to the Boston iPhone 4 and you may get a glimpse of how muchConsulting Group, there are nearly four times as things will change over years to come.many mobile-phone subscriptions in BRIC states as Technological advances will also lead to new typesPCs in use (1.65 billion vs. 0.43 billion). On a global of applications that make today’s efforts look likescale, there are five billion mobile phone connections beta-tests. Instead of tediously typing informationfor 6.9 billion people, leading to an overall penetra- into Google or Wikipedia, just take a photograph of ation rate of 70%. In several countries–—including Hong nearby monument. A ‘point-and-find’ applicationKong, Italy, and Germany–—penetration rates exceed will match your picture to an image database and100%, as many consumers own at least two mobile tell you that the nice-looking cathedral in front of youdevices. It should therefore come as no surprise that is actually Paris’ Notre Dame. The same technologythe Pew Research Center, a think tank located in can be used to automatically show the trailer of a newWashington DC, estimates that by 2020 a mobile blockbuster movie, and even buy a ticket instantly,device will be the primary Internet connection tool when the user points their phone to a billboardfor most people around the world. advertisement. It works with people, too. Imagine Even companies intent on focusing locally would be taking a photo of a new friend and getting transferredwise to turn to mobile devices if they’re interested in immediately to their Facebook page so that you canreaching Generation Z or the Net Generation: cus- stay in touch. Do you remember KITT, the supercom-tomers born between 1990 and 2000. Those teenagers puter on wheels from Knight Rider, or the tricorderand 20-somethings don’t read newspapers (which is from Star Trek? In the future, your mobile phonewhy newspapers will likely disappear in the near might just be playing in the same league!future), don’t watch regular TV (at least not withoutpassing it through a TiVo), and are surrounded by their 4.3. So far and yet so near: The humanpersonal mobile devices most of the time (which face of the virtual spheremakes it nearly impossible to reach them throughbillboards or radio). But the fact that social media From a broader perspective, mobile social mediahave always been part of their lives–—Facebook was allow for a tighter integration of virtual and real life.founded in 2004, YouTube in 2005, and Twitter in With status updates on Facebook and Twitter, users2006–—makes them perfect candidates for mobile can know what their friends are doing at any particu-social media applications. Today, the market is still lar moment; but through their Facebook Placessmall and only 5% of the U.S. population uses location- and Foursquare check-ins, they see where they arebased social media applications. Tomorrow, however, physically located and actually join them in their
  10. 10. 138 A.M. Kaplanactivities. In the same way that impulsiveness can The most prominent of these relate to security,lead people to post messages on mobile social media, privacy, and trust. Facebook Places, Gowalla,such messages can evoke the impulsive decision to Foursquare, and technology like them reveal a lotact on them and catch up with friends face-to-face. about users based on personal data and physicalPreviously, researchers believed that the Internet check-ins. Understandably, such information can bewould result in less communication, less social in- used for both constructive and nefarious purposes.volvement, and less well-being (Kraut et al., 1998). To illustrate the danger of the latter, a group ofToday, we know the opposite is true (Kraut et al., technology developers from the Netherlands created2002), and it is likely that mobile social media amplify This website aggregates Four-these positive effects even further. Social networking square check-ins that are automatically posted onsites are frequently used to stay in touch with old Twitter. An algorithm then analyzes these check-inswork colleagues or high school friends; with their to identify a user’s home address, as well as his/herextension to mobile devices, they have the potential current location. Once the two become far enoughto bring people living in the same area or neighbor- apart, the user becomes a prime candidate for rob-hood closer together. Social networking technology bery. It is likely that this application, as well as othersmay even satisfy a hidden need for exhibitionism, to in the same spirit of illustrating the risk of over-post where you are right now and see whether people sharing information, will make users more reluctantreact by coming to join you. Interestingly, this is to reveal certain pieces of information in the future.exactly what social networking sites were created Legislators in both the United States and Europefor in the first place. Don’t forget that the initial are beginning to address and deal with this problem,intention of Mark Zuckerberg was to build an appli- albeit from different angles. In the U.S., the Do-Not-cation that helped him get, and stay, in touch with his Track Online Act of 2011 uses an opt-out possibilityfellow female dorm mates. that forces companies to honor a user’s choice of The melding of virtual and real life allows for the whether he/she wants data regarding online activi-creation of revolutionary, new ways of communica- ties to be stored or not. In case a company fails totion on the part of companies. Granata Pet, a respond to such a request, the Federal Trade Com-German manufacturer of premium pet food, has mission is authorized to pursue action against thefor example developed a type of interactive bill- firm. In Europe, the New Challenges for the Protec-board called ‘check-in snack-out.’ Anytime a user tion of Personal Data Act of 2010 advocates the usechecks in at the billboard using Foursquare, a signal of an opt-in solution, which requires firms to askis sent to a built-in food dispenser which gives out a users before any data can be collected. Additionally,small sample of dog food for the user’s furry friend. users are granted the ‘right to be forgotten’–—thatThe solution is very easy to implement technically is, the right to have data deleted once it is no longersince it only requires a small device in the billboard needed for legitimate purposes.that is linked to the Foursquare check-in database. In our article, Users of the world, unite! TheIf your dog is remotely similar to those of Pavlov, it challenges and opportunities of social media, wewill quickly learn where the free food is coming from claimed that the specter of social media would helpand likely want to return; in an effort to please your consumers to lose their chains and become morepet, you will make checking in and watching your powerfully knowledgeable (Kaplan Haenlein,dog enjoy the treats part of your daily routine. As an 2010). Today, 2 years later, we see social mediaadded bonus, the positive effects of such a strategy applications have literally lost their chains by mi-are not limited to animals, since classical condition- grating from desktop computers to mobile has also been observed for human beings in Many questions remain in the area of mobile socialadvertising research. This is, for example, behind media, though, and only the future can providethe reason why companies use famous endorsers for answers. Which players will survive the gold rushtheir products (Petty, Cacioppo, Schumann, in this new industry? How will users and consumers1983), and that ‘attitude toward the ad’ has such actually integrate mobile social media into theira prominent position in research analyzing the rela- day-to-day lives? The numbers speak for themselves:tionship between ad exposure and purchase intent In June 2010, Foursquare obtained $20 million in(Mitchell Olson, 1981; Shimp, 1981). fresh venture capital from–—among others–—Union Square Ventures, a New-York based venture capital4.4. Lost chains: Future evolution of fund that also invested in Twitter and Zynga, themobile social media developer of Farmville. In July 2010, Foursquare registered its 100th million check-in, only 2 monthsThe opportunities outlined above involve specific after having vaulted the 40 million check-in hurdle.challenges and hurdles that must be accounted for. Today, the company’s estimated worth is between
  11. 11. If you love something, let it go mobile: Mobile marketing and mobile social media 4x4 139$500 million and $1 billion–—not bad results for a firm Kaplan, A. M., Haenlein, M. (2010). Users of the world, unite!that was only launched in March 2009. We cannot say The challenges and opportunities of social media. Business Horizons, 53(1), 59—68.what the future will bring, or whether Foursquare will Kraut, R., Kiesler, S., Boneva, B., Cummings, J., Helgeson, V., still be around in 10 years. Maybe it will have been Crawford, A. (2002). Internet paradox revisited. Journal ofacquired by another firm; maybe it will have a differ- Social Issues, 58(1), 49—74.ent name; or maybe by then it will be a major player Kraut, R., Patterson, M., Lundmark, V., Kiesler, S., Mukopadhyay,in the mobile social media scene, similar to Google, T., Scherlis, W. (1998). Internet paradox: A social technology that reduces social involvement and psychological well-being?Amazon, and eBay. 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