Organizationalbehavior 638slidespresentation-090903124620-phpapp02
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Organizationalbehavior 638slidespresentation-090903124620-phpapp02

on

  • 3,075 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
3,075
Views on SlideShare
3,075
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
2
Downloads
144
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Organizationalbehavior 638slidespresentation-090903124620-phpapp02 Organizationalbehavior 638slidespresentation-090903124620-phpapp02 Presentation Transcript

  • Organizational BehaviorSchermerhorn,Schermerhorn, Hunt, and Osborn Prepared by Michael K. McCuddy Valparaiso University
  • Chapter 1 Study QuestionsWhat is organizational behavior and why isit important?What are organizations like as worksettings?What is the nature of managerial work?How do we learn about organizationalbehavior? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 2
  • Study Question 1: What is organizationalbehavior and why is it important? Workplace success depends on: – Respect for people. – Understanding of human behavior in complex organizational systems. – Individual commitment to flexibility, creativity, and learning. – Individual willingness to change. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 3
  • Study Question 1: What is organizationalbehavior and why is it important? Organizations and their members are challenged to: – Simultaneously achieve high performance and high quality of life. – Embrace ethics and social responsibility. – Respect the vast potential of demographic and cultural diversity among people. – Recognize the impact of globalization. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 4
  • Study Question 1: What is organizationalbehavior and why is it important? Organizational behavior. – Study of human behavior in organizations. – A multidisciplinary field devoted to understanding individual and group behavior, interpersonal processes, and organizational dynamics. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 5
  • Study Question 1: What is organizationalbehavior and why is it important? Pick up Figure 1.1 from the textbook. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 6
  • Study Question 1: What is organizationalbehavior and why is it important? Reasons for importance of scientific thinking. – The process of data collection is controlled and systematic. – Proposed explanations are carefully tested. – Only explanations that can be scientifically verified are accepted. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 7
  • Study Question 1: What is organizationalbehavior and why is it important? Contingency approach. – Tries to identify how different situations can be best understood and handled. – Important contingency variables include: • Environment. • Technology. • Tasks. • Structure. • People. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 8
  • Study Question 1: What is organizationalbehavior and why is it important? Modern workplace trends. – Commitment to ethical behavior. – Importance of human capital. – Demise of “command and control.” – Emphasis on teamwork. – Pervasive influence of information technology. – Respect for new workforce expectations. – Changing definition of “jobs” and “career.” Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 9
  • Study Question 2: What are organizationslike as work settings? An organization is a collection of people working together in a division of labor to achieve a common purpose. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 10
  • Study Question 2: What are organizationslike as work settings? The core purpose of an organization is the creation of goods and services. Missions and mission statements focus attention on the core purpose. Mission statements communicate: – A clear sense of the domain in which the organization’s products and services fit. – A vision and sense of future aspirations. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 11
  • Study Question 2: What are organizationslike as work settings? A strategy is a comprehensive plan that guides organizations to operate in ways that allow them to outperform their competitors. Key managerial responsibilities include strategy formulation and implementation. Knowledge of OB is essential to effectively strategy implementation. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 12
  • Study Question 2: What are organizationslike as work settings? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 13
  • Study Question 2: What are organizationslike as work settings? Stakeholders. – People, groups, and institutions having an interest in an organization’s performance. – Customers, owners, employees, suppliers, regulators, and local communities are key stakeholders. – Interests of multiple stakeholders sometimes conflict. – Executive leadership often focuses on balancing multiple stakeholder expectations. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 14
  • Study Question 2: What are organizationslike as work settings? Organizational culture and diversity. – Organizational culture refers to the shared beliefs and values that influence the behavior of organizational members. – Positive organizational cultures: • Have a high-performance orientation. • Emphasize teamwork. • Encourage risk taking. • Emphasize innovation.. • Respect people and workforce diversity. – Success in business world is tied to valuing diversity. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 15
  • Study Question 2: What are organizationslike as work settings? Organizational effectiveness approaches. – Systems resource approach focuses on inputs. – Internal process approach focuses on the transformation process. – Goal approach focuses on outputs. – Strategic contingencies approach focuses on impact on key stakeholders. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 16
  • Study Question 2: What are organizationslike as work settings? Longitudinal views of organizational effectiveness. – Short-run emphasis on goal accomplishment, resource utilization, and stakeholder satisfaction. – Intermediate-run emphasis on organization’s adaptability and development potential. – Long-run emphasis on survival. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 17
  • Study Question 3: What is the natureof managerial work? Managers perform jobs that involve directly supporting the work efforts of others. Managers assume roles such as coordinator, coach, or team leader. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 18
  • Study Question 3: What is the natureof managerial work? The management process. – An effective manager is one whose organizational unit, group, or team consistently achieves its goals while its members remain capable, committed, and enthusiastic. – Key results of effective management: • Task performance. • Job satisfaction. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 19
  • Study Question 3: What is the natureof managerial work? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 20
  • Study Question 3: What is the natureof managerial work? The nature of managerial work. – Managers work long hours. – Managers are busy people. – Managers are often interrupted. – Managerial work is fragmented and variable. – Managers work mostly with other people. – Managers spend a lot of time communicating. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 21
  • Study Question 3: What is the natureof managerial work? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 22
  • Study Question 3: What is the natureof managerial work? Managerial mind-sets. – Reflective mind-set — managing one’s self. – Analytic mind-set — managing organizational operations and decisions. – Worldly mind-set — managing in a global context. – Collaborative mind-set — managing relationships. – Action mind-set — managing change. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 23
  • Study Question 3: What is the natureof managerial work? Managerial skills and competencies. – A skill is an ability to translate knowledge into action that results in a desired performance. – Categories of skills. • Technical. • Human. • Conceptual. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 24
  • Study Question 4: How do we learnabout organizational behavior? Learning is an enduring change in behavior that results from experience. Organizational learning is the process of acquiring knowledge and utilizing information to adapt successfully to changing circumstances. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 25
  • Study Question 4: How do we learnabout organizational behavior? . Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 26
  • Study Question 4: How do we learnabout organizational behavior? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 27
  • Chapter 2 Study QuestionsWhat is a high-performance organization?What is multiculturalism, and how canworkforce diversity be managed?How do ethics and social responsibilityinfluence human behavior inorganizations?What are key OB transitions in the newworkplace? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 28
  • Study Question 1: What is a high-performance organization? High-performance organizations. – Value and empower people, and respect diversity. – Mobilize the talents of self-directed work teams. – Use cutting-edge technologies to achieve success. – Thrive on learning and enable members to grow and develop. – Are achievement-, quality-, and customer-oriented, as well as being sensitive to the external environment. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 29
  • Study Question 1: What is a high-performance organization? Stakeholders. – The individuals, groups, and other organizations affected by an organization’s performance. Value creation. – The extent to which an organization satisfies the needs of strategic constituencies. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 30
  • Study Question 1: What is a high-performance organization? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 31
  • Study Question 1: What is a high-performance organization? Total quality management (TQM). – A total commitment to: • High-quality results. • Continuous improvement. • Customer satisfaction. – Meeting customers’ needs. – Doing all tasks right the first time. – Continuous improvement focuses on two questions: • Is it necessary? • If so, can it be done better? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 32
  • Study Question 1: What is a high-performance organization? Human capital. – The economic value of people with job-relevant abilities, knowledge, ideas, energies, and commitments. Knowledge workers. – People whose minds rather than physical capabilities create value for the organization. Intellectual capital. – The performance potential of the expertise, competencies, creativity, and commitment within an organization’s workforce. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 33
  • Study Question 1: What is a high-performance organization? Empowerment. – Allows people, individually and in groups, to use their talents and knowledge to make decisions that affect their work. Social capital. – The performance potential represented in the relationships maintained among people at work. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 34
  • Study Question 1: What is a high-performance organization? Learning and high-performance cultures. – Uncertainty highlights the importance of organizational learning. – High-performance organizations are designed for organizational learning. – A learning organization has a culture that values human capital and invigorates learning for performance enhancement. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 35
  • Study Question 1: What is a high-performance organization? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 36
  • Study Question 2: What is multi-culturalism,and how can workforce diversity be managed? Workforce diversity. – Describes differences among people with respect to age, race, ethnicity, gender, physical ability, and sexual orientation. Multiculturalism. – Refers to pluralism and respect for diversity and individual differences in the workplace. Inclusivity. – The degree to which the organization’s culture respects and values diversity. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 37
  • Study Question 2: What is multi-culturalism,and how can workforce diversity be managed? Diversity biases in the workplace. – Prejudice. – Discrimination. – The glass ceiling effect. – Sexual harassment. – Verbal abuse. – Pay discrimination. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 38
  • Study Question 2: What is multi-culturalism,and how can workforce diversity be managed? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 39
  • Study Question 2: What is multi-culturalism,and how can workforce diversity be managed? Managing diversity. – Developing a work environment and organizational culture that allows all organization members to reach their full potential. A diversity mature organization is created when: – Managers ensure the effective and efficient utilization of employees in pursuit of the corporate mission. – Managers consider how their behaviors affect diversity. Well-managed workforce diversity increases human capital. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 40
  • Study question 3: How do ethics andsocial responsibility influence humanbehavior in organizations? Ethical behavior. – “Good” or “right” as opposed to “bad” or “wrong” in a particular setting. The public demands that people in organizations act according to high moral standards. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 41
  • Study question 3: How do ethics andsocial responsibility influence humanbehavior in organizations? Immoral managers. – Do not subscribe to any ethical principles; pursuit of self-interest. Amoral managers. – Ethics is simply not on this manager’s “radar screen.” Moral managers. – Incorporate ethical principles and goals into their personal behavior . Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 42
  • Study question 3: How do ethics and socialresponsibility influence human behavior inorganizations? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 43
  • Study question 3: How do ethics andsocial responsibility influence humanbehavior in organizations? Ways of thinking about ethical behavior. – Utilitarian view –– the greatest good for the greatest number of people. – Individualism view –– best serving long-term self-interests. – Moral-rights view –– respects and protects the fundamental rights of all human beings. – Justice view –– fair and impartial in the treatment of all people. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 44
  • Study question 3: How do ethics andsocial responsibility influence humanbehavior in organizations? Different types of justice. – Procedural justice –– properly following rules and procedures in all cases. – Distributive justice –– treating people the same under a policy, regardless of demographic differences. – Interactional justice –– treating people affected by a decision with dignity and respect. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 45
  • Study question 3: How do ethics and socialresponsibility influence human behavior inorganizations? Ethical dilemmas. – Occur when someone must choose whether or not to pursue a course of action that, although offering the potential of personal or organizational benefit or both, may be considered unethical. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 46
  • Study question 3: How do ethics andsocial responsibility influence humanbehavior in organizations? Rationalizations for unethical behavior. – Pretending the behavior is not really unethical or illegal. – Saying the behavior is really in the organization’s or person’s best interest. – Assuming the behavior is acceptable if others don’t find out about it. – Presuming that superiors will support and protect you. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 47
  • Study question 3: How do ethics andsocial responsibility influence humanbehavior in organizations? Organizational social responsibility. – The obligation of organizations to behave in ethical and moral ways as institutions of the broader society. – Managers should commit organizations to: • Pursuit of high productivity. • Corporate social responsibility. – A whistleblower exposes others’ wrongdoings in order to preserve high ethical standards. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 48
  • Study question 4: What are key OBtransitions in the new workplace? Corporate governance and ethics leadership. – Society expects and demands ethical decisions and actions from businesses and other social institutions. – Corporate governance. • The active oversight of management decisions, corporate strategy, and financial reporting by Boards of Directors. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 49
  • Study question 4: What are key OBtransitions in the new workplace? Corporate governance and ethics leadership (cont.). – Ethics leadership. • Making business and organizational decisions with high moral standards that meet the ethical test of being “good” and not “bad,” and of being “right” and not “wrong.” . – Integrity. • Acting in ways that are always honest, credible, and consistent in putting one’s values into practice. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 50
  • Study question 4: What are key OBtransitions in the new workplace? Positive organizational behavior. – Quality of work life. • The overall quality of human experience in the workplace. • Commitment to quality of work life is an important value within organizational behavior. • Theory Y provides the theoretical underpinnings for contemporary quality of work life concepts. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 51
  • Study question 4: What are key OBtransitions in the new workplace? Positive organizational behavior (cont.). – Positive organizational behavior focuses on practices that value human capacities and encourage their full utilization. – Positive organizational behavior is based on the core capacities of: • Confidence. • Hope. • Optimism. • Resilience. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 52
  • Study question 4: What are key OBtransitions in the new workplace? Globalization, job migration, and organizational transformation. – Globalization. • The worldwide interdependence of resource flows, product markets, and business competition. – Job migration. • The shifting of jobs from one nation to another. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 53
  • Study question 4: What are key OBtransitions in the new workplace? Globalization, job migration, and organizational transformation (cont.). – Global outsourcing. • Involves employers cutting back on domestic jobs and replacing them with contract workers in other nations. – Job migration and global outsourcing have contributed to organizations redesigning themselves for high performance in a changed world. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 54
  • Study question 4: What are key OBtransitions in the new workplace? Personal management and career planning. – Shamrock organizations. • Relatively small core group of permanent, full-time employees with critical skills. • Outside operators contracting to core group to perform essential daily activities. • Part-timers hired by core group on an as-needed basis. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 55
  • Study question 4: What are key OBtransitions in the new workplace? Personal management and career planning (cont.). – Personal management. • Understand one’s self, exercising initiative, accepting responsibility, working well with others, and continually learning from experience. – Self-monitoring. • Observing and reflecting on one’s own behavior and acting in ways that adapt to the situation. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 56
  • Chapter 3 Study QuestionsWhy is globalization significant fororganizational behavior?What is culture and how can weunderstand cultural differences?How does cultural diversity affect peopleat work?What is a global view on organizationallearning? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 57
  • Study Question 1: Why is globalizationsignificant for organizational behavior? Most organizations must achieve high performance within a complex and competitive global environment. Globalization refers to the complex economic networks of international competition, resource suppliers, and product markets. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 58
  • Study Question 1: Why is globalizationsignificant for organizational behavior? Forces of globalization. – Rapid growth in information technology and electronic communication. – Movement of valuable skills and investments. – Increasing cultural diversity. – Implications of immigration. – Increasing job migration among nations. – Impact of multicultural workforces. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 59
  • Study Question 1: Why is globalizationsignificant for organizational behavior? Globalization is contributing to the emergence of regional economic alliances. Important regional alliances. – European Union (EU). – North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). – Asia-Pacific Economic Co-operation Forum (APEC). Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 60
  • Study Question 1: Why is globalizationsignificant for organizational behavior? Outsourcing. – Contracting out of work rather than accomplishing it with a full-time permanent workforce. Off shoring. – Contracting out work to persons in other countries. Job migration. – Movement of jobs from one location or country to another. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 61
  • Study Question 1: Why is globalizationsignificant for organizational behavior? Global managers. – Know how to conduct business in multiple countries. – Are culturally adaptable and often multilingual. – Think with a worldview and are able to map strategy in the global context. – Have a global attitude. – Have a global mindset. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 62
  • Study Question 1: Why is globalizationsignificant for organizational behavior? Culture. – The learned, shared way of doing things in a particular society. – The “software of the mind.” – Helps define boundaries between different groups and affects how their members relate to one another. – Cultural intelligence is the ability to identify, understand, and act with sensitivity and effectiveness in cross-cultural situations. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 63
  • Study Question 2: What is culture and how canwe understand cultural differences? Language. – Perhaps the most visible aspect of culture. – Whorfian hypothesis — considers language as a major determinant of thinking. – Low-context cultures — the message is conveyed by the words used. – High-context cultures — words convey only a limited part of the message. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 64
  • Study Question 2: What is culture and how canwe understand cultural differences? Time orientation. – Polychronic cultures. • Circular view of time. • No pressure for immediate action or performance. • Emphasis on the present. – Monochronic cultures. • Linear view of time. • Create pressure for action and performance. • Long-range goals and planning are important. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 65
  • Study Question 2: What is culture and how canwe understand cultural differences? Use of space. – Proxemics. • The study of how people use space to communicate. • Reveals important cultural differences. – Concept of personal space varies across cultures. – Space is arranged differently in different cultures. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 66
  • Study Question 2: What is culture and how canwe understand cultural differences? Religion. – A major element of culture. – Can be a very visible aspect of culture. – Influences codes of ethics and moral behavior. – Influences conduct of economic matters. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 67
  • Study Question 2: What is culture and how canwe understand cultural differences? Values and national culture. – Cultures vary in underlying patterns of values and attitudes. – Hofstede’s five dimensions of national culture: • Power distance. • Uncertainty avoidance. • Individualism-collectivism. • Masculinity-femininity. • Long-term/short-term orientation. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 68
  • Study Question 2: What is culture and how canwe understand cultural differences? Power distance. – The willingness of a culture to accept status and power differences among members. – Respect for hierarchy and rank in organizations. – Example of a high power distance culture — Indonesia. – Example of a low power distance culture — Sweden. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 69
  • Study Question 2: What is culture and how canwe understand cultural differences? Uncertainty avoidance. – The cultural tendency toward discomfort with risk and ambiguity. – Preference for structured versus unstructured organizational situations. – Example of a high uncertainty avoidance culture — France. – Example of a low uncertainty avoidance culture — Hong Kong. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 70
  • Study Question 2: What is culture and how canwe understand cultural differences? Individualism-collectivism. – The cultural tendency to emphasize individual or group interests. – Preferences for working individually or in groups. – Example of an individualistic culture — United States. – Example of a collectivist culture — Mexico. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 71
  • Study Question 2: What is culture and how canwe understand cultural differences? Masculinity-femininity. – The tendency of a culture to value stereotypical masculine or feminine traits. – Emphasizes competition/assertiveness versus interpersonal sensitivity/relationships. – Example of a masculine culture — Japan. – Example of a feminine culture — Thailand. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 72
  • Study Question 2: What is culture and how canwe understand cultural differences? Long-term/short-term orientation. – The tendency of a culture to emphasize future- oriented values versus present-oriented values. – Adoption of long-term or short-term performance horizons. – Example of a long-term orientation culture — South Korea. – Example of a short-term orientation culture — United States. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 73
  • Study Question 2: What is culture and how canwe understand cultural differences? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 74
  • Study Question 2: What is culture and how canwe understand cultural differences? Understanding cultural differences helps in dealing with parochialism and ethnocentrism. – Parochialism — assuming that the ways of one’s own culture are the only ways of doing things. – Ethnocentrism — assuming that the ways of one’s culture are the best ways of doing things. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 75
  • Study Question 2: What is culture and how canwe understand cultural differences? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 76
  • Study Question 2: What is culture and how canwe understand cultural differences? Cultural differences in handling relationships with other people. – Universalism versus particularism. • Relative emphasis on rules and consistency, or on relationships and flexibility. – Individualism versus collectivism. • Relative emphasis on individual freedom and responsibility, or on group interests and consensus. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 77
  • Study Question 2: What is culture and how canwe understand cultural differences? Cultural differences in handling relationships with other people (cont.). – Neutral versus affective. • Relative emphasis on objectivity and detachment, or on emotion and expressed feelings. – Specific versus diffuse. • Relative emphasis on focused and narrow involvement, or on involvement with the whole person. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 78
  • Study Question 2: What is culture and how canwe understand cultural differences? Cultural differences in handling relationships with other people (cont.). – Achievement versus prescription. • Relative emphasis on performance-based and earned status, or on ascribed status. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 79
  • Study Question 2: What is culture and how canwe understand cultural differences? Cultural differences in attitudes toward time. – Sequential view of time. • Time is a passing series of events. – Synchronic view of time. • Time consists of an interrelated past, present, and future. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 80
  • Study Question 2: What is culture and how canwe understand cultural differences? Cultural differences in attitudes toward the environment. – Inner-directed cultures. • Members view themselves as separate from nature and believe they can control it. – Outer-directed cultures. • Members view themselves as part of nature and believe they must go along with it. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 81
  • Study Question 3: How does culturaldiversity affect people at work? Multinational corporation (MNC). – A business firm that has extensive international operations in more than one foreign country. – Have a total world view without allegiance to any one national home. – Have enormous economic power and impact. – Bring benefits and controversies to host countries. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 82
  • Study Question 3: How does culturaldiversity affect people at work? Multicultural workforces and expatriates. – Styles of leadership, motivation, decision making, planning, organizing, and controlling vary from country to country. – Expatriates. • People who live and work abroad for extended periods of time. • Can be very costly for employers. • Progressive employers take supportive measures to maximize potential for expatriate success. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 83
  • Study Question 3: How does culturaldiversity affect people at work? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 84
  • Study Question 3: How does culturaldiversity affect people at work? Ethical behavior across cultures. – Ethical challenges result from: • Cultural diversity. • Variations in governments and legal systems. – Prominent current issues. • Corruption and bribery. • Poor working conditions. • Child and prison labor. • Business support of repressive governments. • Sweatshops. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 85
  • Study Question 3: How does culturaldiversity affect people at work? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 86
  • Study Question 3: How does culturaldiversity affect people at work? Advice regarding cultural relativism and ethical absolutism. – Multinational businesses should adopt core or threshold values that respect and protect fundamental human rights. – Beyond the threshold, businesses should adapt and tailor actions to respect the traditions, foundations, and needs of different cultures. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 87
  • Study Question 4: What is a globalview on organizational learning? Organizational learning. – The process of acquiring the knowledge necessary to adapt to a changing environment. Global organizational learning. – The ability to gather from the world at large the knowledge required for long-term organizational adaptation. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 88
  • Study Question 4: What is a globalview on organizational learning? Are management theories universal? – Answer is “no.” – Cultural influences should be carefully considered in transferring theories and their applications across cultures. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 89
  • Study Question 4: What is a globalview on organizational learning? Best practices around the world. – Global organizational learning should identify best practices around the world. – Potential high-performance benchmarks exist throughout the world. – Cultural diversity enriches global organization learning. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 90
  • Chapter 4 Study QuestionsWhat is personality?How do personalities differ?What are value and attitude differencesamong individuals, and why are theyimportant?What are individual differences and howare they related to workforce diversity? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 91
  • Study Question 1: What is personality? Personality. – The overall profile or combination of characteristics that capture the unique nature of a person as that person reacts and interacts with others. – Combines a set of physical and mental characteristics that reflect how a person looks, thinks, acts, and feels. – Predictable relationships are expected between people’s personalities and their behaviors. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 92
  • Study Question 1: What is personality? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 93
  • Study Question 1: What is personality? Heredity and environment. – Heredity sets the limits on the development of personality characteristics. – Environment determines development within these limits. – About a 50-50 heredity-environment split. – Cultural values and norms play a substantial role in the development of personality. – Social factors include family life, religion, and many kinds of formal and informal groups. – Situational factors reflect the opportunities or constraints imposed by the operational context. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 94
  • Study Question 1: What is personality? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 95
  • Study Question 1: What is personality? Personality and the self-concept. – Personality dynamics. • The ways in which an individual integrates and organizes social traits, values and motives, personal conceptions, and emotional adjustments. – Self-concept. • The view individuals have of themselves as physical, social, and spiritual or moral beings. • Self-esteem. • Self-efficacy. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 96
  • Study Question 2: How dopersonalities differ? “Big Five” personality dimensions. – Extraversion • Being outgoing, sociable, assertive. – Agreeableness. • Being good-natured, trusting, cooperative. – Conscientiousness. • Being responsible, dependable, persistent. – Emotional stability. • Being unworried, secure, relaxed. – Openness to experience. • Being imaginative, curious, broad-minded. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 97
  • Study Question 2: How dopersonalities differ? Social traits. – Surface-level traits that reflect the way a person appears to others when interacting in various social settings. – An important social trait is problem-solving style. • The way a person goes about gathering and evaluating information in solving problems and making decisions. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 98
  • Study Question 2: How dopersonalities differ? Information gathering in problem solving. – Getting and organizing data for use. – Sensation-type individuals prefer routine and order and emphasize well-defined details in gathering information. – Intuitive-type individuals like new problems and dislike routine. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 99
  • Study Question 2: How dopersonalities differ? Information evaluation in problem solving. – Making judgments about how to deal with information once it has been collected. – Feeling-type individuals are oriented toward conformity and try to accommodate themselves to other people. – Thinking-type individuals use reason and intellect to deal with problems and downplay emotions. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 100
  • Study Question 2: How dopersonalities differ? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 101
  • Study Question 2: How dopersonalities differ? Personal conception traits. – The way individuals tend to think about their social and physical settings as well as their major beliefs and personal orientation. – Key traits. • Locus of control. • Authoritarianism/dogmatism. • Machiavellianism. • Self-monitoring. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 102
  • Study Question 2: How dopersonalities differ? Locus of control. – The extent to which a person feels able to control his/her own life. – Externals. • More extraverted in their interpersonal relationships and more oriented toward the world around them. – Internals. • More introverted and more oriented towards their own feelings and ideas. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 103
  • Study Question 2: How do personalities differ? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 104
  • Study Question 2: How dopersonalities differ? Authoritarianism/dogmatism. – Authoritarianism. • Tendency to adhere rigidly to conventional values and to obey recognized authority. – Dogmatism. • Tendency to view the world as a threatening place. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 105
  • Study Question 2: How dopersonalities differ? People with a high-Machiavellian personality: – Approach situations logically and thoughtfully. – Are capable of lying to achieve personal goals. – Are rarely swayed by loyalty, friendships, past promises, or others’ opinions. – Are skilled at influencing others. – Try to exploit loosely structured situations. – Perform in a perfunctory or detached manner in highly structured situations. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 106
  • Study Question 2: How dopersonalities differ? People with a low-Machiavellian personality: – Accept direction imposed by others in loosely structured situations. – Work hard to do well in highly structured situations. – Are strongly guided by ethical considerations. – Are unlikely to lie or cheat. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 107
  • Study Question 2: How dopersonalities differ? Self-monitoring. – A person’s ability to adjust his/her behavior to external situational factors. – High self-monitors. • Sensitive to external cues. • Behave differently in different situations. – Low self-monitors. • Not sensitive to external cues. • Not able to disguise their behaviors. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 108
  • Study Question 2: How dopersonalities differ? Emotional adjustment traits. – How much an individual experiences distress or displays unacceptable acts. – Type A orientation. • Characterized by impatience, desire for achievement, and perfectionism. – Type B orientation. • Characterized as more easygoing and less competitive in relation to daily events. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 109
  • Study Question 3: What are value and attitudedifferences among individuals, and why are theyimportant? Values. – Broad preferences concerning appropriate courses of action or outcomes. – Values influence behavior and attitudes. – Parents, friends, teachers, and external reference groups can influence individual values. – Values develop as a product of learning and experiences. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 110
  • Study Question 3: What are value and attitudedifferences among individuals, and why are theyimportant? Pick up Figure 4.5 from the textbook. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 111
  • Study Question 3: What are value and attitudedifferences among individuals, and why are theyimportant? Gordon Allport’s values categories. – Theoretical values. – Economic values. – Aesthetic values. – Social values. – Political values. – Religious values. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 112
  • Study Question 3: What are value and attitudedifferences among individuals, and why are theyimportant? Maglino’s categories of workplace values. – Achievement. – Helping and concern for others. – Honesty. – Fairness. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 113
  • Study Question 3: What are value and attitudedifferences among individuals, and why are theyimportant? Attitudes. – Are influenced by values and are acquired from the same sources as values. – Are more specific and less stable than values. – An attitude is a predisposition to respond in a positive or negative way to someone or something in one’s environment. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 114
  • Study Question 3: What are value and attitudedifferences among individuals, and why are theyimportant? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 115
  • Study Question 3: What are value and attitudedifferences among individuals, and why are theyimportant? The attitude-behavior relationship is stronger when: – Attitudes and behaviors are more specific. – There is freedom to carry out the behavioral intent. – The person has experience with the attitude. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 116
  • Study Question 3: What are value and attitudedifferences among individuals, and why are theyimportant? Attitudes and cognitive consistency. – Cognitive dissonance. • Describes a state of inconsistency between an individual’s attitudes and his or her behavior. – Cognitive dissonance can be reduced by: • Changing the underlying attitude. • Changing future behavior. • Developing new ways of explaining or rationalizing the inconsistency. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 117
  • Study Question 3: What are value and attitudedifferences among individuals, and why are theyimportant? Attitudes and cognitive consistency (cont.). – Dissonance reduction choices are influenced by: • The degree of control a person has over the situation. • The magnitude of the rewards involved. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 118
  • Study Question 4: What are individual differencesand how are they related to workforce diversity? Workforce diversity. – The presence of individual human characteristics that make people different from one another. Challenge of workforce diversity. – Respecting individuals’ perspectives and contributions and promoting a shared sense of organizational vision and identity. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 119
  • Study Question 4: What are individual differencesand how are they related to workforce diversity? As workforce diversity increases, the possibility of stereotyping and discrimination increases. – Demographic characteristics may serve as the basis for stereotypes. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 120
  • Study Question 4: What are individual differencesand how are they related to workforce diversity? Equal employment opportunity. – Nondiscriminatory employment decisions. • No intent to exclude or disadvantage legally protected groups. – Affirmative action. • Remedial actions for proven discrimination or statistical imbalance in workforce. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 121
  • Study Question 4: What are individual differencesand how are they related to workforce diversity? Demographic characteristics. – The background characteristics that help shape what a person becomes. Important demographic characteristics for the workplace. – Gender. – Age. – Able-bodiedness. – Race. – Ethnicity. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 122
  • Study Question 4: What are individual differencesand how are they related to workforce diversity? Gender. – No consistent differences between men and women in: • Problem-solving abilities. • Analytical skills. • Competitive drive. • Motivation. • Learning ability. • Sociability. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 123
  • Study Question 4: What are individual differencesand how are they related to workforce diversity? Gender (cont.). – As compared to men, women: • Are more conforming. • Have lower expectations of success. • Have higher absenteeism. • Are more democratic as leaders. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 124
  • Study Question 4: What are individual differencesand how are they related to workforce diversity? Age. – Aging workforce. – Older workers are more susceptible to stereotyping. – Age discrimination lawsuits are increasingly common in the United States. – Small businesses tend to value older workers. – Experienced workers, who are usually older, tend to perform well, be absent less, and have low turnover. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 125
  • Study Question 4: What are individual differencesand how are they related to workforce diversity? Able-bodiedness. – Despite evidence of effective job performance, most disabled persons are unemployed. – Most disabled persons want to work. – More firms are likely to hire disabled workers in the future. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 126
  • Study Question 4: What are individual differencesand how are they related to workforce diversity? Racial and ethnic groups. – African Americans, Asian Americans, and Hispanic Americans make up an ever- increasing percentage of the American workforce. – Potential for stereotypes and discrimination can adversely affect career opportunities. – Race cannot be a BFOQ. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 127
  • Study Question 4: What are individual differencesand how are they related to workforce diversity? Important lessons regarding demographic characteristics. – Respect and deal with the needs and concerns of people with different demographics. – Avoid linking demographics to stereotypes. – Demography is not a good indicator of individual-job fits. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 128
  • Study Question 4: What are individual differencesand how are they related to workforce diversity? Aptitude. – A person’s capability of learning something. Ability. – A person’s existing capacity to perform the various tasks needed for a given job. – Includes relevant knowledge and skills. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 129
  • Chapter 5 Study QuestionsWhat is the perception process?What are common perceptualdistortions?How can perceptions be managed?What is attribution theory? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 130
  • Study Question 1: What is theperception process? Perception. – The process by which people select, organize, interpret, retrieve, and respond to information. – People process information inputs into responses involving feeling and action. – The quality or accuracy of a person’s perceptions has a major impact on responses. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 131
  • Study Question 1: What is the perceptionprocess? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 132
  • Study Question 1: What is theperception process? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 133
  • Study Question 1: What is theperception process? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 134
  • Study Question 1: What is theperception process? Information attention and selection. – Selective screening. • Lets in only a tiny portion all the information that is available. – Two types of selective screening. • Controlled processing. • Screening without perceiver’s conscious awareness. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 135
  • Study Question 1: What is theperception process? Organization of information. – Schemas. • Cognitive frameworks that represent organized knowledge about a given concept or stimulus developed through experience. – Types of schemas: • Self schemas. • Person schemas. • Script schemas. • Person-in-situation schemas. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 136
  • Study Question 1: What is theperception process? Information interpretation. – Uncovering the reasons behind the ways stimuli are grouped. – People may interpret the same information differently or make different attributions about information. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 137
  • Study Question 1: What is theperception process? Information retrieval. – Attention and selection, organization, and interpretation are part of memory. – Information stored in memory must be retrieved in order to be used. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 138
  • Study Question 2: What are commonperceptual distortions? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 139
  • Study Question 2: What are commonperceptual distortions? Stereotypes or prototypes. – Combines information based on the category or class to which a person, situation, or object belongs. – Individual differences are obscured. – Strong impact at the organization stage. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 140
  • Study Question 2: What are commonperceptual distortions? Halo effects. – Occur when one attribute of a person or situation is used to develop an overall impression of the individual or situation. – Likely to occur in the organization stage. – Important in the performance appraisal process. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 141
  • Study Question 2: What are commonperceptual distortions? Selective perception. – The tendency to single out those aspects of a situation, person, or object that are consistent with one’s needs, values, or attitudes. – Strongest impact is at the attention stage. – Perception checking with other persons can help counter the adverse impact of selective perception. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 142
  • Study Question 2: What are commonperceptual distortions? Projection. – The assignment of one’s personal attributes to other individuals. – Especially likely to occur in interpretation stage. – Projection can be controlled through a high degree of self-awareness and empathy. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 143
  • Study Question 2: What are commonperceptual distortions? Contrast effects. – Occur when an individual is compared to other people on the same characteristics on which the others rank higher or lower. – People must be aware of the impact of contrast effects in many work settings Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 144
  • Study Question 2: What are commonperceptual distortions? Self-fulfilling prophecy. – The tendency to create or find in another situation or individual that which one expected to find. – Also called the “Pygmalion effect.” – Can have either positive or negative outcomes. – Managers should adopt positive and optimistic approaches to people at work. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 145
  • Study Question 3: How canperceptions be managed? Impression management. – A person’s systematic attempt to behave in ways that create and maintain desired impressions in others’ eyes. – Successful managers: • Use impression management to enhance their own images. • Are sensitive to other people’s use of impression management. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 146
  • Study Question 3: How canperceptions be managed? Distortion management. – Managers should: • Balance automatic and controlled information processing at the attention and selection stage. • Broaden their schemas at the organizing stage. • Be attuned to attributions at the interpretation stage. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 147
  • Study Question 4:What isattribution theory? Attribution theory aids in perceptual interpretation by focusing on how people attempt to: – Understand the causes of a certain event. – Assess responsibility for the outcomes of the event. – Evaluate the personal qualities of the people involved in the event. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 148
  • Study Question 4:What isattribution theory? Factors influencing internal and external attributions. – Distinctiveness — consistency of a person’s behavior across situations. – Consensus — likelihood of others responding in a similar way. – Consistency — whether an individual responds the same way across time. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 149
  • Study Question 4:What isattribution theory? Fundamental attribution error. – Applies to the evaluation of someone’s else behavior. – Attributing success to the influence of situational factors. – Attributing failure to the influence of personal factors. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 150
  • Study Question 4:What isattribution theory? Self-serving bias. – Applies to the evaluation of our own behavior. – Attributing success to the influence of personal factors. – Attributing failure to the influence of situational factors. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 151
  • Study Question 4:What isattribution theory? Techniques for effectively managing perceptions and attributions. – Be self-aware. – Seek a wide range of differing information. – Try to see a situation as others would. – Be aware of different kinds of schemas. – Be aware of perceptual distortions. – Be aware of self and impression management. – Be aware of attribution theory implications. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 152
  • Chapter 6 Study QuestionsWhat is motivation?What do the content theories suggest aboutindividual needs and motivation?What do the process theories suggest aboutindividual motivation?What are reinforcement theories and howare they linked to motivation? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 153
  • Study Question 1:What is motivation? Motivation refers to forces within an individual that account for the level, direction, and persistence of effort expended at work. – Direction — an individual’s choice when presented with a number of possible alternatives. – Level — the amount of effort a person puts forth. – Persistence — the length of time a person stays with a given action. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 154
  • Study Question 1:What is motivation? Categories of motivation theories. – Content theories. • Focus on profiling the needs that people seek to fulfill. – Process theories. • Focus on people’s thought or cognitive processes. – Reinforcement theories. • Emphasize controlling behavior by manipulating its consequences. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 155
  • Study Question 2: What do the content theoriessuggest about individual needs and motivation? Content theories. – Motivation results from the individual’s attempts to satisfy needs. Major content theories. – Hierarchy of needs theory. – ERG theory. – Acquired needs theory. – Two-factor theory. Each theory offers a slightly different view. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 156
  • Study Question 2: What do the content theoriessuggest about individual needs and motivation? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 157
  • Study Question 2: What do the content theoriessuggest about individual needs and motivation? ERG theory. – Existence needs. • Desire for physiological and material well-being. – Relatedness needs. • Desire for satisfying interpersonal relationships. – Growth needs. • Desire for continued personal growth and development. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 158
  • Study Question 2: What do the content theoriessuggest about individual needs and motivation? Acquired needs theory. – Need for achievement (nAch). • The desire to do something better or more efficiently, to solve problems, or to master complex tasks. – Need for affiliation (nAff). • The desire to establish and maintain friendly and warm relations with others. – Need for power (nPower). • The desire to control others, to influence their behavior, or to be responsible for others. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 159
  • Study Question 2: What do the content theoriessuggest about individual needs and motivation? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 160
  • Study Question 3: What do the process theoriessuggest about individual motivation? Process theories. – Focus on the thought processes through which people choose among alternative courses of action. The chapter focuses on two process theories: – Equity theory. – Expectancy theory. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 161
  • Study Question 3: What do the process theoriessuggest about individual motivation? Equity theory. – People gauge the fairness of their work outcomes in relation to others. – Felt negative inequity. • Individual feels he/she has received relatively less than others in proportion to work inputs. – Felt positive inequity. • Individual feels he/she has received relatively more than others in proportion to work inputs. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 162
  • Study Question 3: What do the process theoriessuggest about individual motivation? Equity restoration behaviors. – Change work inputs. – Change the outcomes received. – Leave the situation. – Change the comparison person. – Psychologically distort the comparisons. – Take actions to change the inputs or outputs of the comparison person. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 163
  • Study Question 3: What do the process theoriessuggest about individual motivation? Coping methods for dealing with equity comparisons. – Recognize that equity comparisons are inevitable in the workplace. – Anticipate felt negative inequities when rewards are given. – Communicate clear evaluations for any rewards given. – Communicate an appraisal of performance on which the reward is based. – Communicate comparison points that are appropriate in the situation Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 164
  • Study Question 3: What do the process theoriessuggest about individual motivation? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 165
  • Study Question 3: What do the process theoriessuggest about individual motivation? A person’s motivation is a multiplicative function of expectancy, instrumentality, and valence (M = E x I x V). Motivational implications of expectancy theory. – Motivation is sharply reduced when, expectancy, instrumentality, or valence approach zero. – Motivation is high when expectancy and instrumentality are high and valence is strongly positive. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 166
  • Study Question 3: What do the process theoriessuggest about individual motivation? Extrinsic rewards. – Positively valued work outcomes given to the individual by some other person. Intrinsic rewards. – Positively valued work outcomes that the individual receives directly as a result of task performance. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 167
  • Study Question 3: What do the process theoriessuggest about individual motivation? Guidelines for the distribution of extrinsic rewards. – Clearly identify the desired behaviors. – Maintain an inventory of rewards that have the potential to serve as positive reinforcers. – Recognize individual differences in the rewards that will have a positive value for each person. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 168
  • Study Question 3: What do the process theoriessuggest about individual motivation? Guidelines for the distribution of extrinsic rewards (cont.). – Let each person know exactly what must be done to receive a desirable reward; set clear target antecedents and give performance feedback. – Allocate rewards contingently and immediately upon the appearance of the desired behaviors. – Allocate rewards wisely in terms of scheduling the delivery of positive reinforcement. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 169
  • Study Question 4: What are reinforcementtheories and how are they linked to motivation? Reinforcement. – The administration of a consequence as a result of a behavior. – Proper management of reinforcement can change the direction, level, and persistence of an individual’s behavior. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 170
  • Study Question 4: What are reinforcementtheories and how are they linked to motivation? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 171
  • Study Question 4: What are reinforcementtheories and how are they linked to motivation? Law of effect. – Theoretical basis for manipulating consequences of behavior. – Behavior that results in a pleasant outcome is likely to be repeated while behavior that results in an unpleasant outcome is not likely to be repeated. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 172
  • Study Question 4: What are reinforcementtheories and how are they linked to motivation? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 173
  • Study Question 4: What are reinforcementtheories and how are they linked to motivation? Organizational behavior modification (OB Mod). – The systematic reinforcement of desirable work behavior and the nonreinforcement or punishment of unwanted work behavior. – Uses four basic strategies: • Positive reinforcement. • Negative reinforcement. • Punishment. • Extinction. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 174
  • Study Question 4: What are reinforcementtheories and how are they linked to motivation? Positive reinforcement. – The administration of positive consequences to increase the likelihood of repeating the desired behavior in similar settings. – Rewards are not necessarily positive reinforcers. – A reward is a positive reinforcer only if the behavior improves. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 175
  • Study Question 4: What are reinforcementtheories and how are they linked to motivation? Principles governing reinforcement. – Law of contingent reinforcement. • The reward must be delivered only if the desired behavior is exhibited. – Law of immediate reinforcement. • The reward must be given as soon as possible after the desired behavior is exhibited. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 176
  • Study Question 4: What are reinforcementtheories and how are they linked to motivation? Scheduling reinforcement. – Continuous reinforcement. • Administers a reward each time the desired behavior occurs. – Intermittent reinforcement. • Rewards behavior periodically — either on the basis of time elapsed or the number of desired behaviors exhibited. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 177
  • Study Question 4: What are reinforcementtheories and how are they linked to motivation? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 178
  • Study Question 4: What are reinforcementtheories and how are they linked to motivation? Negative reinforcement. – Also known as avoidance. – The withdrawal of negative consequences to increase the likelihood of repeating the desired behavior in a similar setting. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 179
  • Study Question 4: What are reinforcementtheories and how are they linked to motivation? Punishment. – The administration of negative consequences or the withdrawal of positive consequences to reduce the likelihood of repeating the behavior in similar settings. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 180
  • Study Question 4: What are reinforcementtheories and how are they linked to motivation? Implications of using punishment. – Punishing poor performance enhances performance without affecting satisfaction. – Arbitrary and capricious punishment leads to poor performance and low satisfaction. – Punishment may be offset by positive reinforcement from another source. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 181
  • Study Question 4: What are reinforcementtheories and how are they linked to motivation? Extinction. – The withdrawal of the reinforcing consequences for a given behavior. – The behavior is not unlearned; it simply is not exhibited. – The behavior will reappear if it is reinforced again. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 182
  • Study Question 4: What are reinforcementtheories and how are they linked to motivation? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 183
  • Study Question 4: What are reinforcementtheories and how are they linked to motivation? Ethical issues with reinforcement usage. – Is improved performance really due to reinforcement? – Is the use of reinforcement demeaning and dehumanizing? – Will managers abuse their power by exerting external control over behavior? – How can we ensure that the manipulation of consequences is done in a positive and constructive fashion? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 184
  • Chapter 7 Study QuestionsHow are motivation, job satisfaction, andperformance related?What are job-design approaches?How are technology and job designrelated?What alternative work arrangements areused today? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 185
  • Study Question 1: How are motivation,job satisfaction, and performance related? Job satisfaction. – The degree to which individuals feel positively or negatively about their jobs. – Job satisfaction can be assessed: • By managerial observation and interpretation. • Through use of job satisfaction questionnaires. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 186
  • Study Question 1: How are motivation,job satisfaction, and performance related? Implications of key work decisions for job satisfaction. – Joining and remaining a member of an organization. • Satisfied workers have better attendance and less turnover. – Working hard in pursuit of high levels of task performance. • Three alternative relationships between performance and satisfaction. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 187
  • Study Question 1: How are motivation,job satisfaction, and performance related? Argument: satisfaction causes performance. – Managerial implication — to increase employees’ work performance, make them happy. – Job satisfaction alone is not a consistent predictor of work performance. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 188
  • Study Question 1: How are motivation,job satisfaction, and performance related? Argument: performance causes satisfaction. – Managerial implication — help people achieve high performance, then satisfaction will follow. – Performance in a given time period is related to satisfaction in a later time period. – Rewards link performance with later satisfaction. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 189
  • Study Question 1: How are motivation,job satisfaction, and performance related? Argument: rewards cause both satisfaction and performance. – Managerial implications. • Proper allocation of rewards can positively influence both satisfaction and performance. • High job satisfaction and performance-contingent rewards influence a person’s work performance. • Size and value of the reward should vary in proportion to the level of one’s performance. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 190
  • Study Question 1: How are motivation,job satisfaction, and performance related? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 191
  • Study question 2: What are job-design approaches? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 192
  • Study question 2: What are job-design approaches? Scientific management. – Sought to improve work efficiency by creating small, repetitive tasks and training workers to do these tasks well. – Job simplification. • Standardizes work procedures and employs people in clearly defined and highly specialized tasks. • Intent is to increase efficiency, but it may be decreased due to the motivational impact of unappealing jobs. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 193
  • Study question 2: What are job-design approaches? Job enlargement and job rotation. – Job enlargement. • Increases task variety by combining into one job two or more tasks that were previously assigned to separate workers. – Job rotation. • Increases task variety by periodically shifting workers among jobs involving different tasks. – Enlargement and rotation use horizontal loading to increase job breadth. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 194
  • Study question 2: What are job-design approaches? Job enrichment. – The practice of enhancing job content by building motivating factors such as responsibility, achievement, recognition, and personal growth into the job. – Adds planning and evaluating duties to the job content. – Uses vertical loading to increase job depth. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 195
  • Study question 2: What are job-design approaches? Ways to increase job depth. – Allow workers to plan. – Allow workers to control. – Maximize job freedom. – Increase task difficulty. – Help workers become task experts. – Provide performance feedback. – Increase performance accountability. – Provide complete units of work. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 196
  • Study question 2: What are job-design approaches? Concerns about job enrichment. – Job enrichment can be very costly. – Controversy concerning whether pay must be increased when jobs are enriched. • Herzberg’s argument regarding the impact of competitive pay and enriched jobs. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 197
  • Study question 3: What are the keysto designing motivating jobs? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 198
  • Study question 3: What are the keysto designing motivating jobs? Core job characteristics. – Skill variety. • Degree to which a job requires a variety of different activities and involves the use of a number of different skills and talents of the individual. – Task identity. • Degree to which the job requires the completion of a “whole” and identifiable piece of work; one that involves doing a job from beginning to end with a visible outcome. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 199
  • Study question 3: What are the keysto designing motivating jobs? Core job characteristics (cont.). – Task significance. • Degree to which the job is important and involves a meaningful contribution to the organization or society in general. – Autonomy. • Degree to which the job gives the employee substantial freedom, independence, and discretion in scheduling the work and in determining the procedures used in carrying it out. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 200
  • Study question 3: What are the keysto designing motivating jobs? Core job characteristics (cont.). – Job feedback. • Degree to which carrying out the work activities provides direct and clear information to the employee regarding how well the job has been done. . Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 201
  • Study question 3: What are the keysto designing motivating jobs? Motivating potential score. – Combined together, the core job characteristics create a motivating potential score (MPS). – MPS indicates the degree to which the job is capable of motivating people. – A job’s MPS can be raised by enriching the core characteristics. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 202
  • Study question 3: What are the keysto designing motivating jobs? Critical psychological states. – When the core characteristics are highly enriched, three critical psychological states are positively influenced. • Experienced meaningfulness of work. • Experienced responsibility for work outcomes. • Knowledge of actual results of work activities. – Positive psychological states create positive work outcomes. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 203
  • Study question 3: What are the keysto designing motivating jobs? Enriched core job characteristics will create positive psychological states, which in turn will create positive work outcomes only when: – Employee growth-need strength is high. – The employee has the requisite knowledge and skill. – Employee context satisfaction exists. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 204
  • Study question 3: What are the keysto designing motivating jobs? Social information processing theory. – Social information in organizations influences the way people perceive their jobs and respond to them. – Research evidence shows that both social information and the core characteristics are important determinants of how people perceive their jobs. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 205
  • Study question 3: What are the keysto designing motivating jobs? Managerial and global implications of enriching jobs. – Not everyone’s job should be enriched. – Job enrichment can apply to groups. – Culture has a substantial impact on job enrichment. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 206
  • Study Question 4: How are technologyand job design related? Sociotechnical systems. – Reflects the importance of integrating people and technology to create high-performance work systems. – Essential for new developments in job design, given the impact of computers and information technology in the modern workplace. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 207
  • Study Question 4: How are technologyand job design related? Flexible manufacturing systems. – Adaptive computer-based technologies and integrated job designs that are used to shift work easily and quickly among alternative products. – Workers develop expertise across a wide range of functions. – Jobs offer a wealth of potential for enriched core job characteristics. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 208
  • Study Question 4: How are technologyand job design related? Workflow and process reengineering. – Process reengineering is the analysis, streamlining, and reconfiguration of actions and tasks required to reach a work goal. – This approach for improving workflows and job designs is driven by one question: • What is necessary and what else can be eliminated? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 209
  • Study Question 5: What alternativework arrangements are used today? Compressed work weeks. – Any scheduling of work that allows a full-time job to be completed in fewer than the standard five days. – “4/40” is most common form. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 210
  • Study Question 5: What alternativework arrangements are used today? Compressed work weeks (cont.). – Advantages. • For workers: added time off. • For organizations: lower absenteeism and improved recruiting of new employees. – Disadvantages. • For workers: increased fatigue and family adjustment problems. • For organizations: work scheduling problems, customer complaints, and possible union opposition. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 211
  • Study Question 5: What alternativework arrangements are used today? Flexible working hours. – Gives individuals a daily choice in the timing of their work commitments. – Advantages: • For workers: shorter commuting time, more leisure time, more job satisfaction, and greater sense of responsibility. • For organizations: less absenteeism, tardiness, and turnover; more commitment; and higher performance. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 212
  • Study Question 5: What alternativework arrangements are used today? Job sharing. – One full-time job is assigned to two or more persons who divide the work according to agreed-upon hours. – Advantages. • For workers: less burnout and higher energy level. • For organizations; attracting talented people who who would otherwise be unable to work. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 213
  • Study Question 5: What alternativework arrangements are used today? Work at home and the virtual office. – Telecommuting. • Work done at home or in a remote location via use of computers and advanced communication linkages with a central office or other employment locations. – Variants of telecommuting. • Flexiplace. • Hoteling. • Virtual office. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 214
  • Study Question 5: What alternativework arrangements are used today? Advantages of telecommuting. – For workers: flexibility, comforts of home, and choice of work locations consistent with one’s lifestyle. – For organizations: costs savings, efficiency, and improved employee satisfaction. Disadvantages of telecommuting. – For workers: isolation from co-workers, decreased identification with work team, and technical difficulties with computer linkages. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 215
  • Study Question 5: What alternativework arrangements are used today? Part-time work. – Temporary part-time work. • An employee is classified as temporary and works less than the standard 40-hour work week. – Permanent part-time work. • An employee is classified as a permanent member of the workforce and works less than the standard 40-hour work week. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 216
  • Study Question 5: What alternativework arrangements are used today? Advantages of part-time work. – For workers: appeals to people who want to supplement other jobs or do not want full-time work. – For organizations: lower labor costs, ability to better accommodate peaks and valleys of business cycle, and better management of retention quality. Disadvantages of part-time work. – For workers: added stress and potentially diminished performance if holding two jobs, failure to qualify for benefits, and lower pay rates than full-time counterparts. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 217
  • Chapter 8 Study QuestionsWhat is goal setting?What is performance appraisal?What are compensation and rewards?What are human resourcedevelopment and person-job fit? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 218
  • Study Question 1: What is goal setting? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 219
  • Study Question 1: What is goal setting? Goal setting guidelines. – Difficult goals are more likely to lead to higher performance than are less difficult ones. – Specific goals are more likely to lead to higher performance than are no goals or vague or general ones. – Task feedback, or knowledge of results, is likely to motivate people toward higher performance by encouraging the setting of higher performance goals. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 220
  • Study Question 1: What is goal setting? Goal setting guidelines (cont.). – Goals are most likely to lead to higher performance when the people have the abilities and the feeling of self-efficacy required to accomplish them. – Goals are most likely to motivate people toward higher performance when they are accepted and there is commitment to them. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 221
  • Study Question 1: What is goal setting? Goal setting and MBO. – Management by objectives (MBO) is a process of joint goal setting between a supervisor and a subordinate. – MBO is consistent with the goal setting guidelines derived from the Locke and Latham model. – MBO establishes performance goals consistent with higher level work unit and organizational objectives. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 222
  • Study Question 1: What is goal setting? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 223
  • Study Question 1: What is goal setting? Potential problems with MBO. – Too much paperwork. in documenting goals and accomplishments. – Too much emphasis on: • Goal-oriented rewards and punishments. • Top-down goals. • Goals that are easily stated in objective terms. • Individual goals instead of group goals. – MBO may need to be implemented organization-wide. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 224
  • Study Question 2: What is performanceappraisal? Performance appraisal. – Helps both the manager and subordinate maintain the organization-job-employee characteristics match – The process of systematically evaluating performance and providing feedback upon which performance adjustments can be made. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 225
  • Study Question 2: What is performanceappraisal? Functions of performance appraisal. – Define the specific job criteria against which performance will be measured. – Measure past job performance accurately. – Justify rewards, thereby differentiating between high and low performance. – Define ratee’s needed development experiences. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 226
  • Study Question 2: What is performanceappraisal? Two general purposes of good performance appraisal. – Evaluation. • Concerned with such issues as promotions, transfers, terminations, and salary increases. – Feedback and development. • Let workers know their status relative to firm’s expectations and performance objectives. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 227
  • Study Question 2: What is performanceappraisal? Who does the performance appraisal? – Traditionally done by ratee’s immediate superior. – People other than immediate superior may have better information on certain aspects of ratee’s performance. – 360-degree evaluation provides appraisal information from multiple perspectives. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 228
  • Study Question 2: What is performanceappraisal? Performance appraisal dimensions and standards. – Output measures. • Quantity of work output. • Quality of work output. – Activity measures. • Behavioral measures that are typically obtained from the evaluator’s observation and rating. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 229
  • Study Question 2: What is performanceappraisal? Comparative methods of performance appraisal. – Ranking. • Raters rank order people from best to worst. – Paired comparisons. • Raters compare each person with every other person. – Forced distribution. • Raters place a specific proportion of employees into each performance category. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 230
  • Study Question 2: What is performanceappraisal? Absolute methods of performance appraisal. – Graphic rating scales. • Raters assign scores on a list of dimensions related to high performance outcomes in a given job. – Critical incident diary records. • Rater records incidents of unusual success or failure in a given performance aspect. – Behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS). • Rater identifies observable job behaviors. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 231
  • Study Question 2: What is performanceappraisal? Absolute methods of performance appraisal (cont.). – Behavioral observation scale (BOS). • Rater rates each observable job behavior on a five- point frequency scale. – Management by objectives. • Jointly established goals used as standards against which the subordinate’s performance is evaluated. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 232
  • Study Question 2: What is performanceappraisal? To be meaningful, an appraisal system must be: – Reliable — provide consistent results across time. – Valid — actually measure people on relevant job content. Measurement errors can threaten the reliability or validity of performance appraisals. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 233
  • Study Question 2: What is performanceappraisal? Measurement errors in performance appraisal. – Halo errors. • Raters evaluate on several different dimensions and give a similar rating for each dimension. – Leniency errors. • Raters tend to give everyone relatively high ratings. – Strictness errors. • Raters tend to give everyone relatively low ratings. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 234
  • Study Question 2: What is performanceappraisal? Measurement errors in performance appraisal (cont.). – Central tendency errors. • Raters lump everyone together around the average or middle. – Low differentiation errors. • Raters restrict themselves to a small part of the rating scale. • Examples include leniency, strictness, and central tendency errors. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 235
  • Study Question 2: What is performanceappraisal? Measurement errors in performance appraisal (cont.). – Recency errors. • Raters allow recent events to exercise undue influence on ratings. – Personal bias errors. • Raters let personal biases, such as stereotypes, unduly influence the ratings. – Cultural bias errors. • Raters allow cultural differences of employees to influence the performance appraisal. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 236
  • Study Question 2: What is performanceappraisal? Ways to reduce rating errors in performance appraisals. – Training raters to understand the evaluation process and recognize errors. – Ensuring that raters observe ratees on an ongoing basis. – Not having the rater evaluate too many ratees. – Ensuring the clarity and adequacy of performance dimensions and standards. – Avoiding terms that have different meanings for different raters. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 237
  • Study Question 2: What is performanceappraisal? Guidelines for ensuring the legality of performance appraisal systems. – Base appraisal on job requirements as reflected in performance standards. – Ensure that employees clearly understand the performance standards. – Use clearly defined dimensions. – Use behaviorally-based dimensions supported by observable evidence. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 238
  • Study Question 2: What is performanceappraisal? Guidelines for ensuring the legality of performance appraisal systems (cont.). – Avoid abstract trait names. – Ensure that scale anchors are brief and logically consistent. – Ensure that the system is valid and psychometrically sound. – Provide an appeal mechanism to handle appraisal disagreements. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 239
  • Study Question 3: What arecompensation and rewards? Pay as an extrinsic reward. – Pay can help organizations attract and retain highly capable workers, and help satisfy and motivate these workers. – High levels of job performance must be viewed as the path through which high pay can be achieved. – Merit pay bases an individual’s salary or wage increase on the person’s performance. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 240
  • Study Question 3: What arecompensation and rewards? Pay as an extrinsic reward (cont.). – Merit pay should be based on realistic and accurate measures of individual work performance. – Some people argue that merit pay plans ignore the high degree of task interdependence among employees. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 241
  • Study Question 3: What arecompensation and rewards? Creative pay practices. – Skill-based pay. • Rewards people for acquiring and developing job- relevant skills. – Gain-sharing plans. • Give workers an opportunity to share in productivity gains through increased earnings. – Profit-sharing plans. • Reward employees based on the entire organization’s performance Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 242
  • Study Question 3: What arecompensation and rewards? Creative pay practices (cont.). – Employee stock ownership plans (ESOPs). • Give company stock to employees or allow them to purchase it at a price below market value – Lump-sum pay increases. • Provide wage or salary increase in one or more lump-sum payments. – Flexible benefit plans. • Allow workers to select benefits according to their individual needs. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 243
  • Study Question 4: What are humanresource development and person-job fit? Human resource development (HRD) and the person-job fit. – HRD and the person-job fit are key contributing activities in performance management and rewards. – Human resource strategic planning provides the foundation for HRD and the person-job fit. – Staffing, training, and career planning and development are important functions in HRD and achieving a person-job fit. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 244
  • Study Question 4: What are humanresource development and person-job fit? Job analysis. – The process and procedures used to collect and classify information about tasks the organization needs to complete. – Identifies the worker characteristics needed to perform the job. – Forms the basis for a job description and job specifications. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 245
  • Study Question 4: What are humanresource development and person-job fit? Recruitment. – The process of attracting the best qualified individuals to apply for a given job. – Typical recruitment steps. • Advertisement of a position vacancy. • Preliminary contact with potential job candidates. • Preliminary screening to obtain a pool of candidates. – Recruitment approaches are external or internal. – Realistic job previews. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 246
  • Study Question 4: What are humanresource development and person-job fit? Selection. – A series of steps from initial applicant screening to final hiring of the new employee. – Selection process. • Completing application materials. • Conducting an interview. • Completing any necessary tests. • Doing a background investigation. • Deciding to hire or not to hire. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 247
  • Study Question 4: What are humanresource development and person-job fit? Socialization. – Process that adapts employees to the organization’s culture. – Occurs during and after completion of the staffing process. – Phases of socialization. • Anticipatory socialization. • Encounter. • Change and acquisition. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 248
  • Study Question 4: What are humanresource development and person-job fit? Training. – A set of activities that provides the opportunity to acquire and improve job-related skills. – Types of training. • On-the-job training involves job instruction while performing the job in the actual workplace. • Off-the-job training commonly involves lectures, videos, and simulations, and increasingly is done through e-training. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 249
  • Study Question 4: What are humanresource development and person-job fit? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 250
  • Study Question 4: What are humanresource development and person-job fit? Adult life cycle and career stages. – The different problems and prospects of the adult life cycle affect people’s work and careers. – Career stages reflect the different responsibilities and achievements associated with people’s working lives. – Life cycle and career stages. • Entry and establishment or the provisional adulthood stage. • Advancement or the first adulthood stage. • Maintenance, withdrawal, and retirement or the second adulthood stage. . Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 251
  • Chapter 9 Study QuestionsWhat is the nature of groups inorganizations?What are the stages of group development?What are the foundations of groupperformance?How do groups make decisions? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 252
  • Study Question 1: What is the natureof groups in organizations? A group is a collection of two or more people who work with one another regularly to achieve common goals. In a true group, members are mutually dependent on one another and interact with one another. Hot groups thrive in conditions of crisis and competition. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 253
  • Study Question 1: What is the natureof groups in organizations? Effective groups achieve high levels of: – Task performance. • Members attain performance goals regarding quantity, quality, and timeliness of work results. – Members satisfaction. • Members believe that their participation and experiences are positive and meet important personal needs. – Team viability. • Members are sufficiently satisfied to continue working together on an ongoing basis. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 254
  • Study Question 1: What is the natureof groups in organizations? How groups help organizations – Groups are good for people. – Groups can improve creativity. – Groups can make better decisions. – Groups can increase commitments to action. – Groups help control their members. – Groups help offset large organization size. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 255
  • Study Question 1: What is the natureof groups in organizations? Situations in which groups are superior to individuals. – When there is no clear expert in a particular problem or task. – When problem solving can be handled by a division of labor and the sharing of information. – When creativity and innovation are needed. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 256
  • Study Question 1: What is the natureof groups in organizations? Potential benefits for group members. – People learn from each other and share job skills and knowledge. – Groups are important sources of need satisfaction for their members. – Members can provide emotional support for each other in times of crisis or pressure. – Members’ contributions can help them experience self-esteem and personal involvement. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 257
  • Study Question 1: What is the natureof groups in organizations? Social loafing. – The tendency of people to work less hard in a group than they would individually. – Reasons for social loafing. • Individual contributions are less noticeable in the group context. • Some individuals prefer to see others carry the workload. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 258
  • Study Question 1: What is the natureof groups in organizations? Ways of preventing social loafing. – Define member roles and tasks to maximize individual interests. – Raise accountability by identifying individuals’ performance contributions to the group. – Link individual rewards to performance contributions to the group. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 259
  • Study Question 1: What is the natureof groups in organizations? Social facilitation. – The tendency for a person’s behavior to be influenced by the presence of others. – Positively affects performance when a person is proficient on the task. – Negatively affects task performance when the task is not well-learned. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 260
  • Study Question 1: What is the natureof groups in organizations? Formal groups. – Officially designated to serve a specific organizational purpose. – The head of a formal group is responsible for the group’s performance and serves a “linking- pin” role. – May be permanent or temporary. • Permanent work groups are command groups. • Temporary work groups are task groups. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 261
  • Study Question 1: What is the natureof groups in organizations? Types of formal groups. – Cross-functional teams or task forces. • Engage in special problem-solving efforts drawing on input of the functional areas. – Project teams. • Formed to complete a specific task with a well-defined end point. – Virtual group. • Members work together via computers. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 262
  • Study Question 1: What is the natureof groups in organizations? Informal groups. – Emerge without being officially designated by the organization. – Types of informal groups. • Friendship groups. • Interest groups. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 263
  • Study Question 1: What is the natureof groups in organizations? Effects of informal groups. – Can help people get their jobs done. – Can speed up workflow by supplementing formal lines of authority. – Can satisfy needs that are thwarted or unmet by the formal group. – Can provide members with social satisfaction, security, and a sense of belonging. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 264
  • Study Question 2: What are thestages of group development? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 265
  • Study Question 2: What are thestages of group development? Forming stage. – Initial entry of members to a group. – Member challenges. • Getting to know each other. • Discovering what is considered acceptable behavior. • Determining the group’s real task. • Defining group rules. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 266
  • Study Question 2: What are thestages of group development? Storming stage. – A period of high emotionality and tension among group members. – Member challenges. • Hostility and infighting. • Formation of coalitions and cliques. • Clarification of members’ expectations. • Giving attention to obstacles to group goals. • Understanding one another’s interpersonal styles. • Finding ways to accomplish group goals while satisfying individual needs. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 267
  • Study Question 2: What are thestages of group development? Norming stage. – The point at which the group really begins to come together as a coordinated unit. – Member challenges. • Holding group together by maintaining a positive balance. • Letting the desire for group harmony obscure group problems. • Being mistaken about reaching ultimate maturity . Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 268
  • Study Question 2: What are thestages of group development? Performing stage. – Marks the emergence of a mature, organized, and well-functioning group. – Member challenges. • Meeting complex tasks and conflicts in creative ways. • Being motivated by group goals and achieving satisfaction. • Continuing to improve relationships and performance. • Adapting to changing opportunities and demands. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 269
  • Study Question 2: What are thestages of group development? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 270
  • Study Question 2: What are thestages of group development? Adjourning stage. – A well-integrated group is: • Able to disband when its work is finished. • Willing to work together in the future. – Particularly important for temporary groups. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 271
  • Study Question 3: What are thefoundations of group performance? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 272
  • Study Question 3: What are thefoundations of group performance? Tasks. – Technical demands of a task. • Routineness, difficulty, and information requirements. – Tasks that are complex in technical demands require unique solutions and more information processing. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 273
  • Study Question 3: What are thefoundations of group performance? Tasks (cont.). – Social demands of a task. • Relations, ego involvement, and controversies over ends and means. – Tasks that are complex in social demands involve difficulties in reaching agreement on goals or methods for accomplishing them. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 274
  • Study Question 3: What are thefoundations of group performance? Goals, rewards, and resources. – Long-term performance relies on: • Appropriate goals. • Well-designed reward systems. • Adequate resources. – A group’s performance can suffer when: • Goals are unclear, unchallenging, or arbitrarily imposed. • Goals are focused too much on individuals. • Adequate budgets, facilities, good work methods and procedures, and the best technologies are not available. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 275
  • Study Question 3: What are thefoundations of group performance? Technology. – Provides the means to get work accomplished. – The right technology must be available for the task at hand. – Workflow technology can affect the way group members interact. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 276
  • Study Question 3: What are thefoundations of group performance? Membership characteristics. – A group must have the right skills and competencies available for task performance and problem solving. • Homogeneous groups may not perform well if they lack the requisite experiences, skills, and competencies. • Heterogeneous groups may perform well if they effectively utilize a variety of experiences, skills, and competencies. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 277
  • Study Question 3: What are thefoundations of group performance? Membership characteristics (cont.). – Diversity-consensus dilemma. • Increasing diversity among group members makes it harder for group members to work together, even though the diversity itself expands the skills and perspectives available for problem solving. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 278
  • Study Question 3: What are thefoundations of group performance? Membership characteristics (cont.). – FIRO-B theory. • Identifies individual differences in how people relate to one another in groups. • Based on needs to express and receive feelings of inclusion, control, and affection. • Groups whose members have compatible characteristics are likely to be more effective. • Groups whose members have incompatible characteristics are likely to be less effective. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 279
  • Study Question 3: What are thefoundations of group performance? Membership characteristics (cont.). – Status. • A person’s relative rank, prestige, or standing in a group. – Status congruence. • Occurs when a person’s position within the group is equivalent in status to positions held outside the group. • When status incongruence is present, problems will likely occur. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 280
  • Study Question 3: What are thefoundations of group performance? Group size. – Can make a difference in a group’s effectiveness. – As group size increases, performance and member satisfaction increase up to a point. – As a group size continues to grow, communication and coordination problems often set in, and performance and satisfaction may decline. – Problem-solving groups should have 5 to 7 members. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 281
  • Study Question 3: What are thefoundations of group performance? Group dynamics concern the forces operating within groups that affect the way members relate to and work with one another. From a systems perspective, the throughputs for a group or team are group dynamics. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 282
  • Study Question 3: What are thefoundations of group performance? What goes on within groups. – Work group behaviors. • Required behaviors — those that are formally defined and expected by the organization. • Emergent behaviors — those that group members display in addition to what the organization asks of them. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 283
  • Study Question 3: What are thefoundations of group performance? What goes on within groups. – Member relationships. • Activities — the things people do or the actions they take. • Interactions — interpersonal communications and contacts. • Sentiments — the feelings, attitudes, beliefs, or values held by group members. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 284
  • Study Question 3: What are thefoundations of group performance? What goes on between groups. – Intergroup dynamics. • The dynamics that take place between two or more groups. – Ways to achieve positive intergroup dynamics. • Refocusing members on a common enemy or goal. • Negotiating directly. • Training members to work more cooperatively. • Refocusing rewards on contributions to the total organization and how much groups help each other. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 285
  • Study Question 3: What are the foundations ofgroup performance? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 286
  • Study Question 4: How do groupsmake decisions? How groups make decisions. – Decision by lack of response. • One idea after another is suggested without any discussion- taking place; when the group finally accepts the idea, all others have been bypassed and discarded by simple lack of response rather than by critical evaluation. – Decision by authority rule. • The chairperson, manager, or leader makes a decision for the group. – Decision by minority rule. • Two or three people are able to dominate or “railroad” the group into making a decision to which they agree. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 287
  • Study Question 4: How do groupsmake decisions? How groups make decisions (cont.). – Decision by majority rule. • Formal voting may take place, or members may be polled to find the majority viewpoint. – Decision by consensus. • Discussion leads to one alternative being favored by most members and the other members agree to support it. – Decision by unanimity. • All group members agree totally on the course of action to be taken. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 288
  • Study Question 4: How do groupsmake decisions? Potential advantages of group decision making. – More knowledge and expertise is applied to solve the problem. – A greater number of alternatives are examined. – The final decision is better understood and accepted by all group members. – More commitment among all group members to make the final decision work. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 289
  • Study Question 4: How do groupsmake decisions? Potential disadvantages of group decision making. – Individuals may feel compelled to conform to the apparent wishes of the group. – The group’s decision may be dominated by one individual or a small coalition. – Group decisions usually take longer to make. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 290
  • Study Question 4: How do groupsmake decisions? Ways to avoid groupthink. – Assign the role of critical evaluator to each group member. – Have the leader avoid seeming partial to one course of action. – Create subgroups that each work on the same problem. – Have group members discuss issues with outsiders and report back. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 291
  • Study Question 4: How do groupsmake decisions? Ways to avoid groupthink (cont.). – Invite outside experts to observe and react to group processes. – Assign someone to be a “devil’s advocate” at each meeting. – Write alternative scenarios for the intentions of competing groups. – Hold “second-chance” meetings after consensus is apparently achieved. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 292
  • Study Question 4: How do groupsmake decisions? How to improve group decisions. – Brainstorming. • Group members actively generate as many ideas and alternatives as possible, and they do so relatively quickly and without inhibitions. – Nominal group technique. • Puts people in small groups of six to seven members and asks everyone to respond individually and in writing to a “nominal” question. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 293
  • Study Question 4: How do groupsmake decisions? How to improve group decisions (cont.). – Delphi technique. • Involves generating decision-making alternatives through a series of survey questionnaires. – Computer-mediated decision making. • Group decision making takes place across great distances with the aid of group decision support systems. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 294
  • Chapter 10 Study QuestionsWhat is a the nature of teams andteamwork?What is team building?How does team building improveperformance?How do teams contribute to the high-performance workplace? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 295
  • Study Question 1: What is the natureof team and teamwork? A team is a small group of people with complementary skills, who work actively together to achieve a common purpose for which they hold themselves collectively accountable. Teams are one of the major forces behind revolutionary changes in contemporary organizations. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 296
  • Study Question 1: What is the natureof team and teamwork? Types of teams. – Teams that recommend things. • Established to study specific problems and recommend solutions to them. – Teams that run things. • Have formal responsibility for leading other groups. – Teams that make or do things. • Functional groups that perform ongoing tasks. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 297
  • Study Question 1: What is the natureof team and teamwork? Teamwork occurs when group members actively work together in such a way that all their respective skills are well utilized to achieve a common purpose. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 298
  • Study Question 1: What is the natureof team and teamwork? Characteristics of high performance teams. – They have strong core values. – They turn a general sense of purpose into specific performance objectives. – They have the right mix of skills. – They possess creativity. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 299
  • Study Question 1: What is the natureof team and teamwork? Characteristics of teams with homogeneous membership. – Members are similar with respect to such variables as age, gender, race, experience, ethnicity, and culture. – Members can quickly build social relations and engage in the interactions needed for teamwork. – Homogeneity may limit the team in terms of ideas, viewpoints, and creativity. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 300
  • Study Question 1: What is the natureof team and teamwork? Characteristics of teams with heterogeneous membership. – Members are diverse in demography, experiences, life styles, and cultures, among other variables. – Diversity can help improve team problem solving and increase creativity. – Diversity among team members may create performance difficulties early in the team’s life or stage of development. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 301
  • Study Question 1: What is the natureof team and teamwork? Characteristics of teams with heterogeneous membership (cont.). – Enhanced performance potential is possible once short-run struggles are resolved. – Diversity can provide great advantages for high- performance organizations. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 302
  • Study Question 2: What is teambuilding? Work groups and teams must master challenges as they pass through the various stages of group development. Team building is a sequence of planned activities designed to gather and analyze data on the functioning of a group and to initiate changes designed to improve teamwork and increase group effectiveness. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 303
  • Study Question 2: What is teambuilding? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 304
  • Study Question 2: What is teambuilding? Approaches to team building. – Formal retreat approach. • Team building occurs during an offsite retreat. – Continuous improvement approach. • The manager, team leader, or members take responsibility for ongoing team building. – Outdoor experience approach. • Members engage in physically challenging situations that require teamwork. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 305
  • Study Question 3: How does teambuilding improve performance? New members are concerned about issues of: – Participation. – Goals. – Control. – Relationships. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 306
  • Study Question 3: How does teambuilding improve performance? Behavior profiles of coping with individual entry problems. – Tough battler. – Friendly helper. – Objective thinker. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 307
  • Study Question 3: How does teambuilding improve performance? Task and maintenance leadership. – Sustained high performance requires meeting both task needs and maintenance needs. – High-performance teams require distributed leadership. – Distributive leadership is the sharing among team members of the responsibilities for task and maintenance contributions. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 308
  • Study Question 3: How does teambuilding improve performance? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 309
  • Study Question 3: How does teambuilding improve performance? Groups members should avoid the following disruptive behaviors: – Being overly aggressive toward other members. – Withdrawing and refusing to cooperate with others. – Horsing around when there is work to be done. – Using the group as a forum for self-confession. – Talking too much about irrelevant matters. – Trying to compete for attention and recognition. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 310
  • Study Question 3: How does teambuilding improve performance? Roles and role dynamics. – A role is a set of expectations associated with a job or position on a team. – Role ambiguity — occurs when a person is uncertain about his/her role. – Role overload — occurs when too much is expected and the person feels overwhelmed with work. – Role underload — occurs when too little is expected and the person feels underutilized. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 311
  • Study Question 3: How does teambuilding improve performance? Roles and role dynamics (cont.). – Role conflict — occurs when a person is unable to meet conflicting expectations. – Forms of role conflict. • Intrasender role conflict. • Intersender role conflict. • Person-role conflict. • Interrole conflict. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 312
  • Study Question 3: How does teambuilding improve performance? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 313
  • Study Question 3: How does teambuilding improve performance? Norms represent beliefs about how group or team members are expected to behave. Norms are rules or standards of conduct. Managers and leaders should help their groups adopt positive norms that support organizational goals. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 314
  • Study Question 3: How does teambuilding improve performance? Key norms that can have positive or negative implications. – Performance norms. – Ethics norms. – Organizational and personal pride norms. – High-achievement norms. – Support and helpfulness norms. – Improvement and change norms. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 315
  • Study Question 3: How does teambuilding improve performance? Cohesiveness is the degree to which members are attached to and motivated to remain a part of the team High team cohesiveness occurs when: – Members are similar in age, attitudes, needs, and backgrounds. – Group size is small. – Members respect each others’ competencies. – Members agree on common goals. – Members work on interdependent tasks. – Groups are physically isolated from others. – Groups experience performance success or crisis. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 316
  • Study Question 3: How does teambuilding improve performance? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 317
  • Study Question 3: How does teambuilding improve performance? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 318
  • Study Question 4: How do teams contribute tothe high-performance workplace? Problem-solving teams. – Employee involvements teams include a wide variety of teams whose members meet regularly to collectively examine important workplace issues. – Quality circle. • A special type of employee involvement team. • Team meets periodically to address problems relating to quality, productivity, or cost. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 319
  • Study Question 4: How do teams contribute tothe high-performance workplace? Cross-functional teams. – Consist of members representing different functional departments or work units. – Used to overcome functional silos problem. – Used to solve problems with a positive combination of functional expertise and integrative systems thinking. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 320
  • Study Question 4: How do teams contribute tothe high-performance workplace? Advantages of virtual teams. – Cost-effectiveness and speed where members are unable to meet easily face-to-face. – Computer power fulfills typical team needs for information processing and decision making. – Communication is possible among people separated by great distances. – Interaction and decision making are focused on facts and objective information rather than emotional considerations. – . Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 321
  • Study Question 4: How do teams contribute tothe high-performance workplace? Disadvantages of virtual teams. – The lack of personal contact between team members. – Group decisions are made in a limited social context. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 322
  • Study Question 4: How do teams contribute tothe high-performance workplace? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 323
  • Study Question 4: How do teams contribute tothe high-performance workplace? Advantages of self-managing teams. – Productivity and quality improvements. – Production flexibility and faster response to technological change. – Reduced absenteeism and turnover. – Improved work attitudes and quality of work life. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 324
  • Study Question 4: How do teams contribute tothe high-performance workplace? Disadvantages of self-managing teams. – Structural changes in job classifications and management levels eliminate the need for first-line supervisors. – Managers must learn to deal with teams rather than individuals. – Supervisors who are displaced by self-managing teams may feel threatened. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 325
  • Chapter 11 Study QuestionsWhat is leadership and how does it differfrom management?What are situational contingencyapproaches to leadership ?What are attributional approaches toleadership?What are some emerging leadershipperspectives and why are they especiallyimportant in today’s organizations? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 326
  • Study Question 1: What is leadership andhow does it differ from management? Management promotes stability or enables the organization to run smoothly. Leadership promotes adaptive or useful changes. Persons in managerial positions may be involved with both management and leadership. Both management and leadership are needed for organizational success. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 327
  • Study Question 1: What is leadership andhow does it differ from management? Leadership is a special case of interpersonal influence that gets an individual or group to do what the leader or manager wants done. Forms of leadership. – Formal leadership. – Informal leadership. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 328
  • Study Question 1: What is leadership andhow does it differ from management? Approaches to leadership. – Trait and behavioral perspectives. – Situational contingency perspectives. – Attributional perspectives. – New leadership perspectives. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 329
  • Study Question 1: What is leadership andhow does it differ from management? Trait theories. – Assume that traits play a key role in: • Differentiating between leaders and nonleaders. • Predicting leader or organizational outcomes. – Great person-trait approach. • Earliest approach in studying leadership. • Tried to determine the traits that characterized great leaders. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 330
  • Study Question 1: What is leadership andhow does it differ from management? Pick up Figure 11.1 from the textbook. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 331
  • Study Question 1: What is leadership andhow does it differ from management? Behavioral theories. – Assume that leader behaviors are crucial for explaining performance and other organizational outcomes. – Focus on leader behaviors rather than traits. – Major behavioral theories. • Michigan leadership studies. • Ohio State leadership studies. • Leadership Grid. • Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) theory. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 332
  • Study Question 1: What is leadership andhow does it differ from management? Michigan leadership studies. – Employee-centered supervisors. • Place strong emphasis on subordinate’s welfare. – Production-centered supervisors. • Place strong emphasis on getting the work done. – Employee-centered supervisors have more productive work groups than production- centered supervisors. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 333
  • Study Question 1: What is leadership andhow does it differ from management? Ohio State leadership studies. – Consideration. • Concerned with people’s feelings and making things pleasant for the followers. – Initiating structure. • Concerned with defining task requirements and other aspects of the work agenda. – Effective leaders should be high on both consideration and initiating structure. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 334
  • Study Question 1: What is leadership andhow does it differ from management? Leadership Grid. – Developed by Robert Blake and Jane Mouton. – Built on dual emphasis of consideration and initiating structure. – A 9 x 9 Grid (matrix) reflecting levels of concern for people and concern for task. • 1 reflects minimum concern. • 9 reflects maximum concern. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 335
  • Study Question 1: What is leadership andhow does it differ from management? Leadership Grid (cont.). – Five key Grid combinations. • 1/1 — low concern for production, low concern for people. • 1/9 — low concern for production, high concern for people. • 9/1 — high concern for production, low concern for people. • 5/5 — moderate concern for production, moderate concern for people. • 9/9 — high concern for production, high concern for people. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 336
  • Study Question 1: What is leadership andhow does it differ from management? Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) theory. – Focuses on the quality of the working relationship between leaders and followers. – LMX dimensions determine followers’ membership in leader’s “in group” or “out group.” – Different relationships with “in group” and “out group.” Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 337
  • Study Question 2: What are situationalcontingency approaches to leadership? Leader traits and behaviors can act in conjunction with situational contingencies. The effects of leader traits are enhanced by their relevance to situational contingencies. Major situational contingency theories. – Fiedler’s leadership contingency theory. – Fiedler’s cognitive resource theory. – House’s path-goal theory of leadership. – Hersey and Blanchard’s situational leadership model. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 338
  • Study Question 2: What are the situationalcontingency approaches to leadership? Key variables in Fiedler’s contingency model. – Situational control. • The extent to which a leader can determine what his or her group is going to do as well as the outcomes of the group’s actions and decisions. • Is a function of: – Leader-member relations. – Task structure. – Position power. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 339
  • Study Question 2: What are situationalcontingency approaches to leadership? Key variables in Fiedler’s contingency model (cont.). – Least preferred co-worker (LPC) score reflects a person’s leadership style. • High-LPC leaders have a relationship-motivated style. • Low-LPC leaders have a task-motivated style. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 340
  • Study Question 2: What are situationalcontingency approaches to leadership? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 341
  • Study Question 2: What are situationalcontingency approaches to leadership? Fiedler’s cognitive resource theory. – A leader’s use of directive or nondirective behavior depends on: • The leader’s or subordinate group members’ ability or competency. • Stress. • Experience. • Group support of the leader. – Leader directiveness is most helpful for performance when the leader is competent, relaxed, and supported. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 342
  • Study Question 2: What are situationalcontingency approaches to leadership? House’s path-goal theory of leadership. – Rooted in the expectancy model of motivation. – Emphasizes how a leader influences subordinates’ perceptions of both work goals and personal goals and the links, or paths, found between these two sets of goals. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 343
  • Study Question 2: What are situationalcontingency approaches to leadership? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 344
  • Study Question 2: What are situationalcontingency approaches to leadership? Path-goal theory predictions. – Directive leadership will have a positive impact on subordinates when tasks are ambiguous and the opposite effect when tasks are clear. – Supportive leadership will increase the satisfaction of subordinates who work on tasks that are highly repetitive, unpleasant, stressful, or frustrating. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 345
  • Study Question 2: What are situationalcontingency approaches to leadership? Path-goal theory predictions (cont.). – Achievement-oriented leadership will encourage subordinates to strive for higher performance standards and to have more confidence in their ability to meet challenging goals when subordinates are working at ambiguous, nonrepetitive tasks. – Participative leadership will promote satisfaction on nonrepetitive tasks that allow for the ego involvement of subordinates. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 346
  • Study Question 2: What are situationalcontingency approaches to leadership? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 347
  • Study Question 2: What are situationalcontingency approaches to leadership? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 348
  • Study Question 3: What are attributionalapproaches to leadership? Attribution theory provides a competing perspective to the traditional leadership theory assumption that leadership and its substantive effects can be identified and measured objectively. Attribution theory suggests that leadership is influenced by attempts to understand causes of and assess responsibilities for behavior. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 349
  • Study Question 3: What are attributionalapproaches to leadership? Leadership prototypes. – People’s mental image of what a model leader should look like. – Mix of specific and general characteristics. – Prototypes may differ by country and national culture. – The closer that a leader’s behavior matches the prototype held by the followers, the more favorable the leader’s relations and key outcomes. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 350
  • Study Question 3: What are attributionalapproaches to leadership? Exaggeration of the leadership difference. – Top leaders of organizations have little impact on profits and effectiveness compared to environmental and industry forces. – Much of the impact of top leaders is symbolic. – The romance of leadership refers to people attributing romantic, almost magical, qualities to leadership. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 351
  • Study Question 4: What are some emergingleadership perspectives and why are theyespecially important in today’s organizations? Charismatic approaches to leadership. – Charismatic leaders, by force of their personal abilities, can have a profound and extraordinary effect on followers. – Characteristics of charismatic leaders include: • High need for power. • High feelings of self-efficacy. • Conviction in the moral rightness of their beliefs. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 352
  • Study Question 4: What are some emergingleadership perspectives and why are theyespecially important in today’s organizations? Dark side versus bright side of charismatic leadership. – Dark side. • Emphasizes personalized power. • Leaders focus on themselves. – Bright side. • Emphasizes socialized power. • Leaders empower followers. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 353
  • Study Question 4: What are some emergingleadership perspectives and why are theyespecially important in today’s organizations? Conger and Kanungo’s three-stage charismatic leadership model. – Stage 1: the leader critically evaluates the status quo. – Stage 2: the leader formulates and articulates future goals and a idealized future vision. – Stage 3: the leader shows how the goals and vision can be achieved. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 354
  • Study Question 4: What are some emergingleadership perspectives and why are theyespecially important in today’s organizations? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 355
  • Study Question 4: What are some emergingleadership perspectives and why are theyespecially important in today’s organizations? Transactional leadership. – Involves leader-follower exchanges necessary for achieving routine performance that is agreed upon by leaders and followers. – Leader-follower exchanges involve: • Use of contingent rewards. • Active management by exception. • Passive management by exception. • Abdicating responsibilities and avoiding decisions. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 356
  • Study Question 4: What are some emergingleadership perspectives and why are theyespecially important in today’s organizations? Transformational leadership. – Leaders broaden and elevate followers’ interests, generate awareness and acceptance of the group’s mission, and stir followers to look beyond self-interests. – Dimensions of transformational leadership. • Charisma. • Inspiration. • Intellectual stimulation. • Individualized consideration. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 357
  • Study Question 4: What are some emergingleadership perspectives and why are theyespecially important in today’s organizations? Leadership in self-managing work teams. – Leaders provide resources or act as liaisons with other units but without the trappings of authority associated with traditional first-line supervisors. – Conditions for creating and maintaining team performance. • Efficient, goal-directed effort. • Adequate resources. • Competent, motivated performance. • A productive, supportive climate. • Commitment to continuous improvement and adaptation. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 358
  • Study Question 4: What are some emergingleadership perspectives and why are theyespecially important in today’s organizations? Can people be trained in the new leadership? – People can be trained to adopt new leadership approaches. – Leaders can devise improvement programs to address their weaknesses and work with trainers to develop their leadership skills. – Leaders can be trained in charismatic skills. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 359
  • Study Question 4: What are some emergingleadership perspectives and why are theyespecially important in today’s organizations? Is new leadership always good? – Not always good. – Dark-side charismatics can have negative effects on followers. – Not always needed. – Needs to be used in conjunction with traditional leadership. – Applies at all levels of organizational leadership. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 360
  • Chapter 12 Study QuestionsWhat are power and influence in anorganization?How are power, obedience, and formalauthority intertwined in an organization?What is empowerment?What is organizational politics? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 361
  • Study Question 1: What are powerand influence in an organization? Power. – The ability to get someone to do something you want done. – The ability to make things happen in the way you want. Influence. – Expressed by others’ behavioral response to your exercise of power. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 362
  • Study Question 1: What are powerand influence in an organization? Position power derives from a person’s position in the organizational hierarchy. Types of position power. – Reward power. – Coercive power. – Legitimate power. – Process power. – Information power. – Representative power. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 363
  • Study Question 1: What are powerand influence in an organization? Reward power. – The extent to which a manager can use extrinsic and intrinsic rewards to control other people. Coercive power. – The extent to which a manager can deny desired rewards and administer punishment to control other people. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 364
  • Study Question 1: What are powerand influence in an organization? Legitimate power. – The extent to which a manager can use subordinates’ internalized values or beliefs that the boss has the “right of command” to control other people. Process power. – The control over methods of production and analysis that a manager has due to being in a position to influence how inputs are transformed into outputs. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 365
  • Study Question 1: What are powerand influence in an organization? Information power. – The access to and/or control of information. . Representative power. – The formal right conferred by the firm to speak for a potentially important group composed of individuals across departments or outside the firm. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 366
  • Study Question 1: What are powerand influence in an organization? Personal power derives from individual sources. Types of personal power. – Expert power. – Rational persuasion. – Referent power. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 367
  • Study Question 1: What are powerand influence in an organization? Expert power. – The ability to control another person’s behavior through the possession of knowledge, experience, or judgment that the other person does not have but needs. Rational persuasion. – The ability to control another person’s behavior by convincing the other person of the desirability of a goal and a reasonable way of achieving it. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 368
  • Study Question 1: What are powerand influence in an organization? Referent power. – The ability to control another’s behavior because the person wants to identify with the power source. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 369
  • Study Question 1: What are powerand influence in an organization? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 370
  • Study Question 1: What are powerand influence in an organization? Ways to build position power. – Demonstrating work unit relevance to organizational goals and needs. – Increasing task relevance of one’s own activities and work unit’s activities. – Attempting to define tasks so they are difficult to evaluate. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 371
  • Study Question 1: What are powerand influence in an organization? Ways to build personal power. – Building expertise. • Advanced training and education, participation in professional associations, and project involvement. – Learning political savvy. • Learning ways to negotiate, persuade, and understand goals and means that others accept. – Enhancing likeability. • Pleasant personality characteristics, agreeable behavior patterns, and attractive personal appearance. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 372
  • Study Question 1: What are powerand influence in an organization? Ways that managers increase the visibility of their job performance. – Expanding contacts with senior people. – Making oral presentations of written work. – Participating in problem-solving task forces. – Sending out notices of accomplishment. – Seeking opportunities to increase name recognition. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 373
  • Study Question 1: What are powerand influence in an organization? Controlling decision premises. – Executives attempt to control, or at least influence, decision premises. – A decision premise is a basis for defining the problem and for selecting among alternatives. – Executives who want to increase their power will make their goals and needs clear and bargain effectively. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 374
  • Study Question 1: What are powerand influence in an organization? Common techniques for exercising relational influence. – Reason. – Friendliness. – Coalition. – Bargaining. – Assertiveness. – Higher authority. – Sanctions. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 375
  • Study Question 2: How are power, obedience,and formal authority intertwined in anorganization? Important practical issues in the exercise of power and formal authority. – Why should subordinates respond to a manager’s authority (or “right to command”)? – Given that subordinates are willing to obey, what determines the limits of obedience? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 376
  • Study Question 2: How are power, obedience,and formal authority intertwined in anorganization? The Milgram experiments. – Designed to determine the extent to which people obey the commands of an authority figure, even if they believe they are endangering the life of another person. – The results indicated that the majority of the experimental subjects would obey the commands of the authority figure. – Basic conclusion was that people tend to comply with and be obedient to authority. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 377
  • Study Question 2: How are power, obedience,and formal authority intertwined in anorganization? For a directive from a superior to be accepted as authoritative, the subordinate: – Can and must understand it. – Must feel mentally and physically capable of carrying it out. – Must believe that it is consistent with the organization’s purpose. – Must believe that it is consistent with his or her personal interests. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 378
  • Study Question 2: How are power, obedience,and formal authority intertwined in anorganization? Zone of indifference. – In exchange for certain inducements, subordinates recognize the authority of the organization and its managers to direct their behavior in certain ways. – A zone of indifference is the range of authoritative requests to which a subordinate is willing to respond without subjecting the directives to critical evaluation or judgment. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 379
  • Study Question 2: How are power, obedience,and formal authority intertwined in anorganization? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 380
  • Study Question 3: What is empowerment? Empowerment. – The process by which managers help others to acquire and use the power needed to make decisions affecting themselves and their work. – Provides the foundation for self-managing work teams and other employee involvement groups. – Empowerment emphasizes the ability to make things happen. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 381
  • Study Question 3: What is empowerment? Changing position power. – Moving power down the hierarchy alters the existing pattern of position power. – Changing this pattern raises the following important questions: • Can “empowered” individuals give rewards and sanctions based on task accomplishment? • Has their new right to act been legitimized with formal authority? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 382
  • Study Question 3: What is empowerment? Expanding the zone of indifference. – Management needs to recognize the current zone of indifference and systematically move to expand it. – Management should show how empowerment will benefit people and provide the needed inducement. – . Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 383
  • Study Question 3: What is empowerment? Power as an expanding pie. – Employees need to be trained to expand their power and their new influence potential. – The key is to change from a view stressing power over others to one emphasizing the use of power to get things done. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 384
  • Study Question 3: What is empowerment? Power as an expanding pie. – Clearer definition of roles and responsibilities helps managers empower others. – All mangers need to emphasize different ways of exercising influence. – Special support may be needed for individuals to become comfortable. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 385
  • Study Question 4: What is organizationalpolitics? Machiavellian tradition of organizational politics. – Emphasizes self-interest and the use of nonsanctioned means. – Organizational politics is defined as the management of influence to obtain ends not sanctioned by the organization or to obtain sanctioned ends through nonsanctioned influence means. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 386
  • Study Question 4: What is organizationalpolitics? Alternate tradition of organizational politics. – Politics is a necessary function resulting from differences in the self-interests of individuals. – Politics is the art of creative compromise among competing interests. – Politics is the use of power to develop socially acceptable ends and means that balance individual and collective interests. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 387
  • Study Question 4: What is organizationalpolitics? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 388
  • Study Question 4: What is organizationalpolitics? Subunit power. – Line units are typically more powerful than are staff groups. – Units toward the top of the organizational hierarchy are often more powerful than those toward the bottom. – Power differentials are not as pronounced among units at or near the same level in an organization. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 389
  • Study Question 4: What is organizationalpolitics? Political actions for influencing lateral, intergroup relationships. – Workflow linkages. – Service linkages. – Advisory linkages. – Auditing linkages. – Approval linkages. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 390
  • Study Question 4: What is organizationalpolitics? Important aspects of corporate political strategy. – Absence of a political strategy can be damaging. – Corporate political strategy should be targeted toward turning the government from a regulator against industry to a protector of it. – Need to make decisions about when and how to get involved in the public policy processes. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 391
  • Study Question 4: What is organizationalpolitics? Avoidance is quite common where the employee must risk being wrong or where actions may yield a sanction. Common techniques for avoiding action and risk taking. – Working to the rules. – Playing dumb. – Depersonalization. – Stalling. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 392
  • Study Question 4: What is organizationalpolitics? Common techniques for redirecting accountability and responsibility. – Passing the buck. – Buffing (or rigorous documentation). – Preparing a blind memo. – Rewriting history. – Redirecting. • Scapegoating. • Blaming the problem on uncontrollable events. • Escalating commitment. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 393
  • Study Question 4: What is organizationalpolitics? Defending turf. – Defending turf is a time-honored tradition in most large organizations. – Defending turf results when: • Managers seek to increase their power by expanding the jobs their groups perform. • Competing interests exist among various departments and groups. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 394
  • Study Question 4: What is organizationalpolitics? Agency theory. – An important power problem arises from the separation of owners and managers. – Managers are “agents” of the owners. – Public corporations can function effectively even though its managers are self-interested. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 395
  • Study Question 4: What is organizationalpolitics? Key arguments of agency theory. – By protecting stockholder interests, all the interests of society are served. – Stockholders have a clear interest in greater returns. – Managers are self-interested and must be controlled. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 396
  • Study Question 4: What is organizationalpolitics? Types of controls instituted for agents. – Pay plan incentives that align the interests of management and stockholders. – The establishment of a strong, independent board of directors. – Stockholders with a large stake in the firm taking an active role on the board. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 397
  • Study Question 4: What is organizationalpolitics? Resource dependencies. – The firm’s need for resources that are controlled by others. The resource dependence of an organization increases as: – Needed resources become more scarce. – Outsiders have more control over needed resources. – There are fewer substitutes for a particular type of resource controlled by a limited number of outsiders. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 398
  • Study Question 4: What is organizationalpolitics? Organizational governance. – The pattern of authority, influence, and acceptable managerial behavior established at the top of the organization. – Organizational governance establishes the following: • What is important. • How issues will be defined. • Who should and should not be involved in key choices • Boundaries for acceptable implementation. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 399
  • Study Question 4: What is organizationalpolitics? Negative views of organizational governance. – Unbalanced organizational governance by some United States corporations may limit their ability to manage global operations effectively. – Organizational governance is too closely tied to the short-term interests of stockholders and the pay of the CEO. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 400
  • Study Question 4: What is organizationalpolitics? Positive views of organizational governance. – The governance of U.S. firms extends well beyond the limited interests of the owners. – Organization governance should be based on three ethical criteria. – When the three ethical criteria cannot be fulfilled, the criterion of overwhelming factors should be invoked. – Choosing to be ethical often involves considerable personal sacrifice. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 401
  • Chapter 13 Study QuestionsWhat is the nature of communication inorganizations?What are the essentials of interpersonalcommunication?What are the barriers to effectivecommunication?What are current issues in organizationalcommunication? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 402
  • Study Question 1: What is the natureof communication in organizations? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 403
  • Study Question 1: What is the natureof communication in organizations? Feedback and communication. – Feedback is the process through which the receiver communicates with the sender by returning another message. – Giving feedback often is associated with one or more persons communicating an evaluation of what another person has said or done. – 360-degree feedback. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 404
  • Study Question 1: What is the natureof communication in organizations? Guidelines for effective constructive feedback. – Give feedback directly and in a spirit of mutual trust. – Be specific, not general; use clear examples. – Give feedback when the receiver is most ready to accept it. – Be accurate; check validity with others. – Focus on things that the receiver can control. – Limit how much feedback the receiver gets at one time. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 405
  • Study Question 1: What is the natureof communication in organizations? Communication channels. – Formal channels. • Follow the chain of command established by an organization’s hierarchy of authority. – Informal channels. • Do not follow an organization’s hierarchy of authority. • The grapevine is an informal channel through which rumors and unofficial information pass. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 406
  • Study Question 1: What is the natureof communication in organizations? Channel richness. – The capacity of a communication channel to convey information effectively. – Richest channels — face-to-face communication. – Moderately rich channels — telephone, electronic chat rooms, E-mail, written memos, and letters. – Leanest channels — posted notices and bulletins. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 407
  • Study Question 1: What is the natureof communication in organizations? Organizational communication is the specific process through which information moves and is exchanged throughout an organization. Information flows: – Through formal and informal structures. – Downward, upward, and laterally. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 408
  • Study Question 1: What is the natureof communication in organizations? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 409
  • Study Question 2: What are the essentialsof interpersonal communication? Effective and efficient communication. – Effective communication. • The accuracy of communication. – Efficient communication. • The cost of communication. – Effectiveness does not guarantee efficiency or vice versa. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 410
  • Study Question 2: What are the essentialsof interpersonal communication? Nonverbal communication. – Occurs through facial expressions, body position, eye contact, and other physical gestures. – Gives clues to what a person is really thinking. – Two important aspects of nonverbal communication. • Kinesics  the study of gestures and body postures. • Proxemics  the study of how space is utilized. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 411
  • Study Question 2: What are the essentialsof interpersonal communication? Active listening. – Ability to listen well is a distinct asset. – Everyone needs to develop good skills in active listening. – Active listening is the ability to help the source of a message say what he or she really means. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 412
  • Study Question 2: What are the essentialsof interpersonal communication? Guidelines for active listening. – Listen for content. – Listen for feelings. – Respond to feelings. – Note all cues. – Reflect back. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 413
  • Study Question 2: What are the essentialsof interpersonal communication? Cross-cultural communication. – Ethnocentrism. • The tendency to believe that one’s culture and its values are superior to those of others. – Cross-cultural communication challenges. • Language differences. • Use of gestures. – One of the best ways to understand cultural differences is to learn some of the language. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 414
  • Study Question 3: What are thebarriers to effective communication? Physical distractions. – Any aspect of the physical setting in which communication takes place. – Can interfere with communication effectiveness. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 415
  • Study Question 3: What are thebarriers to effective communication? Semantic problems. – Involves a poor choice or use of words. – Use the KISS principle of communication. • “Keep it short and simple.” Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 416
  • Study Question 3: What are thebarriers to effective communication? Mixed messages. – Occur when a person’s words communicate one thing while actions or body language communicates another. – Nonverbals add important insights in face-to- face meetings. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 417
  • Study Question 3: What are thebarriers to effective communication? Absence of feedback. – One-way communication flows from sender to receiver only, with no direct and immediate feedback. – Two-way communication goes from sender to receiver and back again. – Two-way communication is more effective than one-way communication. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 418
  • Study Question 3: What are thebarriers to effective communication? Status effects. – Status differences create potential communication barriers between persons of higher and lower ranks . – Mum effect. • Occurs when people are reluctant to transmit bad news. – Management by wandering around (MBWA). • Getting out of the office to directly communicate with others as they do their jobs. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 419
  • Study Question 4: What are current issuesin organizational communication? Advances in information technologies enable organizations to: – Distribute information much faster. – Make more information available. – Allow broader and more immediate access to information. – Encourage participation in the sharing and use of information. – Integrate systems and functions, and use information to link with the environment. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 420
  • Study Question 4: What are current issuesin organizational communication? Potential disadvantages of electronic communications. – Technologies are impersonal. – Nonverbal communication is removed from situation. – Can unduly influence the emotional aspects of communication. – Information overload. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 421
  • Study Question 4: What are current issuesin organizational communication? Communication and social context. – Mean and women are socialized into different communication styles. • Women are socialized to be more sensitive to interpersonal relationships in communication. • Men are socialized to be competitive, aggressive, and individualistic, which may cause communication problems. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 422
  • Chapter 14 Study QuestionsWhat is the decision-making process inorganizations?What are the useful decision-makingmodels?How do intuition, judgment, and creativityaffect decision making? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 423
  • Chapter 14 Study Questions (cont.)How do you manage the decision-makingprocess?What are some of the current issues indecision making?How do you infuse ethics into the decision-making process? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 424
  • Study Question 1: What is the decision-making process in organizations? Decision making is the process of choosing a course of action for dealing with a problem or opportunity. Steps in systematic decision making. – Recognize and define the problem or opportunity. – Identify and analyze alternative courses of action, and estimate their effects on the problem or opportunity. – Choose a preferred course of action. – Implement the preferred course of action. – Evaluate the results and follow up as necessary. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 425
  • Study Question 1: What is the decision-making process in organizations? Certain decision environments. – Exist when information is sufficient to predict the results of each alternative in advance of implementation. Risk decision environments. – Exist when decision makers lack complete certainty regarding the outcomes of various courses of action, but they are aware of the probabilities associated with their occurrence. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 426
  • Study Question 1: What is the decision-making process in organizations? Uncertain decision environments. – Exist when managers have so little information on hand that they cannot even assign probabilities to various alternatives and their possible outcomes. – Described as a rapidly changing setting in terms of: • External conditions. • The information technology requirements needed for analyzing and making decisions. • The people who influence problem and choice definitions. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 427
  • Study Question 1: What is the decision-making process in organizations? Uncertain decision environments (cont.). – Can be described in terms of types of risks encountered by the organization. • Strategic risks are threats to overall business success. • Operational risks are threats inherent in the technologies used to reach business success. • Reputation risks are threats to a brand or to the firm’s reputation Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 428
  • Study Question 1: What is the decision-making process in organizations? Types of decisions. – Programmed decisions. • Involve routine problems that arise regularly and can be addressed through standard responses. – Nonprogrammed decisions. • Involve nonroutine problems that require solutions specifically tailored to the situation at hand. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 429
  • Study Question 2:What are the usefuldecision-making models? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 430
  • Study Question 2:What are the usefuldecision-making models? Classical decision theory assumes the manager faces a clearly defined problem, knows all possible action alternatives and their consequences, and then chooses the optimum solution. Widespread application of classical decision theory is restricted by bounded rationality. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 431
  • Study Question 2:What are the usefuldecision-making models? Classical decision theory does not appear to fit well in the modern business world, though it can be used toward the bottom of many firms. Behavioral decision theory accepts the notion of bounded rationality. It assumes the manager acts only in terms of what is perceived about a given situation, and then chooses a satisficing solution. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 432
  • Study Question 2:What are the usefuldecision-making models? The garbage can model. – A model of decision making that views problems, solutions, participants, and choice situations as mixed together in the “garbage can” of the organization. – The garbage can model highlights two important organizational facts of life. • Different individuals may do choice making and implementation. • Many problems go unsolved. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 433
  • Study Question 2:What are the usefuldecision-making models? Decision making realities. – Decision making information may not be available. – Bounded rationality and cognitive limitations affect the way people define problems, identify alternatives, and choose preferred solutions. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 434
  • Study Question 2:What are the usefuldecision-making models? Decision making realities (cont.). – Most decision making in organizations goes beyond step-by-step rational choice. – Decisions must be made under risk and uncertainty. – Decisions should be ethical. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 435
  • Study Question 3: How do intuition, judgment,and creativity affect decision making? Intuition. – The ability to know or recognize quickly and readily the possibilities of a given situation. – A key element of decision making under risk and uncertainty. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 436
  • Study Question 3: How do intuition, judgment,and creativity affect decision making? Judgmental heuristics. – Simplifying strategies or “rules of thumb” used to make decisions. – Make it easier to to deal with uncertainty and limited information. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 437
  • Study Question 3: How do intuition, judgment,and creativity affect decision making? Types of heuristics. – Availability heuristic. • Bases a decision on similarity to past occurrences that are easily remembered. – Representativeness heuristic. • Bases a decision on similarities between an event and stereotypes of similar occurrences. – Anchoring and adjustment heuristic. • Bases a decision on incremental adjustments to an initial value determined by historical precedent or some reference point. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 438
  • Study Question 3: How do intuition, judgment,and creativity affect decision making? General judgmental biases in decision making. – Confirmation trap. • The tendency to seek confirmation for what is already thought to be true and to not search for disconfirming information. – Hindsight trap. • The tendency to overestimate the degree to which an event that has already taken place could have been predicted. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 439
  • Study Question 3: How do intuition, judgment,and creativity affect decision making? Stages in the creative thinking process. – Preparation. – Concentration. – Incubation. – Illumination – Verification. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 440
  • Study Question 3: How do intuition, judgment,and creativity affect decision making? Ways of fostering creativity. – Diversifying teams to include members with different backgrounds, training, and perspectives. – Encouraging analogical reasoning. – Stressing periods of silent reflection. – Recording all ideas so that the same ones are not rediscovered. – Establishing high expectations for creativity. – Developing a physical space that encourages fun, divergent ideas. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 441
  • Study Question 3: How do intuition, judgment,and creativity affect decision making? Creativity is higher when: – Linguistic ability, willingness to engage in divergent thinking, and intelligence are present. – Individuals are motivated by and derive satisfaction from task accomplishment. – There are opportunities for creativity, as many constraints as possible are eliminated, and rewards are provided for creative efforts. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 442
  • Study Question 3: How do intuition, judgment,and creativity affect decision making? Creativity is higher when (cont.): – The decision maker emphasizes engagement in the creative process and counsels individuals to share their ideas with others. – The decision maker encourages subordinates to recognize ambiguity, contact others with different views, and be prepared to make considerable changes. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 443
  • Study Question 4: How do youmanage the decision-making process? In choosing problems to address, ask and answer the following questions: – Is the problem easy to deal with? – Might the problem resolve itself? – Is this my decision to make? – Is this a solvable problem within the context of the organization? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 444
  • Study Question 4: How do youmanage the decision-making process? Reasons for decision making failure. – Managers too often copy others’ choices and try to sell them to subordinates. – Subordinates may believe the manager is imposing his or her will rather than working for everyone’s interests. – Managers may focus on the problems they see rather than the outcomes they want. – Managers use participation too infrequently. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 445
  • Study Question 4: How do youmanage the decision-making process? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 446
  • Study Question 4: How do youmanage the decision-making process? Key problem attributes in the Vroom, Yetton, and Jago decision making framework. – The required quality of the decision. – The commitment needed from subordinates. – The amount of information the leader has. – Commitment probability. – Goal congruence. – Subordinate conflict. – Subordinate information. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 447
  • Study Question 4: How do youmanage the decision-making process? Authority decisions in the Vroom, Yetton, and Jago decision making framework. – Manager or team leader uses information that he or she possesses and decides what to do without involving others. – Variant 1  manager solves the problem or makes the decision alone. – Variant 2  manager obtains the necessary information from others and then decides. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 448
  • Study Question 4: How do youmanage the decision-making process? Consultative decisions in the Vroom, Yetton, and Jago decision making framework. – Manager or team leader solicits input from other people and then, based on this information and its interpretation, makes a final choice. – Variant 1  manager seeks input from others individually and then makes a decision. – Variant 2  manager seeks input from others collectively and then makes a decision. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 449
  • Study Question 4: How do youmanage the decision-making process? Group decisions in the Vroom, Yetton, and Jago decision making framework. – Manager or team leader consults with others and allows them to help make the final choice. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 450
  • Study Question 4: How do youmanage the decision-making process? Knowing when to quit. – The natural desire to continue on a selected course of action reinforces escalating commitment. – Escalating commitment is the tendency to continue and renew effort on a previously chosen course of action, even though it is not working. – Tendency to escalate commitments often outweighs the willingness to disengage from them. – Good decision makers are willing to reverse previous decisions. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 451
  • Study Question 5: What are some of thecurrent issues in decision making? Workplace trends affecting organizational decision makers. – Business units are becoming smaller in size. – New, more flexible, and adaptable organizational forms. – Multifunctional understanding is increasingly important. – Workers with both technical knowledge and team skills are increasingly desirable. – The nature of “work” is in a state of flux. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 452
  • Study Question 5: What are some of thecurrent issues in decision making? Information technology and decision making. – Artificial intelligence is the study of how computers can be programmed to think like human beings. – Expert systems support decision making by following “either-or” rules to make deductions. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 453
  • Study Question 5: What are some of thecurrent issues in decision making? Information technology and decision making (cont.). – Fuzzy logic and neural networks reason inductively. – Computer support for decision making. – Information technology does not deal with issues raised by the garbage can model. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 454
  • Study Question 5: What are some of thecurrent issues in decision making? Cultural factors and decision making. – Culture is “the way in which a group of people solves problems.” – North American culture stresses decisiveness, speed, and the individual selection of alternatives. – Other cultures place less emphasis on individual choice than on developing implementations that work. – The most important impact of culture on decision making concerns which issues are elevated to the status of problems solvable within the firm. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 455
  • Study Question 6: How do you infuseethics into the decision-making process? Ways to infuse ethics into decision making. – Develop a code of ethics and follow it. – Establish procedures for reporting violations. – Involve employees in identifying ethical issues. – Monitor ethical performance. – Reward ethical behavior. – Publicize ethical efforts. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 456
  • Study Question 6: How do you infuseethics into the decision-making process? Morality is involved in: – Choosing problems. – Deciding who should be involved in making decisions. – Estimating the impacts of decision alternatives. – Selecting an alternative for implementation. An effective decision needs to solve a problem as well as match moral values and help others. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 457
  • Chapter 15 Study QuestionsWhat is conflict?How can conflict be managedsuccessfully?What is negotiation?What are the different strategies involvedin negotiation? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 458
  • Study Question 1: What is conflict? Conflict occurs whenever: – Disagreements exist in a social situation over issues of substance. – Emotional antagonisms cause frictions between individuals or groups. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 459
  • Study Question 1: What is conflict? Types of conflict. – Substantive conflict. • A fundamental disagreement over ends or goals to be pursued and the means for their accomplishment. – Emotional conflict. • Interpersonal difficulties that arise over feelings of anger, mistrust, dislike, fear, resentment, etc. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 460
  • Study Question 1: What is conflict? Levels of conflict. – Intrapersonal conflicts. • Actual or perceived pressures from incompatible goals or expectations. • Approach-approach conflict. • Avoidance-avoidance conflict. • Approach-avoidance conflict. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 461
  • Study Question 1: What is conflict? Levels of conflict (cont.). – Interpersonal conflict. • Occurs between two or more individuals who are in opposition to one another. – Intergroup conflict. • Occurs among members of different teams or groups. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 462
  • Study Question 1: What is conflict? Levels of conflict (cont.). – Interorganizational conflict. • Commonly refers to the competition and rivalry that characterize firms operating in the same markets. • Encompasses disagreements that exist between any two or more organizations. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 463
  • Study Question 1: What is conflict? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 464
  • Study Question 1: What is conflict? Potential benefits of functional conflict. – Surfaces important problems so they can be addressed. – Causes careful consideration of decisions. – Causes reconsideration of decisions. – Increases information available for decision making. – Provides opportunities for creativity. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 465
  • Study Question 1: What is conflict? Potential disadvantages of dysfunctional conflict. – Diverts energies. – Harms group cohesion. – Promotes interpersonal hostilities. – Creates overall negative environment. – Can decrease work productivity and job satisfaction. – Can contribute to absenteeism and job turnover. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 466
  • Study Question 1: What is conflict? Culture and conflict. – Culture and cultural differences must be considered for their conflict potential. – Individuals who are not able to recognize and respect the impact of culture may contribute to emergence of dysfunctional situations – Cross-cultural sensitivity helps defuse dysfunctional conflict and capture advantages that constructive conflict may offer. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 467
  • Study Question 2: How can conflict bemanaged successfully? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 468
  • Study Question 2: How can conflict bemanaged successfully? Causes of conflict. – Vertical conflict. • Occurs between hierarchical levels. – Horizontal conflict. • Occurs between persons or groups at the same hierarchical level. – Line-staff conflict. • Involves disagreements over who has authority and control over specific matters. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 469
  • Study Question 2: How can conflict bemanaged successfully? Causes of conflict (cont.). – Role conflicts. • Occur when the communication of task expectations proves inadequate or upsetting. – Workflow interdependencies. • Occur when people or units are required to cooperate to meet challenging goals. – Domain ambiguities. • Occur as misunderstandings over such things as customer jurisdiction or scope of authority . Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 470
  • Study Question 2: How can conflict bemanaged successfully? Causes of conflict (cont.). – Resource scarcity. • When resources are scarce, working relationships are likely to suffer. – Power or value asymmetries. • Occur when interdependent people or groups differ substantially from one another in status and influence or in values. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 471
  • Study Question 2: How can conflict bemanaged successfully? Indirect conflict management approaches. – Reduced interdependence. • Adjusting the level of interdependency among units or individuals when workflow conflicts exist. • Decoupling, buffering, and linking pin roles. – Appeal to common goals. • Focusing the attention of potentially conflicting parties on one mutually desirable conclusion. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 472
  • Study Question 2: How can conflict bemanaged successfully? Indirect conflict management approaches (cont.). – Hierarchical referral. • Problems are referred up the hierarchy for more senior managers to reconcile. – Altering scripts and myths. • Superficial management of conflict by using behavioral routines that become part of the organization’s culture. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 473
  • Study Question 2: How can conflict bemanaged successfully? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 474
  • Study Question 2: How can conflict bemanaged successfully? Lose-lose conflict. – Avoidance. • Everyone simply pretends that the conflict does not really exist and hopes that it will go away. – Accommodation or smoothing. • Involves playing down differences among the conflicting parties and highlighting similarities and areas of agreement. – Compromise. • Each party gives up something of value, but neither party’s desires are fully satisfied Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 475
  • Study Question 2: How can conflict bemanaged successfully? Win-lose conflict. – Competition. • One party achieves a victory through the use of force, superior skills, or domination. – Authoritative command. • Use of formal authority to dictate a solution and specify who gains what and who loses what. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 476
  • Study Question 2: How can conflict bemanaged successfully? Win-win conflict. – Collaboration or problem solving. • Recognition by all conflicting parties that something is wrong and needs attention, and it stresses gathering and evaluating information in solving disputes and making choices. • Collaboration and problem solving are preferred to gain true conflict resolution when time and cost permit. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 477
  • Study Question 2: How can conflict bemanaged successfully? Win-win solutions should: – Achieve each other’s goals. – Be acceptable to both parties. – Establish a process whereby both parties see a responsibility to be open and honest about facts and feelings. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 478
  • Study Question 2: How can conflict bemanaged successfully? Potential disadvantages of collaboration. – Collaboration requires time and energy. – Both parties to the conflict need to be assertive and cooperative. – Collaboration may not be feasible if the organization’s culture does not value cooperation. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 479
  • Study Question 3: What is negotiation? Negotiation goals and outcomes. – Substance goals. • Outcomes that relate to content issues. – Relationship goals. • Outcomes that relate to how well people involved in the negotiations and any constituencies they represent are able to work with one another once the process is concluded. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 480
  • Study Question 3: What is negotiation? Effective negotiation. – Occurs when substance issues are resolved and working relationships are maintained or improved. – Criteria for an effective negotiation. • Quality. • Harmony. • Efficiency. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 481
  • Study Question 3: What is negotiation? Ethical aspects of negotiation. – To maintain good working relationships, negotiators should strive for high ethical standards. – Negotiators’ rationalizations for questionable ethical behavior are offset by long-run negative consequences. – The unethical negotiator may be targeted for revenge. – Unethical negotiating actions may become habitual. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 482
  • Study Question 3: What is negotiation? Organizational settings for negotiation. – Two-party negotiation. • Manager negotiates directly with one other person. – Group negotiation. • Manager is part of a group whose members are negotiating. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 483
  • Study Question 3: What is negotiation? Organizational settings for negotiation (cont.). – Intergroup negotiation. • Manager is part of a group that is negotiating with another group. – Constituency negotiation. • Manager is involved in negotiation with other persons, with each party representing a broader constituency. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 484
  • Study Question 4: What are the differentstrategies involved in negotiation? Distributive negotiation. – Focuses on positions staked out or declared by the conflicting parties. – Parties try to claim certain portions of the existing pie. Integrative negotiation. – Sometimes called principled negotiation. – Focuses on the merits of the issues. – Parties try to enlarge the available pie. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 485
  • Study Question 4: What are the differentstrategies involved in negotiation? Distributive negotiation. – The key question is: “Who is going to get this resource?” – “Hard” distributive negotiation. • Each party holds out to get its own way. – “Soft” distributive negotiation. • One party is willing to make concessions to the other party to get things over. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 486
  • Study Question 4: What are the differentstrategies involved in negotiation? Integrative negotiation. – The key question is: “How can the resource best be utilized?” – Is less confrontational than distributive negotiation, and permits a broader range of alternative solutions to be considered. – Opportunity for a true win-win solution. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 487
  • Study Question 4: What are the differentstrategies involved in negotiation? Attitudinal foundations of integrative agreements. – Willingness to trust the other party. – Willingness to share information with the other party. – Willingness to ask concrete questions of the other party. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 488
  • Study Question 4: What are the differentstrategies involved in negotiation? Behavioral foundations of integrative agreements. – Ability to separate the people from the problem. – Ability to focus on interests rather than positions. – Ability to avoid making premature judgments. – Ability to keep alternative creation separate from evaluation. – Ability to judge possible agreements on an objective set of criteria or standards. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 489
  • Study Question 4: What are the differentstrategies involved in negotiation? Information foundations of integrative agreements. – Each party must know what he or she will do if an agreement can’t be reached. – Each party must determine what is personally important in the situation. – Each party must achieve an understanding of what the other party values. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 490
  • Study Question 4: What are the differentstrategies involved in negotiation? Common negotiation pitfalls. – Myth of the fixed pie. – Possibility of escalating commitment. – Negotiators often develop overconfidence in their positions. – Communication problems can cause difficulties during a negotiation. • Telling problem. • Hearing problem. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 491
  • Study Question 4: What are the differentstrategies involved in negotiation? Third-party roles in negotiation. – Alternative dispute resolution. • A neutral third party works with persons involved in a negotiation to help them resolve impasses and settle disputes. – Arbitration. • A third party acts as a “judge” and has the power to issue a decision that is binding on all disputing parties. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 492
  • Study Question 4: What are the differentstrategies involved in negotiation? Third-party roles in negotiation (cont.). – Mediation. • A neutral third party tries to engage disputing parties in a negotiated solution through persuasion and rational argument. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 493
  • Chapter 16 Study QuestionsWhat is organizational change?What change strategies are used inorganizations?How is resistance to change best managed?How do organizations innovate?How does stress affect people in changeenvironments? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 494
  • Study Question 1: What isorganizational change? Transformational change. – Results in a major overhaul of the organization or its component systems. – Described as radical change or frame-breaking change. – Organizations experiencing transformational change undergo a significant shift in basic characteristic features. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 495
  • Study Question 1: What isorganizational change? Incremental change or frame-bending change. – Part of the organization’s natural evolution in building on the existing ways of operating to enhance or extend them in new directions. – Introduction of new products, new technologies, and new systems and processes. – Continuous improvement through incremental change is an important asset. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 496
  • Study Question 1: What isorganizational change? Change agents. – Individuals and groups who take responsibility for changing the existing behavior patterns of another person or social system. – Success of change efforts depends in part on change agents. – Being an effective change agent means being a great change leader. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 497
  • Study Question 1: What isorganizational change? Unplanned change. – Occurs spontaneously and without a change agent’s direction, and such change may be disruptive. – Appropriate goal is to act quickly to minimize the negative consequences and maximize any possible benefits. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 498
  • Study Question 1: What isorganizational change? Planned change. – The result of specific efforts by a change agent. – Direct response to someone’s perception of a performance gap. • A performance gap is the discrepancy between the desired and actual state of affairs. • Performance gaps represent problems to be resolved or opportunities to be explored. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 499
  • Study Question 1: What isorganizational change? Organizational forces for change. – Organization-environment relationships. – Organizational life cycle. – Political nature of organizations. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 500
  • Study Question 1: What is organizationalchange? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 501
  • Study Question 1: What isorganizational change? Reasons for failure of transformational change. – No sense of urgency. – No powerful guiding coalition. – No compelling vision. – Failure to communicate the vision. – Failure to empower others to act. – Failure to celebrate short-term wins. – Failure to build on accomplishments. – Failure to institutionalize results. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 502
  • Study Question 1: What isorganizational change? Phases of planned change. – Unfreezing. • Preparing a situation for change by disconfirming existing attitudes and behaviors. – Changing. • Taking action to modify a situation by altering the targets of change. – Refreezing. • Maintaining momentum and eventually institutionalizing the change. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 503
  • Study Question 2: What changestrategies are used in organizations? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 504
  • Study Question 3: How is resistanceto change best managed? Resistance to change. – Any attitude or behavior that indicates unwillingness to make or support a desired change. – Alternative views of resistance. • Something that must be overcome for change to be successful. • Feedback that can be used to facilitate achieving change objectives. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 505
  • Study Question 3: How is resistanceto change best managed? Why people resist change. – Fear of the unknown. – Lack of good information. – Fear for loss of security. – No reasons to change. – Fear for loss of power. – Lack of resources. – Bad timing. – Habit. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 506
  • Study Question 3: How is resistanceto change best managed? Resistance to the change itself. – People may reject a change because they believe it is not worth their time, effort, or attention. – To deal with resistance to the change itself, all those affected should know how it satisfies the following criteria: • Benefit. • Compatibility. • Complexity. • Triability. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 507
  • Study Question 3: How is resistanceto change best managed? Resistance to the change strategy. – Force-coercion strategy. • Likely resistance among individuals who resent management by “command” or the use of threatened punishment. – Rational persuasion strategy. • Likely resistance when the data are suspect or the expertise of advocates is unclear. – Shared-power strategy. • Likely resistance if it appears manipulative and insincere. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 508
  • Study Question 3: How is resistanceto change best managed? Resistance to the change agent. – Resistance to the change agent is directed at the person implementing the change and often involves personality and other differences. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 509
  • Study Question 3: How is resistanceto change best managed? How to deal with resistance. – Education and communication. – Participation and support. – Facilitation and support. – Negotiation and agreement. – Manipulation and cooptation. – Explicit and implicit coercion. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 510
  • Study Question 3: How is resistanceto change best managed? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 511
  • Study Question 4: How doorganizations innovate? Innovation. – The process of creating new ideas and putting them into practice. Product innovations. – The introduction of new or improved goods or services to better meet customer needs. Process innovations. – The introduction of new and better work methods and operations. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 512
  • Study Question 4: How doorganizations innovate? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 513
  • Study Question 4: How doorganizations innovate? Features of innovative organizations. – Strategies and cultures that are built around a commitment to innovation. – Structures that support innovation. – Staffing with a clear commitment to innovation. – Top-management support for innovation. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 514
  • Study Question 5: How does stress affectpeople in change environments? Stress. – A state of tension experienced by individuals facing extraordinary demands, constraints, or opportunities. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 515
  • Study Question 5: How does stress affectpeople in change environments? Source of stress. – Stressors. • The wide variety of things that cause stress for individuals. – Types of stressors. • Work-related stressors. • Life stressors. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 516
  • Study Question 5: How does stress affectpeople in change environments? Work-related stressors. – Task demands. – Role ambiguities. – Role conflicts. – Ethical dilemmas. – Interpersonal problems. – Career developments. – Physical setting. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 517
  • Study Question 5: How does stress affectpeople in change environments? Life stressors. – Family events. – Economic difficulties. – Personal affairs. – Individual’s needs. – Individual’s capabilities. – Individual’s personality. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 518
  • Study Question 5: How does stress affectpeople in change environments? Stress and performance. – Constructive stress (or eustress). • Moderate levels of stress act in a positive way for both individuals and organization. – Destructive stress (or distress). • Low and especially high levels of stress act in a negative way for both individuals and organization. – Job burnout. • A loss of interest in and satisfaction with a job due to stressful working conditions. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 519
  • Study Question 5: How does stress affectpeople in change environments? Stress and health. – Stress can harm people’s physical and psychological health. – Health problems associated with stress. • Heart attack. • Stroke. • Hypertension. • Migraine headache. • Ulcers. • Substance abuse. • Overeating. • Depression. • Muscle aches. – Managers and team leaders should be alert to signs of excessive stress. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 520
  • Study Question 5: How does stress affectpeople in change environments? Stress management. – Stress prevention. • Taking action to keep stress from reaching destructive levels in the first place. – Once stress has reached a destructive point, special techniques of stress management can be implemented. – Stress management. • Begins with the recognition of stress symptoms and continues with actions to maintain a positive performance edge. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 521
  • Study Question 5: How does stress affectpeople in change environments? Stress management (cont.). – Personal wellness. • Pursuit of one’s job and career goals with the support of a personal health promotion program. – Employee assistance programs. • Provide help for employees who are experiencing personal problems and related stress. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 522
  • Chapter 17 Study QuestionsWhat is strategy and how is it linked todifferent types of organizational goals?What are the basic attributes oforganizations?How is work organized and coordinated?What are bureaucracies and what are thecommon structures? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 523
  • Study Question 1: What is strategy andhow is it linked to different types oforganizational goals? Strategy. – The process of positioning the organization in the competitive environment and implementing actions to compete successfully. – A pattern in a stream of decisions. • Choices regarding goals and the way the firm organizes to accomplish them. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 524
  • Study Question 1: What is strategy andhow is it linked to different types oforganizational goals? Elements of conventional strategy decisions. – Choosing the types of contributions the firm intends to make to society. – Precisely whom the firm will serve. – Exactly what the firm will provide to others. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 525
  • Study Question 1: What is strategy andhow is it linked to different types oforganizational goals? Societal goals. – Reflect an organization’s intended contributions to the broader society. – Enable organizations to gain legitimacy, a social right to operate, and more discretion for their non-societal goals and operating practices. – Enable organizations to make legitimate claims over resources, individuals, markets, and products. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 526
  • Study Question 1: What is strategy andhow is it linked to different types oforganizational goals? Societal contributions and mission statements. – A firm’s societal contribution is often part of its mission statement. • A written statement of organizational purpose. – A good mission statement identifies whom the firm will serve and how it will go about accomplishing its societal purpose. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 527
  • Study Question 1: What is strategy andhow is it linked to different types oforganizational goals? Output goals. – Define the type of business the organization is pursuing. – Provide some substance to the more general aspects of mission statements. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 528
  • Study Question 1: What is strategy andhow is it linked to different types oforganizational goals? Systems goals. – Concerned with the conditions within the organization that are expected to increase the organization’s survival potential. – Typical systems goals include growth, productivity, stability, harmony, flexibility, prestige, and human resource maintenance. – Systems goals must often be balanced against one another. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 529
  • Study Question 1: What is strategy andhow is it linked to different types oforganizational goals? Well-defined systems goals can: – Focus managers’ attention on what needs to be done. – Provide flexibility in devising ways to meet important targets. – Be used to balance the demands, constraints, and opportunities facing the firm. – Form a basis for dividing the work of the firm. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 530
  • Study Question 2: What are the basicattributes of organizations? Successful organizations develop a structure consistent with the pattern of goals established by senior management. The formal structure shows the planned configuration of positions, job duties, and the lines of authority among different parts of the organization. The formal structure of the firm is also known as the division of labor. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 531
  • Study Question 2: What are the basicattributes of organizations? Vertical specialization. – A hierarchical division of labor that distributes formal authority and establishes where and how critical decisions are to be made. – Creates a hierarchy of authority. • An arrangement of work positions in order of increasing authority. – Organization charts are diagrams that depict the formal structures of organizations. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 532
  • Study Question 2: What are the basicattributes of organizations? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 533
  • Study Question 2: What are the basicattributes of organizations? Chain of command. – A listing of who reports to whom up and down the organization. Unity of command. – Each person has only one boss and each unit one leader. Span of control. – The number individuals reporting to a supervisor. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 534
  • Study Question 2: What are the basicattributes of organizations? Line units. – Work groups that conduct the major business of the organization. Staff units. – Work groups that assist the line units by providing specialized expertise and services to the organization. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 535
  • Study Question 2: What are the basicattributes of organizations? Internal versus external units. – Internal line units. • Transform raw materials and information into products and services. – External line units. • Maintain outside linkages. – Internal staff units. • Assist the line units in performing their functions. – External staff units. • Assist the line units with outside linkages and act to buffer internal operations. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 536
  • Study Question 2: What are the basicattributes of organizations? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 537
  • Study Question 2: What are the basicattributes of organizations? Some firms are outsourcing many of their staff functions. Use of information technology to streamline operations and reduce staff. Most organizations use a variety of means to specialize the vertical division of labor. Best pattern of vertical specialization depends on environment, size, technology, and goals. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 538
  • Study Question 2: What are the basicattributes of organizations? Control. – The set of mechanisms used to keep actions or outputs within predetermined limits. – Deals with: • Setting standards. • Measuring results against standards. • Instituting corrective action. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 539
  • Study Question 2: What are the basicattributes of organizations? Output controls. – Focus on desired targets and allow managers to use their own methods to reach defined targets. – Part of overall method of managing by exception. – Promote flexibility and creativity. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 540
  • Study Question 2: What are the basicattributes of organizations? Process controls. – Specify the manner in which tasks are accomplished. – Types of process controls. • Policies, procedures, and rules. • Formalization and standardization. • Total quality management controls. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 541
  • Study Question 2: What are the basicattributes of organizations? Policies, procedures, and rules. – Policies. • Guidelines for action that outline important objectives and broadly indicate how activities are to be carried out. – Procedures. • Identify the best method for performing a task, show which aspects of a task are most important, or outline how an individual is to be rewarded. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 542
  • Study Question 2: What are the basicattributes of organizations? Policies, procedures, and rules (cont.). – Rules. • Describe in detail how a task or a series of tasks is to be performed, or indicate what cannot be done. – Policies, procedures, and rules are often used as substitutes for direct managerial supervision. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 543
  • Study Question 2: What are the basicattributes of organizations? Formalization. – The written documentation of policies, procedures, and rules to guide behavior and decision making. Standardization. – The degree to which the range of allowable actions in a job or series of jobs is limited so that uniform actions occur. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 544
  • Study Question 2: What are the basicattributes of organizations? Deming’s 14 points for achieving total quality management. – Create a consistency of purpose in the company to innovate; put resources into research and education, and into maintaining equipment and new production aids. – Learn a new philosophy of quality to improve every system. – Require statistical evidence of process control and eliminate financial controls on production. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 545
  • Study Question 2: What are the basicattributes of organizations? Deming’s 14 points for achieving total quality management (cont.). – Require statistical evidence of control in purchasing parts. – Use statistical methods to isolate the sources of trouble. – Institute modern on-the-job training. – Improve supervision to develop inspired leaders. – Drive out fear and instill learning. – Break down barriers between departments. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 546
  • Study Question 2: What are the basicattributes of organizations? Deming’s 14 points for achieving total quality management (cont.). – Eliminate numerical goals and slogans. – Constantly revamp work methods. – Institute massive training programs for employees in statistical methods. – Retrain people in new skills. – Create a structure that will push, every day, on the above 13 points. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 547
  • Study Question 2: What are the basicattributes of organizations? Centralization and decentralization. – Centralization. • Degree to which the authority to make decisions is restricted to higher levels of management. – Decentralization. • Degree to which the authority to make decisions is given to lower levels in an organization’s hierarchy. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 548
  • Study Question 2: What are the basicattributes of organizations? Benefits of decentralization. – Higher subordinate satisfaction. – Quicker response to a series of unrelated problems. – Assists in on-the-job training of subordinates for higher-level positions – Encourages participation in decision making. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 549
  • Study Question 3: How is workorganized and coordinated? Horizontal specialization. – A division of labor that establishes specific work units or groups within an organization. – Often referred to as departmentation. – Whenever managers divide tasks and group similar types of skills and resources together, they must also be concerned with coordination. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 550
  • Study Question 3: How is workorganized and coordinated? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 551
  • Study Question 3: How is workorganized and coordinated? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 552
  • Study Question 3: How is workorganized and coordinated? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 553
  • Study Question 3: How is workorganized and coordinated? Coordination. – The set of mechanisms that an organization uses to link the actions of its units into a consistent pattern. – Within a unit, much of the coordination is handled by its manager. – Smaller organizations rely on management hierarchy for coordination. – As the organization grows, more efficient and effective methods of coordination are required. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 554
  • Study Question 3: How is workorganized and coordinated? Personal methods of coordination. – Produce synergy by promoting dialogue, discussion, innovation, creativity, and learning, both within and across units. – Common personal methods of coordination are direct contact between and among organizational members and committee memberships. – Mix of personal coordination methods should be tailored to subordinates, skills, abilities, and experiences. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 555
  • Study Question 3: How is workorganized and coordinated? Impersonal methods of coordination. – Produce synergy by stressing consistency and standardization so that individual pieces fit together. – Often are refinements and extensions of process controls. – Historical use of specialized departments to coordinate across units. – Contemporary use of matrix departmentation and management information systems for coordination. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 556
  • Study Question 4: What are bureaucracies andwhat are the common structures? Bureaucracy. – An ideal form of organization, the characteristics of which were defined by the German sociologist Max Weber. – Relies on a division of labor, hierarchical control, promotion by merit with career opportunities for employees, and administration by rule. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 557
  • Study Question 4: What are bureaucracies andwhat are the common structures? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 558
  • Study Question 4: What are bureaucracies andwhat are the common structures? Mechanistic type of bureaucracy (machine bureaucracy). – Emphasizes vertical specialization and control. – Stresses rules, policies, and procedures; specifies techniques for decision making; and use well-documented control systems. – Often used with a low cost leader strategy. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 559
  • Study Question 4: What are bureaucracies andwhat are the common structures? Benefits of the mechanistic type. – Efficiency. Limitations of the mechanistic type. – Employees dislike rigid designs, which makes work motivation problematic. – Unions may further solidify rigid designs. – Key employees may leave. – Hinders organization’s capacity to adjust to subtle environmental changes or new technologies. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 560
  • Study Question 4: What are bureaucracies andwhat are the common structures? Organic type of bureaucracy (professional bureaucracy). – Horizontal specialization. – Procedures are minimal, and those that do exist are not highly formalized. – Used to pursue strategies that emphasize product quality, quick response to customers, or innovation. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 561
  • Study Question 4: What are bureaucracies andwhat are the common structures? Benefits of the organic type. – Good for problem solving and serving individual customer needs. – Centralized direction by senior management is less intense. – Good at detecting external changes and adjusting to new technologies. Limitations of the organic type. – Less efficient than mechanistic type. – Restricted capacity to respond to central management direction. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 562
  • Study Question 4: What are bureaucracies andwhat are the common structures? Common types of hybrid structures. – Divisional firm. • Composed of quasi-independent divisions so that different divisions can be more or less organic or mechanistic. – Conglomerate. • A single corporation that contains a number of unrelated businesses. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 563
  • Study Question 4: What are bureaucracies andwhat are the common structures? The conglomerate simultaneously illustrates three key points that will be the focus of Chapter 18. – All structures are combinations of the basic elements. – There is no one best structure. – The firm does not stand alone but is part of a larger network of firms that compete against other networks. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 564
  • Chapter 18 Study QuestionsWhat is organizational design and how is itlinked to strategy?What is information technology and how is itused?Can the design of the firm co-evolve with theenvironment?How does a firm learn and continue to learn overtime? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 565
  • Study question 1: What is organizationaldesign and how is it linked to strategy? Organizational design. – The process of choosing and implementing a structural configuration. – The choice of an appropriate organizational design depends on the firm’s: • Size. • Operations and information technology. • Environment. • Strategy for growth and survival. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 566
  • Study question 1: What is organizationaldesign and how is it linked to strategy? The structural configuration of organizations should: – Enable senior executives to emphasize the skills and abilities that their firms need to compete, and to remain agile and dynamic in a rapidly changing world. – Allow individuals to experiment, grow, and develop competencies so that the strategy of the firm can evolve. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 567
  • Study question 1: What is organizationaldesign and how is it linked to strategy? Co-evolution. – The firm can adjust to external changes even as it shapes some of the challenges facing it. – Shaping capabilities via the organization’s design is a dynamic aspect of co-evolution. – Even with co-evolution, managers must maintain a recognizable pattern of choices in organizational design. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 568
  • Study question 1: What is organizationaldesign and how is it linked to strategy? Organizational size. – As the number of employees increase, the possible interconnections among them increase even more. – The design of small firms is directly influenced by core operations technology. – Larger firms have many core operations technologies in a variety of specialized units. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 569
  • Study question 1: What is organizationaldesign and how is it linked to strategy? The simple design for smaller units and firms. – A configuration involving one or two ways of specializing individuals and units. – Vertical specialization and control emphasize levels of supervision without elaborate formal mechanisms. – Appropriate for many smaller firms because of simplicity, flexibility, and responsiveness to a central manager. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 570
  • Study question 1: What is organizationaldesign and how is it linked to strategy? Organizational design must be adjusted to fit technological opportunities and requirements. – Operations technology. • The combination of resources, knowledge, and techniques that creates a product or service output. – Information technology. • The combination of machines, artifacts, procedures, and systems used to gather, store, analyze, and disseminate information for translating it into knowledge. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 571
  • Study question 1: What is organizationaldesign and how is it linked to strategy? Thomson’s view of technology. – Technologies classified according to the degree of specification and degree of interdependence of work units. – Intensive technology. • Uncertainty as to how to produce desired outcomes. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 572
  • Study question 1: What is organizationaldesign and how is it linked to strategy? Thomson’s view of technology (cont.). – Mediating technology. • Links parties that want to become interdependent. – Long-linked technology. • The way to produce desired outcomes is known and broken down into a number of sequential steps. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 573
  • Study question 1: What is organizationaldesign and how is it linked to strategy? Woodward’s view of technology. – Small-batch production. • The organization tailor makes a variety of custom products to fit customer specifications. – Mass production. • The organization produces one or a few products through an assembly line system. – Continuous-process technology. • The organization produces a few products using considerable automation. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 574
  • Study question 1: What is organizationaldesign and how is it linked to strategy? Woodward’s view of technology (cont.). – The proper matching of structure and technology is critical to organizational success. • Successful small-batch and continuous-process plants have flexible structures with small work groups at the bottom. • Successful mass production operations are rigidly structured and have large work groups at the bottom. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 575
  • Study question 1: What is organizationaldesign and how is it linked to strategy? Adhocracy. – An appropriate structural design when managers and employees do not know the appropriate way to service a client or produce a particular product. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 576
  • Study question 1: What is organizationaldesign and how is it linked to strategy? An adhocracy is characterized by: – Few rules, policies, and procedures. – Substantial decentralization. – Shared decision making among members. – Extreme horizontal specialization. – Few levels of management. – Virtually no formal controls. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 577
  • Study question 1: What is organizationaldesign and how is it linked to strategy? An adhocracy is useful when: – The tasks facing the firm vary considerably and provide many exceptions. – Problems are difficult to define and solve. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 578
  • Study Question 2:What is informationtechnology and how is it used? Why IT makes a difference. – IT provides a partial substitute for: • Some operations. • Some process controls. • Some impersonal methods of coordination. – IT provides a strategic capability. – IT provides a capability for transforming information to knowledge for learning. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 579
  • Study Question 2:What is informationtechnology and how is it used? Information technology as a substitute. – Initial implementation of IT often displaced routine, highly specified, and repetitious jobs. • Did not alter fundamental character or design of the organization. – A second wave of substitution replaced process controls and informal coordination mechanisms with IT. • Brought some marginal changes in organizational design. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 580
  • Study Question 2:What is informationtechnology and how is it used? Information technology as a strategic capability. – IT has been used to improve the efficiency, speed of responsiveness, and effectiveness of operations. – IT provides individuals the information they need to plan, make choices, coordinate with others, and control their own operations. – This new strategic IT capability resulted from IT being broadly available to everyone. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 581
  • Study Question 2:What is informationtechnology and how is it used? IT and learning. – IT systems empower individuals and expand their jobs. – IT encourages the development of a “virtual” network. – IT transforms how people manage. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 582
  • Study Question 2:What is informationtechnology and how is it used? IT and e-business. – Many dot-com firms adopted some variation of adhocracy. – As the dot-coms grew, the adhocracy design became problematic. • Limits on the size of an effective adhocracy. • Actual delivery of products and services rested more on responsiveness to clients and maintaining efficiency than on continual innovation. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 583
  • Study Question 3: Can the design of thefirm co-evolve with the environment? Understanding the environment is important because an organization is an open system. General environment. – The set of cultural, economic, legal-political, and educational conditions found in the areas in which the organization operates. Specific environment. – The owners, suppliers, distributors, government agencies, and competitors with which an organization must interact to grow and survive. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 584
  • Study Question 3: Can the design of thefirm co-evolve with the environment? Environmental complexity. – The magnitude of problems and opportunities in the organization’s environment, as reflected in: • Degree of richness. • Degree of interdependence. • Degree of uncertainty. – More complex environments provide more problems and opportunities. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 585
  • Study Question 3: Can the design of thefirm co-evolve with the environment? Environmental richness. – The environment is richer when: • The economy is growing. • Individuals are improving their education. • Those on whom the organization relies are prospering. – A rich environment has more opportunities and dynamism. – The opposite of richness is decline. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 586
  • Study Question 3: Can the design of thefirm co-evolve with the environment? Environmental interdependence. – Linkage between environmental independence and organization design may be subtle and indirect. • Organization may co-opt powerful outsiders. • Organization may absorb or buffer demands of powerful external elements. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 587
  • Study Question 3: Can the design of thefirm co-evolve with the environment? Environmental uncertainty. – Uncertainty and volatility can be particularly damaging to large bureaucracies. – A more organic form is the appropriate organizational design response to uncertainty and volatility. – Adhocracy may be needed extreme uncertainty and volatility. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 588
  • Study Question 3: Can the design of thefirm co-evolve with the environment? In a complex global economy, firms must learn to co-evolve by altering their environment. Two important ways of co-evolution: – Management of networks. – Development of alliances. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 589
  • Study Question 3: Can the design of thefirm co-evolve with the environment? Networks and alliances around the world. – Informal combines or cartels exist in Europe but are illegal in the United States except in rare cases. – Networks are called keiretsu in Japan. • Bank-centered keiretsu. • Vertical keiretsu. – In the United States, outsourcing is developing as a specialized form of network organization. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 590
  • Study Question 3: Can the design of thefirm co-evolve with the environment? Interfirm alliances. – Announced cooperative agreements or joint ventures between two independent firms. – Alliances are quite common in high technology industries. – Since firms cooperate rather than compete; consequently, both the alliance managers and sponsoring executives must be patient, flexible, and creative in pursuing goals. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 591
  • Study Question 3: Can the design of thefirm co-evolve with the environment? Virtual organization. – An ever-shifting constellation of firms, with a lead corporation, that pool skills, resources, and experiences to thrive jointly. – A design option when internal and external contingencies are changing quickly. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 592
  • Study Question 3: Can the design of thefirm co-evolve with the environment? Key to making a virtual organization work. – The production system needs to be in a partner network bound together by mutual trust and survival. – The partner network needs to develop and maintain an advanced IT, trust and cross-owning of problems and solutions, and a common shared culture. – The lead firm must take responsibility for the whole network and coordinate member firm actions. – The lead corporation and the partners need to rethink how they are internally organized and managed. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 593
  • Study Question 3: Can the design of thefirm co-evolve with the environment? Boundaryless organization. – A design option that eliminates vertical, horizontal, external, and geographic barriers that block desired action. – Actions to create a boundaryless organization. • Executives should systematically examine the organization and its processes. • Organization members should initiate a process of improving their cooperation. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 594
  • Study Question 4: How does a firm learnand continue to learn over time? Organizational learning. – Process of knowledge acquisition, information distribution, information interpretation, and information retention in adapting successfully to changing circumstances. – Adjustment of organization’s and individual’s actions based on experience. – The key to successful co-evolution. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 595
  • Study Question 4: How does a firm learnand continue to learn over time? Mimicry. – Occurs when managers copy what they believe are the successful practices of others – Is important to new firms. • Provides workable, if not ideal, solutions to many problems. • Reduces the number of decisions that need to be analyzed separately. • Establishes legitimacy or acceptance and narrows the choices requiring detailed explanation. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 596
  • Study Question 4: How does a firm learnand continue to learn over time? Experience. – A primary way to acquire knowledge. – Besides learning by doing, managers can also systematically embark on structured programs to capture the lessons to be learned. – The major problem with emphasizing learning by doing is the inability to precisely forecast changes. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 597
  • Study Question 4: How does a firm learnand continue to learn over time? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 598
  • Study Question 4: How does a firm learnand continue to learn over time? Scanning. – Involves looking outside the firm and bringing back useful solutions. Grafting. – The process of acquiring individuals, units, or firms to bring in useful knowledge. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 599
  • Study Question 4: How does a firm learnand continue to learn over time? Common problems in information interpretation. – Self-serving interpretations. • People seeing what they want to see, rather than seeing what is. – Managerial scripts. • A series of well-known routines for problem identification and alternative generation and analysis that are commonly used by a firm’s managers. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 600
  • Study Question 4: How does a firm learnand continue to learn over time? Organizational myths. – Commonly held cause-effect relationships or assertions that cannot be empirically supported. – Common myths. Single organizational truth. Presumption of competence. Denial of tradeoffs. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 601
  • Study Question 4: How does a firm learnand continue to learn over time? Information retention mechanisms. – Individuals. – Organizational culture. – Transformation mechanisms. – Formal organizational structures. – Ecology. – External archives. – Internal information technologies. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 602
  • Study Question 4: How does a firm learnand continue to learn over time? Deficit cycles. – A pattern of deteriorating performance that is followed by even further deterioration. – Factors associated with deficit cycles. • Organizational inertia. • Hubris. • Detachment. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 603
  • Study Question 4: How does a firm learnand continue to learn over time? Benefit cycles. – A pattern of successful adjustment followed by further improvements. – Firms can successfully co-evolve by initiating a benefit cycle. – The firm develops adequate mechanisms for learning. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 18 604
  • Chapter 19 Study QuestionsWhat is organizational culture?How do you understand an organizationalculture?How can the organizational culture bemanaged?How can you use organizationaldevelopment to improve the firm? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 605
  • Study Question 1: What isorganizational culture? Organizational culture. – The system of shared actions, values, and beliefs that develops within an organization and guides the behavior of its members. – Called corporate culture in the business setting. – No two organizational cultures are identical. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 606
  • Study Question 1: What isorganizational culture? External adaptation. – Involves reaching goals and dealing with outsiders regarding tasks to be accomplished, methods used to achieve the goals, and methods of coping with success and failure. – Important aspects of external adaptation. • Separating eternal forces based on importance. • Developing ways to measure accomplishments. • Creating explanations for not meeting goals. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 607
  • Study Question 1: What isorganizational culture? External adaptation involves answering important goal-related questions regarding coping with reality. – What is the real mission? – How do we contribute? – What are our goals? – How do we reach our goals? – What external forces are important? – How do we measure results? – What do we do if specific targets are not met? – How do we tell others how good we are? – When do we quit? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 608
  • Study Question 1: What isorganizational culture? Internal integration. – Deals with the creation of a collective identity and with finding ways of matching methods of working and living together. – Important aspects of working together. • Deciding who is a member and who is not. • Developing an understanding of acceptable and unacceptable behavior. • Separating friends from enemies. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 609
  • Study Question 1: What isorganizational culture? Internal integration involves answering important questions associated with living together. – What is our unique identity? – How do we view the world? – Who is a member? – How do we allocate power, status, and authority? – How do we communicate? – What is the basis for friendship? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 610
  • Study Question 1: What isorganizational culture? Subculture. – A group of individuals with a unique pattern of values and philosophy that are not inconsistent with the organization’s dominant values and philosophy. Counterculture. – A group of individuals with a pattern of values and philosophy that outwardly reject the surrounding culture. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 611
  • Study Question 1: What isorganizational culture? Problems associated with subcultural divisions within the larger culture. – Subordinate groups are likely to form into a counterculture pursuing self-interests. – The firm may encounter extreme difficulty in coping with broader cultural changes. – Embracing natural divisions from the larger culture may lead to difficulty in international operations. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 612
  • Study Question 1: What isorganizational culture? Taylor Cox’s five step program. – Step 1: The organization should develop pluralism. – Step 2: The organization should fully integrate its structure. – Step 3: The organization must integrate the informal networks. – Step 4: The organization should break the linkage between naturally occurring group identity and organizational identity. – Step 5: The organization must actively work to eliminate identity-based interpersonal conflict. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 613
  • Study Question 2: How do youunderstand an organizational culture? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 614
  • Study Question 2: How do youunderstand an organizational culture? Sagas. – Heroic accounts of organizational accomplishments. Rites. – Standardized and recurring activities that are used at special times to influence organizational members. Rituals. – Systems of rites. Cultural symbols. – Any object, act, or event that serves to transmit cultural meaning. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 615
  • Study Question 2: How do youunderstand an organizational culture? Culture often specifies rules and roles. – Rules. • The various types of actions that are appropriate. – Roles. • Where individual members stand in the social system. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 616
  • Study Question 2: How do youunderstand an organizational culture? Shared values. – Help turn routine activities into valuable and important actions. – Tie the organization to the important values of society. – May provide a very distinctive source of competitive advantage. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 617
  • Study Question 2: How do youunderstand an organizational culture? Characteristics of strong corporate cultures. – A widely shared real understanding of what the firm stands for, often embodied in slogans. – A concern for individuals over rules, policies, procedures, and adherence to job duties. – A recognition of heroes whose actions illustrate the company’s shared philosophy and concerns. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 618
  • Study Question 2: How do youunderstand an organizational culture? Characteristics of strong corporate cultures (cont.). – A belief in ritual and ceremony as important to members and to building a common identity. – A well-understood sense of the informal rules and expectations so that employees and managers know what is expected of them. – A belief that what employees and managers do is important and that it is essential to share information and ideas. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 619
  • Study Question 2: How do youunderstand an organizational culture? Organizational myths. – Unproven and often unstated beliefs that are accepted uncritically. – Myths enable managers to redefine impossible problems. – Myths can facilitate experimentation and creativity. – Myths allow managers to govern. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 620
  • Study Question 2: How do youunderstand an organizational culture? National culture influences. – Widely held common assumptions may be traced to the larger culture of the host society. – National cultural values may become embedded in expectations of organization members. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 621
  • Study Question 3: How can theorganizational culture be managed? Strategies for managing corporate culture. – Managers help modify observable culture, shared values, and common assumptions directly. – Use of organizational development techniques to modify specific elements of the culture. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 622
  • Study Question 3: How can theorganizational culture be managed? Why a well-developed management philosophy is important. – Establishes generally understood boundaries on all members of the firm. – Provides a consistent way for approaching new and novel situations. – Helps hold individuals together by showing them a known path to success. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 623
  • Study Question 3: How can theorganizational culture be managed? Strategies for building, reinforcing, and changing organizational culture. – Directly modifying the visible aspects of culture. – Changing the lessons to be drawn from common stories. – Setting the tone for a culture and for cultural change. – Fostering a culture that addresses questions of external adaptation and internal integration. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 624
  • Study Question 3: How can theorganizational culture be managed? Mistakes that managers can make in building, reinforcing, and changing culture. – Trying to change people’s values from the top down: • While keeping the ways in which the organization operates the same. • Without recognizing the importance of individuals. – Attempting to revitalize an organization by dictating major changes and ignoring shared values. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 625
  • Study Question 4: How can you useorganization development to improve the firm? Organization development (OD). – The application of behavioral science knowledge in a long-range effort to improve an organization’s ability to cope with change in its external environment and to increase its internal problem-solving capabilities. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 626
  • Study Question 4: How can you useorganization development to improve the firm? Organizational development. – Designed to work on both issues of external adaptation and internal integration. – Used to improve organizational performance. – Seeks to achieve change so the organization’s members maintain the culture and longer-run organizational effectiveness. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 627
  • Study Question 4: How can you useorganization development to improve the firm? Underlying assumptions of OD. – Individual level. • Respect for people and their capabilities. – Group level. • Belief that groups can be good for both people and organizations. – Organizational level. • Respect for the complexity of an organization as a system of interdependent parts. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 628
  • Study Question 4: How can you useorganization development to improve the firm? Organization development goals. – Outcome goals. • Mainly deal with issues of external adaptation. – Process goals. • Mainly deal with issues of internal integration. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 629
  • Study Question 4: How can you useorganization development to improve the firm? In pursuing outcome and process goals, OD helps by: – Creating an open problem solving climate. – Supplementing formal authority with knowledge and competence. – Moving decision making where relevant information is available. – Building trust and maximizing collaboration. – Increasing the sense of organizational ownership. – Allowing people to exercise self-direction and self- control. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 630
  • Study Question 4: How can you useorganization development to improve the firm? Action research. – The process of systematically collecting data on an organization, feeding it back to the members for action planning, and evaluating results by collecting and reflecting on more data after the planned actions have been taken. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 631
  • Study Question 4: How can you useorganization development to improve the firm? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 632
  • Study Question 4: How can you useorganization development to improve the firm? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 633
  • Study Question 4: How can you useorganization development to improve the firm? Organizationwide OD interventions. – Survey feedback. • Collection and feedback of data to organization members for action planning purposes. – Confrontation meetings. • Activities for quickly determining how an organization can be improved and taking initial actions for betterment. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 634
  • Study Question 4: How can you useorganization development to improve the firm? Organizationwide OD interventions (cont.). – Structural redesign. • Realigning the organization’s structure or major subsystems. – Collateral organization. • Using representative organizational members in periodic small group problem-solving sessions. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 635
  • Study Question 4: How can you useorganization development to improve the firm? Group and intergroup OD interventions. – Team building. • Activities to improve the functioning of a group. – Process consultation. • Activities to improve the functioning of key group processes. – Intergroup team building. • Activities to improve the functioning or two or more groups. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 636
  • Study Question 4: How can you useorganization development to improve the firm? Individual OD interventions. – Role negotiation. • Clarifying expectations in working relationships. – Job redesign. • Creating long-term congruence between individual goals and organizational career opportunities. – Career planning. • Structured opportunities for individuals to work with managers or staff experts on career issues. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 19 637
  • Thank Youwww.bookfiesta4u.com Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 638 www.bookfiesta4u.com