Lecture 1 1 ss-3

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  • The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency was founded on December 2nd, 1970. From that time to the present, America's environmental history has stood witness to both dramatic events and remarkable progress. In 1969, just before the agency was established, the Cuyahoga River in Ohio became so polluted that it caught fire “ a situation that provided impetus for Congress to pass the federal Clean Water Act. By 2009, concern about climate change and sea-level rise led EPA to make the first official finding that greenhouse gases threaten human health and our environment. Through this interactive timeline, you can explore more than 40 years of environmental milestones. Current Administrator is Lisa Jackson\n
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  • The recorded roots of formal scientific research lie in the collective work of a number of individuals in ancient Greek, Persian, Indian, Chinese, and European cultures, rather than from a single person or event.\n
  • The recorded roots of formal scientific research lie in the collective work of a number of individuals in ancient Greek, Persian, Indian, Chinese, and European cultures, rather than from a single person or event.\n
  • The recorded roots of formal scientific research lie in the collective work of a number of individuals in ancient Greek, Persian, Indian, Chinese, and European cultures, rather than from a single person or event.\n
  • The recorded roots of formal scientific research lie in the collective work of a number of individuals in ancient Greek, Persian, Indian, Chinese, and European cultures, rather than from a single person or event.\n
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  • The cloud, a poisonous mix of sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide and metal dust, came from the smokestacks of the local zinc smelter where most of the town worked. The industries were coal-mining, steel-making, wire-making. Sulfur dioxide emissions from U.S. Steel's Donora Zinc Works and its American Steel & Wire plant were frequent occurrences in Donora.\nThe smog first rolled into Donora on October 27, 1948. By the following day it was causing coughing and other signs of respiratory distress for many residents of the community in the Monongahela River valley. Many of the illnesses and deaths were initially attributed to asthma. The smog continued until it rained on October 31, by which time 20 residents of Donora had died and approximately a third to one half of the town's population of 14,000 residents had been sickened.\nThe Donora tragedy shocked the nation and marked a turning point in our complacency about industrial pollution and its effect on our health. Donora made the survival of area residents, not to mention the economic revival of the Pittsburgh area, an imperative.\nOrdinances limiting smoke in the city were twice enacted at the turn of the century, but were later invalidated by the courts. Street lights were lit during the day to cut through the smoke until after World War II, when true enforcement of a 1941 smoke control ordinance began.\nIn 1945, anticipating the health problems from filthy air, newly elected Pittsburgh Mayor David Lawrence and financier Richard King Mellon, head of the Allegheny Conference on Community Development, pledged cleaner air as part of the "Renaissance" they envisioned for the city. A decade later, coal burning for home heating was outlawed and clean natural gas was piped to all homes. Industry began screening its emissions. And diesel engines replaced coal-fired locomotives and river boats by 1952.\nAs a result of civic action, Americans could now see, smell and, in fact, taste the improvements in their air. They would not settle for less. And in 1963, Congress passed the first federal Clean Air Act, then amended it in 1970 to give it teeth. States were now required to come up with plans for reducing pollution to meet federal clean air standards.\nSince the passage of the 1970 Clean Air Act, we have removed 98 percent of lead from the air, 79 percent of soot, 41 percent of sulfur dioxide, 28 percent of carbon monoxide, and 25 percent of the smog soup now called ozone.\nLawsuits were filed against U.S. Steel, which never acknowledged responsibility for the incident, calling it "an act of God".[1] While the steel company did not accept blame, it reached a settlement in 1951 in which it paid about $235,000, which was stretched over the 80 victims who had participated in the lawsuit, leaving them little after legal expenses were factored in. Representatives of American Steel and Wire settled the more than $4.6 million claimed in 130 damage suits at about 5% of what had been sought, noting that the company was prepared to show at trial that the smog had been caused by a "freak weather condition" that trapped over Donora "all of the smog coming from the homes, railroads, the steamboats, and the exhaust from automobiles, as well as the effluents from its plants."[4][2] U.S. Steel closed both plants by 1966.\n
  • 2.5 microns dust particle size\n
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  • Benzene is a chemical with many uses. Because of its sweet smell, it was used as an aftershave in the 19th century. Before the 1920s, it was used regularly as an industrial solvent. This was before people became aware of the dangers of its toxicity. It was once widely used as an additive to gasoline, but this practice was also abandoned due to health concerns. \nBenzene is mostly commonly used as an additive to other chemicals. It is used to make styrene, which is used to make plastics and polymers, and in the manufacturing process of nylon. Small amounts of benzene are used in the manufacturing processes of drugs, detergents, pesticides and explosives.\nExposure to benzene can have very serious health effects. High levels of exposure can cause breathing disorders, dizziness, drowsiness, headaches and nausea. If one were to eat food or drink liquid containing benzene, a rapid heart rate, vomiting and stomach irritation may result. Very high levels of exposure to benzene can ultimately lead to death.\nThere are tests that can be performed to show whether a person has been exposed to the chemical. Benzene can be measured by a breath or blood test. Both these tests must be performed shortly after exposure, as the chemical disappears very quickly from the body. In the United States, the maximum amount of benzene permissible in water is 0.005 milligrams per liter.\n
  • Benzene is a chemical with many uses. Because of its sweet smell, it was used as an aftershave in the 19th century. Before the 1920s, it was used regularly as an industrial solvent. This was before people became aware of the dangers of its toxicity. It was once widely used as an additive to gasoline, but this practice was also abandoned due to health concerns. \nBenzene is mostly commonly used as an additive to other chemicals. It is used to make styrene, which is used to make plastics and polymers, and in the manufacturing process of nylon. Small amounts of benzene are used in the manufacturing processes of drugs, detergents, pesticides and explosives.\nExposure to benzene can have very serious health effects. High levels of exposure can cause breathing disorders, dizziness, drowsiness, headaches and nausea. If one were to eat food or drink liquid containing benzene, a rapid heart rate, vomiting and stomach irritation may result. Very high levels of exposure to benzene can ultimately lead to death.\nThere are tests that can be performed to show whether a person has been exposed to the chemical. Benzene can be measured by a breath or blood test. Both these tests must be performed shortly after exposure, as the chemical disappears very quickly from the body. In the United States, the maximum amount of benzene permissible in water is 0.005 milligrams per liter.\n
  • Benzene is a chemical with many uses. Because of its sweet smell, it was used as an aftershave in the 19th century. Before the 1920s, it was used regularly as an industrial solvent. This was before people became aware of the dangers of its toxicity. It was once widely used as an additive to gasoline, but this practice was also abandoned due to health concerns. \nBenzene is mostly commonly used as an additive to other chemicals. It is used to make styrene, which is used to make plastics and polymers, and in the manufacturing process of nylon. Small amounts of benzene are used in the manufacturing processes of drugs, detergents, pesticides and explosives.\nExposure to benzene can have very serious health effects. High levels of exposure can cause breathing disorders, dizziness, drowsiness, headaches and nausea. If one were to eat food or drink liquid containing benzene, a rapid heart rate, vomiting and stomach irritation may result. Very high levels of exposure to benzene can ultimately lead to death.\nThere are tests that can be performed to show whether a person has been exposed to the chemical. Benzene can be measured by a breath or blood test. Both these tests must be performed shortly after exposure, as the chemical disappears very quickly from the body. In the United States, the maximum amount of benzene permissible in water is 0.005 milligrams per liter.\n
  • Benzene is a chemical with many uses. Because of its sweet smell, it was used as an aftershave in the 19th century. Before the 1920s, it was used regularly as an industrial solvent. This was before people became aware of the dangers of its toxicity. It was once widely used as an additive to gasoline, but this practice was also abandoned due to health concerns. \nBenzene is mostly commonly used as an additive to other chemicals. It is used to make styrene, which is used to make plastics and polymers, and in the manufacturing process of nylon. Small amounts of benzene are used in the manufacturing processes of drugs, detergents, pesticides and explosives.\nExposure to benzene can have very serious health effects. High levels of exposure can cause breathing disorders, dizziness, drowsiness, headaches and nausea. If one were to eat food or drink liquid containing benzene, a rapid heart rate, vomiting and stomach irritation may result. Very high levels of exposure to benzene can ultimately lead to death.\nThere are tests that can be performed to show whether a person has been exposed to the chemical. Benzene can be measured by a breath or blood test. Both these tests must be performed shortly after exposure, as the chemical disappears very quickly from the body. In the United States, the maximum amount of benzene permissible in water is 0.005 milligrams per liter.\n
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  • Benzene is a chemical hazard but there are others.\n
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  • \nBinding: usually to proteins\nPartitioning - dividing into pieces\nConjugation - joining of material\n
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  • Lecture 1 1 ss-3

    1. 1. Environmental Science John Jay College of Criminal Justice
    2. 2. Introduction Environment The combination of all things and factors external to the individual or population of organisms in question (including infectious organisms, toxins, and food). Science The use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as knowledge generated through this process.
    3. 3. What is Environmental Science? Environmental Science – The branch of science concerned with environmental issues. Environmental Science is about: ◦ Ethics and values ◦ Sociology and politics ◦ Law and business ◦ Motivation and responsibility ◦ Life and how to sustain it on planet Earth  Sustainability
    4. 4. Environmental Science The science of looking at the cause-and- effect relationships underlying environmental issues. The study of patterns and processes in the natural world and their modification by human activity.
    5. 5. United States Environmental Protection Agency http://www.epa.govThe mission of EPA is to protect humanhealth and to safeguard the naturalenvironment -- air, water and land -- uponwhich life depends.Go to: Learn the Issues
    6. 6. Focus of Environmental SciencePollutants in Physical EnvironmentalMedia: Air Water Soil Effects of Pollutants on Human Health andEcosystem - How do we know?
    7. 7. A scientific approach to addressing questions about thenatural world has long been present in many cultures.
    8. 8. A scientific approach to addressing questions about thenatural world has long been present in many cultures.Scientists use multiple research methods to gather dataand develop hypotheses. These methods includeexperimentation, description, comparison, and modeling.
    9. 9. A scientific approach to addressing questions about thenatural world has long been present in many cultures.Scientists use multiple research methods to gather dataand develop hypotheses. These methods includeexperimentation, description, comparison, and modeling.
    10. 10. A scientific approach to addressing questions about thenatural world has long been present in many cultures.Scientists use multiple research methods to gather dataand develop hypotheses. These methods includeexperimentation, description, comparison, and modeling.All processes are important – they are not usually used in alinear process.
    11. 11. What is a Theory?
    12. 12. If repeated experiments or tests using modelssupport a particular hypothesis or a group ofrelated hypotheses, it becomes a scientifictheory.What is a Theory?
    13. 13. If repeated experiments or tests using modelssupport a particular hypothesis or a group ofrelated hypotheses, it becomes a scientifictheory.In other words, a scientific theory is averified, highly reliable, and wiselyaccepted scientific hypothesis or a relatedgroup of scientific hypotheses.What is a Theory?
    14. 14. Environmental Media Air Airborne pollutants can be deposited on soil, water, and food. Water Waterborne pollutants can volatilize into the air, can contaminate soil, and may be taken up by plants, thereby entering the food chain. Soil Soil-borne contaminants can enter the air when dust is created, can be carried into surface and groundwater, and can be taken up by plants.
    15. 15.  Donora, PA 1948 Cuyahoga River, Ohio 1969 Love Canal, NY 1979Case Studies
    16. 16.  The crucible for clean air 60 years ago it was our nations worst disaster ever suffocating cloud of industrial gasses and dust 20 residents died & half the town’s population – 7,000 – were hospitalized What caused this disaster?Donora, PA disaster
    17. 17.  http://airnow.gov/ http://airnow.gov/index.cfm? action=airnow.fcsummary&stateid=37 AIRNow – NEW YORK, NY ◦ Ozone (O3) & PM2.5 (particulate matter 2.5 microns)How can you monitor air quality?
    18. 18.  1936 a spark from a blow torch ignited floating debris and oils 1952 a fire caused over $1 million in damages. 1960 the Lower Cuyahoga River in Cleveland was used for waste disposal, including oils, sludge, and sewage. These pollutants had a major impact on Lake Erie which was considered “dead.”Cuyahoga River fire
    19. 19.  1900: Love Canal, NY (by Niagara Falls) was originally meant to be a dream community developed by Wm. T. Love. 1920s the canal was turned into a municipal and industrial chemical dumpsite. 1953 the Hooker Chemical Company (owners and operators of the property) covered the canal with earth and sold it to the city for one dollar. Great buy???Love Canal Tragedy
    20. 20.  1950s about 100 homes and a school were built at the site. 1978 the ticking time bomb went off: ◦ Exacerbated by a record amount of rainfall corroding waste-disposal drums were exposed and oozed chemicals into the yards and homes. ◦ Trees and gardens were dying. ◦ Puddles of noxious chemicals appeared. ◦ The air had a faint choking smell. ◦ A high incidence of birth defects had occurred.Love Canal, NY
    21. 21. What is benzene?
    22. 22.  There are millions of known organic (carbon- based) compounds. They are either:What is benzene?
    23. 23.  There are millions of known organic (carbon- based) compounds. They are either: o Hydrocarbons: compounds of hydrogen and carbon (e.g methane: CH4)What is benzene?
    24. 24.  There are millions of known organic (carbon- based) compounds. They are either: o Hydrocarbons: compounds of hydrogen and carbon (e.g methane: CH4) o Chlorinated hydrocarbons: compounds of carbon, hydrogen, and chlorine atoms (e.g. DDT)What is benzene?
    25. 25.  There are millions of known organic (carbon- based) compounds. They are either: o Hydrocarbons: compounds of hydrogen and carbon (e.g methane: CH4) o Chlorinated hydrocarbons: compounds of carbon, hydrogen, and chlorine atoms (e.g. DDT) o Carbohydrates: simple sugars of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms (e.g glucose C6H12O6) which most plants and animals break down in their cells to obtain energy.What is benzene?
    26. 26. Benzene – a known human carcinogen wasdetected in high amounts.A colorless, flammable, liquid aromatichydrocarbon, C6H6, derived from petroleumand used in or to manufacture a widevariety of chemical products, including DDT,detergents, insecticides, and motor fuels.Also called benzine, benzol. What is benzene?
    27. 27.  In 1978, 221 families were evacuated. The federal government, under President Carter, agreed to buy the homes costing tax-payers millions of dollars. What responsibility did the chemical company take? Chemical sales in the US – a $112 billion dollar industry.How could this have beenavoided?
    28. 28. HW: Read handout & answer the following: What is a superfund site? What have water samples revealed? What industry previously operated there? Why is NYC a responsible party? Who are the other responsible parties? What is this still a problem? What is being addressed to remedy this problem?Newton Creek, Brooklyn- QueensSuperfund site
    29. 29. Chemical hazards – cause the majority ofenvironmental toxic reactions. Physical Hazards – particles, radiation, vibration,temperature, noise, volcanoes, earthquakes Biological Hazards – infectious and allergicdisorders (pathogens)Cultural Hazards -factors include poor diet, unsafework environment, unsafe drinking water, criminalassault, unsafe sex, drugs.Environmental Hazards
    30. 30.  Environmental Health and Toxicology The Toxicology Tutor ◦ http://sis.nlm.nih.gov/enviro/toxtutor.html Toxicology and Environmental Health Information Program of the National Library of Medicine, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services In 1983, the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) published standard terminology and concepts for risk assessmentsWhat is Risk Assessment andManagement?
    31. 31.  In 1983, the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) published standard terminology and concepts for risk assessments:Risk Assessment & Management
    32. 32.  Four basic steps in the risk assessment process as defined by the NAS are:Risk Assessment
    33. 33. Basis of Toxicity 1. Exposure - Concentration - Route 2. Absorption 3. Distribution or Transport 4. Bioavailability - Binding, Partitioning, Solubility 5. Metabolism 6. Storage 7. Excretion - Solubility, Conjugation
    34. 34. Common EnvironmentalProblems in the Home Mold Lead Carbon monoxide Household chemicals Paints Chemicals in carpets Rodents, roaches, flies, mosquitoes etc.

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