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M. Altman Ch. 2 Bones

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  • 1. Body OrganizationOrgan System FunctionMarlowe AltmanBiology 120- WW5
    MEDICAL TERMINOLOGYA Living Language
    Fremgen & Frucht
  • 2. Bones
    • Also called osseous tissue
    • 3. A type of connective tissue
    • 4. An organ of the musculoskeletal system
    • 5. Provide support for the body & sites of muscle attachment
    • 6. Each has their own blood supply, nerves, & lymphatic vessels
    • 7. 206 connected bones form a human skeleton
  • Bones: Terminology
    • ankyl/o stiff joint
    • arthr/o joint
    • articul/o joint
    • burs/o sac
    • carp/o wrist
    • cervic/o neck
    • chondr/o cartilage
    • clavicul/o clavicle
    • coccyg/o coccyx
    • cost/o rib
    • crani/o head, skull
    • femor/o femur
    • fibul/o fibula
    • humer/o humerus
    • ili/o ilium
    • ischi/o ischium
    • kyph/o hump
    • lamin/o lamina
    • lord/o swayback, curve
    • lumb/o loin
    • mandibul/o mandible
    • maxill/o maxilla
    • metacarp/o metacarpals
    • metatars/o metatarsals
    • myel/o bone marrow
    • orth/o straight
    • oste/o bone
    • patell/o patella
    • ped/o foot
    • pelv/o pelvis
    • phalang/o phalanges
    • pub/o pubis
    • radi/o radius
    • sacr/o sacrum
    • scapul/o scapula
    • scoli/o crooked, bent
    • spondyl/o vertebrae
    • stern/o sternum
    • synovi/o synovial membrane
    • tars/o ankle
    • thorac/o chest
    • tibi/o tibia
    • uln/o ulna
    • vertebr/o vertebra
  • 8. Bones: Formation
    • The formation of bones by calcium & phosphorus occurs in three stages called ossification:
    • 9. Cartilage- flexible tissue
    • 10. Osteoblasts- embryonic bone cells
    • 11. Osteocytes- mature bone cells
    • Bones are categorized by their shape:
    Bones: Categories
    www.ck12.org
  • 12. Bones: Structure
    • The majority of bones have a similar structure:
    • 13. A central shaft called diaphysis, & wide ends called proximal & distal epiphysis
    • 14. Covered with periosteum, a thin connective tissue membrane
    • 15. Blood vessels, nerves, & lymphatic vessels are found here
    • 16. A dense hard exterior surface called cortical or compact bone
    • 17. Cancellous or spongy bone inside containing red bone marrow
    • 18. Blood cell manufactured here
    • 19. The medullary cavity for yellow bone marrow
    • 20. Fat cells
  • Bones: Projections & Depressions
    Projections
    Head- large smooth ball at end
    Neck- narrow connection between head & shaft
    Condyle- round smooth end
    Epicondyle- projection above condyle
    Trochanter- large rough area forattachment ofmuscle
    Tubercle- small rough area forattachment oftendons & muscle
    Tuberosity- large rough area forattachment oftendons & muscle
    Depressions
    Sinus- hollow cavity
    Foramen- smooth round opening for nerves & blood vessels
    Fossa- shallow cavity on the surface
    Fissure- slit opening
  • 21. Bones: Axial Skeleton
    • Bones of the skull
    • 22. Protect the brain, eyes, ears, nasal cavity, & oral cavity
    • 23. Area for attachment ofmuscles for chewing & movement
    • 24. Cranium
    • 25. Frontal, parietal, temporal, ethmoid, spheroid, & occipital
    • 26. Facial
    • 27. Mandible, maxilla, zygomatic, vomer, palatine, nasal, & lacrimal
    • 28. Bone of the neck
    • 29. Area forattachment of swallowing & speech muscles
    • 30. Hyoid- between mandible & larynx
  • Bones: Axial Skeleton
    • Bones of the trunk
    • 31. Protect organs in the chest cavity
    • 32. Provides support for the body
    • 33. Vertebral column
    • 34. Cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacrum, & coccyx
    • 35. Sternum
    • 36. Rib cage
    • 37. 10 pairs attached to the vertebral column & sternum
    • 38. 2 pairs attached only to the vertebral column
  • Bones: Skeleton
    www.public-action.com
  • 39. Bones: Appendicular Skeleton
    • Area for muscle attachment & movement
    • 40. Bones of the pectoral girdle & upper extremities
    • 41. Pectoral gridle- clavicle,& scapula
    • 42. Upper extremities- humerus, ulna, radius, carpals, metacarpals, & phalanges
    • 43. Bones of the pelvic girdle & lower extremities
    • 44. Pelvic gridle or oscoaxe or innominate bone- ilium, ischium, & pubis
    • 45. Lower extremities- femur, patella, tibia, fibula, tarsals, metatarsals, & phalanges
  • Bones: Joints
    • Formed between two or more bones for movement or minimal movement
    • 46. Synovial joints- lubricant called synovial fluid allows free movement
    • 47. Elbow, knee, & shoulder
    • 48. Cartilaginous joints- solid piece of cartilage for slight movement
    • 49. Pubic symphysis
    • 50. Fibrous joints- fusion of bone by thick tissue for almost no movement
    • 51. Skull
  • Dem Bones
    The toe bone connected to the heel bone.
    The heel bone connected to the foot bone.
    The foot bone connected to the ankle bone.
    It’s easy to connect those dry bones.
    The foot bone connected to the leg bone.
    The leg bone connected to the knee bone.
    The knee bone connected to the thigh bone.
    It’s easy to connect those dry bones.
    The finger bone connected to the hand bone.
    The hand bone connected to the wrist bone.
    The wrist bone connected to the arm bone.
    It’s easy to connect those dry bones.
    The arm bone connected to the shoulder bone.
    The shoulder bone connected to the collar bone.
    The collar bone connected to the neck bone.
    It’s easy to connect those dry bones.
    Well, the neck bone connected to the chin bone.
    The chin bone connected to the nose bone.
    The nose bone connected to the head bone.
    It’s easy to connect those dry bones.
    hover over skeleton & select play
    www.brownielocks.com
  • 52. For each organ listed below, identify the name of the system it belongs to and then match it to its function.
  • 53. Bones: References
    • Medical Terminology: A Living Language 4th edition. Fremgen & Frucht. Pearson Education, Inc.
    • 54. www.ck12.org/flexr/chapter/2425/
    • 55. www.public-action.com/SkyWriter/WacoMuseum/library/bones1.html
    • 56. www.brownielocks.com/dembones.html