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M. Altman Ch. 2 Bones
M. Altman Ch. 2 Bones
M. Altman Ch. 2 Bones
M. Altman Ch. 2 Bones
M. Altman Ch. 2 Bones
M. Altman Ch. 2 Bones
M. Altman Ch. 2 Bones
M. Altman Ch. 2 Bones
M. Altman Ch. 2 Bones
M. Altman Ch. 2 Bones
M. Altman Ch. 2 Bones
M. Altman Ch. 2 Bones
M. Altman Ch. 2 Bones
M. Altman Ch. 2 Bones
M. Altman Ch. 2 Bones
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M. Altman Ch. 2 Bones

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  • 1. Body OrganizationOrgan System FunctionMarlowe AltmanBiology 120- WW5<br />MEDICAL TERMINOLOGYA Living Language<br />Fremgen & Frucht<br />
  • 2. Bones<br /><ul><li>Also called osseous tissue
  • 3. A type of connective tissue
  • 4. An organ of the musculoskeletal system
  • 5. Provide support for the body & sites of muscle attachment
  • 6. Each has their own blood supply, nerves, & lymphatic vessels
  • 7. 206 connected bones form a human skeleton</li></li></ul><li>Bones: Terminology<br />• ankyl/o stiff joint<br />• arthr/o joint<br />• articul/o joint<br />• burs/o sac<br />• carp/o wrist<br />• cervic/o neck<br />• chondr/o cartilage<br />• clavicul/o clavicle<br />• coccyg/o coccyx<br />• cost/o rib<br />• crani/o head, skull<br />• femor/o femur<br />• fibul/o fibula<br />• humer/o humerus<br />• ili/o ilium<br />• ischi/o ischium<br />• kyph/o hump<br />• lamin/o lamina<br />• lord/o swayback, curve<br />• lumb/o loin<br />• mandibul/o mandible<br />• maxill/o maxilla<br />• metacarp/o metacarpals<br />• metatars/o metatarsals<br />• myel/o bone marrow<br />• orth/o straight<br />• oste/o bone<br />• patell/o patella<br />• ped/o foot<br />• pelv/o pelvis<br />• phalang/o phalanges<br />• pub/o pubis<br />• radi/o radius<br />• sacr/o sacrum<br />• scapul/o scapula<br />• scoli/o crooked, bent<br />• spondyl/o vertebrae<br />• stern/o sternum<br />• synovi/o synovial membrane<br />• tars/o ankle<br />• thorac/o chest<br />• tibi/o tibia<br />• uln/o ulna<br />• vertebr/o vertebra<br />
  • 8. Bones: Formation<br /><ul><li>The formation of bones by calcium & phosphorus occurs in three stages called ossification:
  • 9. Cartilage- flexible tissue
  • 10. Osteoblasts- embryonic bone cells
  • 11. Osteocytes- mature bone cells</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Bones are categorized by their shape:</li></ul>Bones: Categories<br />www.ck12.org<br />
  • 12. Bones: Structure<br /><ul><li>The majority of bones have a similar structure:
  • 13. A central shaft called diaphysis, & wide ends called proximal & distal epiphysis
  • 14. Covered with periosteum, a thin connective tissue membrane
  • 15. Blood vessels, nerves, & lymphatic vessels are found here
  • 16. A dense hard exterior surface called cortical or compact bone
  • 17. Cancellous or spongy bone inside containing red bone marrow
  • 18. Blood cell manufactured here
  • 19. The medullary cavity for yellow bone marrow
  • 20. Fat cells</li></li></ul><li>Bones: Projections & Depressions<br />Projections<br />Head- large smooth ball at end<br />Neck- narrow connection between head & shaft<br />Condyle- round smooth end<br />Epicondyle- projection above condyle<br />Trochanter- large rough area forattachment ofmuscle<br />Tubercle- small rough area forattachment oftendons & muscle<br />Tuberosity- large rough area forattachment oftendons & muscle<br />Depressions<br />Sinus- hollow cavity<br />Foramen- smooth round opening for nerves & blood vessels<br />Fossa- shallow cavity on the surface<br />Fissure- slit opening<br />
  • 21. Bones: Axial Skeleton<br /><ul><li>Bones of the skull
  • 22. Protect the brain, eyes, ears, nasal cavity, & oral cavity
  • 23. Area for attachment ofmuscles for chewing & movement
  • 24. Cranium
  • 25. Frontal, parietal, temporal, ethmoid, spheroid, & occipital
  • 26. Facial
  • 27. Mandible, maxilla, zygomatic, vomer, palatine, nasal, & lacrimal
  • 28. Bone of the neck
  • 29. Area forattachment of swallowing & speech muscles
  • 30. Hyoid- between mandible & larynx</li></li></ul><li>Bones: Axial Skeleton<br /><ul><li>Bones of the trunk
  • 31. Protect organs in the chest cavity
  • 32. Provides support for the body
  • 33. Vertebral column
  • 34. Cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacrum, & coccyx
  • 35. Sternum
  • 36. Rib cage
  • 37. 10 pairs attached to the vertebral column & sternum
  • 38. 2 pairs attached only to the vertebral column</li></li></ul><li>Bones: Skeleton<br />www.public-action.com<br />
  • 39. Bones: Appendicular Skeleton<br /><ul><li>Area for muscle attachment & movement
  • 40. Bones of the pectoral girdle & upper extremities
  • 41. Pectoral gridle- clavicle,& scapula
  • 42. Upper extremities- humerus, ulna, radius, carpals, metacarpals, & phalanges
  • 43. Bones of the pelvic girdle & lower extremities
  • 44. Pelvic gridle or oscoaxe or innominate bone- ilium, ischium, & pubis
  • 45. Lower extremities- femur, patella, tibia, fibula, tarsals, metatarsals, & phalanges</li></li></ul><li>Bones: Joints<br /><ul><li>Formed between two or more bones for movement or minimal movement
  • 46. Synovial joints- lubricant called synovial fluid allows free movement
  • 47. Elbow, knee, & shoulder
  • 48. Cartilaginous joints- solid piece of cartilage for slight movement
  • 49. Pubic symphysis
  • 50. Fibrous joints- fusion of bone by thick tissue for almost no movement
  • 51. Skull</li></li></ul><li>Dem Bones<br />The toe bone connected to the heel bone.<br />The heel bone connected to the foot bone.<br />The foot bone connected to the ankle bone.<br />It’s easy to connect those dry bones.<br />The foot bone connected to the leg bone.<br />The leg bone connected to the knee bone.<br />The knee bone connected to the thigh bone.<br />It’s easy to connect those dry bones.<br />The finger bone connected to the hand bone.<br />The hand bone connected to the wrist bone.<br />The wrist bone connected to the arm bone.<br />It’s easy to connect those dry bones.<br />The arm bone connected to the shoulder bone.<br />The shoulder bone connected to the collar bone.<br />The collar bone connected to the neck bone.<br />It’s easy to connect those dry bones.<br />Well, the neck bone connected to the chin bone.<br />The chin bone connected to the nose bone.<br />The nose bone connected to the head bone.<br />It’s easy to connect those dry bones.<br />hover over skeleton & select play<br />www.brownielocks.com<br />
  • 52. For each organ listed below, identify the name of the system it belongs to and then match it to its function.<br />
  • 53. Bones: References<br /><ul><li>Medical Terminology: A Living Language 4th edition. Fremgen & Frucht. Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 54. www.ck12.org/flexr/chapter/2425/
  • 55. www.public-action.com/SkyWriter/WacoMuseum/library/bones1.html
  • 56. www.brownielocks.com/dembones.html</li>

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