Discovery and the Age of Insight: Walmart EIM Open House 2013

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Discovery is the most important business capability in the emerging Age of Insight - it's the missing ingredient that makes Big Data a source of value for businesses and people. …

Discovery is the most important business capability in the emerging Age of Insight - it's the missing ingredient that makes Big Data a source of value for businesses and people.

The Language of Discovery is an essential tool for providing discovery capability, whether at the scale of designing a single discovery application, determining the value proposition of a new product or service, or managing a strategic portfolio of technology and business initiatives.

This presentation outlines the Age of Insight, and suggests deep structural and historic precedents visible in the Age of Reason, especially in the central parallels between Natural Philosophy and the emerging discipline of Data Science. We then review the language of discovery, and consider widely visible examples of products and services that demonstrate the language.

We review our own usage of the framework as an analytical and generative toolkit for providing discovery capability, and share best practices for employing this perspective across a variety of levels of need.

More in: Technology , Education
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  • 1. #languageofdiscovery #ageofinsight Discovery & The Age of Insight
  • 2. Joe Lamantia Product Strategy and Design: Oracle @moJoe Joe.Lamantia@oracle.com http://slideshare.net/mojoe
  • 3. Oracle.com/goto/EndecaDiscoveryPatterns Endeca Discovery Pattern Library
  • 4. designed many discovery solutions
  • 5. “In the next ten years, digital data alone is expected to grow 44 times. By 2020, there will be 4 billion people online creating 50 trillion gigabytes of data.” HP Intelligent Research
  • 6. Volume: yotta, yotta, yotta Varied data ‘materials’ social, cultural, personal, environmental, economic, scientific Full spectrum of granularity Real-time & historical perspectives Commoditized infrastructure storage, processing, distribution, publishing Data ecosystem(s)
  • 7. “‘Big Data’ always make[s] me think of some weird Star Trek: TNG fan fiction pron.” Dan Saffer
  • 8. value!data
  • 9. value!data PHASE1 PHASE 3PHASE 2 ?
  • 10. “The ability to take data - to be able to understand it, to process it, to extract value from it, to visualize it, to communicate it's going to be a hugely important skill in the next decades, not only at the professional level but even at the educational level for elementary school kids, for high school kids, for college kids. Because now we really do have essentially free and ubiquitous data. So the complimentary scarce factor is the ability to understand that data and extract value from it.” Hal Varian http://www.mckinseyquarterly.com/Hal_Varian_on_how_the_Web_challenges_managers_2286
  • 11. “the ...scarce factor is the ability to understand that data...” http://www.mckinseyquarterly.com/Hal_Varian_on_how_the_Web_challenges_managers_2286
  • 12. insight!discoverydata +
  • 13. discovery is...?
  • 14. not just search
  • 15. more than visualization
  • 16. discovery is making sense of the world search visualization analysis prediction
  • 17. Source: The Sensemaking Process & Leverage Points For Analyst Technology Sensemaking
  • 18. Discovery Act or experience of seeing, finding, learning, or solving something. Something seen, found, learned, or solved.
  • 19. Sense making activity whose purpose is achieving insight.
  • 20. Insight Grasping or understanding meaning, significance, and/or a solution. A valuable change in perspective or understanding that enables or guides further action.
  • 21. Welcome to The Age of Insight
  • 22. Everything is discoverable
  • 23. http://citydashboard.org/london/ urban status
  • 24. W Antwerp WT?
  • 25. influence
  • 26. data journalism
  • 27. cultural analytics
  • 28. ‘Cliodynamics’ is a transdisciplinary area of research integrating historical macrosociology, economic history/ cliometrics, mathematical modeling of long-term social processes, and the construction and analysis of historical databases. scientific disciplines
  • 29. who gets your vote
  • 30. your secret identity
  • 31. we know you’re a dog
  • 32. Everyone discovers
  • 33. ready data
  • 34. interaction tools
  • 35. management tools
  • 36. engagement models
  • 37. consumer devices
  • 38. “The datasexual looks a lot like you and me, but what’s different is their preoccupation with personal data. They are relentlessly digital, they obsessively record everything about their personal lives, and they think that data is sexy. In fact, the bigger the data, the sexier it becomes. Their lives - from a data perspective, at least - are perfectly groomed.” data as lifestyle
  • 39. social exchange
  • 40. Horizon of Discoverability present soon future past
  • 41. discovery capability is expected in all sense making contexts
  • 42. As I was waiting for a table at a local restaurant the other day, I flipped through a couple of the free classified papers. I was shocked to realize how dependent I’ve grown on three simple features that just aren’t available in the analog world: search, sort and filter. http://uxdesign.smashingmagazine.com/2012/04/10/ui-patterns-for-mobile-apps-search-sort-filter/
  • 43. Discovery is Everyware multi-channel experiences networked devices & places ubicomp environments information shadows product, service, personal avatars mixed realities
  • 44. Discovery is the most important organizational capability in the Age of Insight
  • 45. age of reason
  • 46. “Its purpose was to reform society using reason, challenge ideas grounded in tradition and faith, and advance knowledge through the scientific method. It promoted scientific thought, skepticism and intellectual interchange...” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Age_of_reason “Its purpose was to reform society using reason, challenge ideas grounded in tradition and faith, and advance knowledge through the scientific method. It promoted scientific thought, skepticism and intellectual interchange...” Zeitgeist
  • 47. Empiricism in the philosophy of science emphasizes evidence, especially as discovered in experiments. It is a fundamental part of the scientific method that all hypotheses and theories must be tested against observations of the natural world rather than resting solely on a priori reasoning, intuition, or revelation. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Empiricism Methods
  • 48. Instruments
  • 49. Jacopo Zabarella Giacomo (or Jacopo) Zabarella (5 September 1533 – 15 October 1589) was an Italian Aristotelian philosopher and logician. In 1577 he was promoted to the first extraordinary chair of natural philosophy http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacopo_Zabarella http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natural_philosopher Roles
  • 50. http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k57198h.image.langES CommunitiesCommunities
  • 51. Data Science
  • 52. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/44/DataScienceDisciplines.png
  • 53. http://nirvacana.com/thoughts/wp-content/uploads/ 2013/07/RoadToDataScientist1.png
  • 54. Its purpose is to reform using reason, challenge ideas grounded in tradition and intuition, and advance insight through data science. Its purpose is to reform using reason, challenge ideas grounded in tradition and intuition, and advance insight through data science.
  • 55. Empirical Augmented Accelerated Cooperative “leveraging of existing concepts and approaches from multiple disciplines to derive new concepts and approaches, which in turn enable new ways to achieve and utilize understanding.  ...an integration-driven emergence of new disciplines, not just ad hoc collaborations.” “leveraging of existing concepts and approaches from multiple disciplines to derive new concepts and approaches, which in turn enable new ways to achieve and utilize understanding.  ...an integration-driven emergence of new disciplines, not just ad hoc collaborations.”
  • 56. http://blogs.wsj.com/cio/2013/06/21/data-science-and- the-changing-nature-of-research-and-innovation/ “Quite possibly, data science can be a catalyst for the reorganization of the research and innovation enterprise,”
  • 57. Empirical
  • 58. AugmentedAugmented
  • 59. AcceleratedAccelerated
  • 60. Cooperative
  • 61. How to enable discovery?
  • 62. mediated sense making
  • 63. information retrieval
  • 64. precursors Bates - tactics & categories O’Day & Jeffries - categories Cool & Belkin Ellis - behaviors & modes Marchionini - IR framework Spencer - Modes Lamantia - Modes & patterns
  • 65. Patterns of form are inadequate. Need & context vary wildly
  • 66. Task patterns = vague...
  • 67. insight!activitydata +
  • 68. Activity Centered Design
  • 69. The same thing we do every night...
  • 70. Research
  • 71. Research Develop & Produce Market Sell & Deliver Operations & Planning Digital Asset Mgmt Financial Analysis Enterprise Search & Knowledge Mgmt Spend Analysis Market Intelligence Product Information Mgmt Inventory & DeliverySales & Customer Analysis Field Service Analysis Warranty Analysis Maintenance Repair & Overhaul Call Centers & Knowledge Mgmt Customer Risk Analysis Part, Commodity & Supplier Analysis Manufacturing & Quality Inventory & Demand Visibility Human Capital Management Program & Portfolio Mgmt Data Quality & Governance Pricing Analysis Claims Analysis Service Support & Maintain Measure Plan & Operate solution contexts
  • 72. scenario analysis
  • 73. “Understand the quality performance of a part and module set in manufacturing and the field so that I can determine if I should replace that part.” - Engineering “Understand a lead's underlying positions so that I can assess the quality of the investment opportunity.” “Understand a portfolio's exposures to assess portfolio-level investment mix.” - Portfolio Manager “I need to understand the cost drivers for this commodity so I can negotiate better terms with my suppliers and forecast business risk based on market indices.” - Procurement User Scenarios
  • 74. The Language of Discovery: A concrete descriptive language for human discovery activity in diverse contexts. A simple and consistent vocabulary that is independent of domain, role, information type, etc. The Language of Discovery: A concrete descriptive language for human discovery activity in diverse contexts. A simple and consistent vocabulary that is independent of domain, role, information type, etc.
  • 75. activity grammar
  • 76. Leverages what is common in human discovery. Allows for what varies in contexts of discovery.
  • 77. Enables understanding of discovery needs and context
  • 78. Generative tool for discovery capability and experiences
  • 79. visual grammars
  • 80. DISCOVERY S
  • 81. Literary Modes “a broad, but identifiable literary method, mood, or manner, that is not tied exclusively to a particular form or genre.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mode_(literature)
  • 82. Argumentation The purpose of argumentation (also called persuasive writing) is to prove the validity of an idea, or point of view, by presenting sound reasoning, discussion, and argument that thoroughly convince the reader.
  • 83. Rhetorical Modes http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhetorical_modes Exposition The purpose of exposition (or expository writing) is to explain and analyze information by presenting an idea, relevant evidence, and appropriate discussion.
  • 84. Discovery Modes “a broad, but identifiable discovery activity that is not tied exclusively to a particular context or domain.”
  • 85. Identifying Modes “I need visibility into the parts my colleagues are using globally in order to find the best part possible for my assembly.” - Engineering “I need to identify customers/marketers/dealers failing & at risk of de-branding based on performance problems.” - Account Rep “I need to identify problem/success areas and where to intervene and reward.” - SVP Sales “I need to identify the best customer/consumer/region targets for our brand/ products.” - Brand Manager
  • 86. Identifying Modes “Understand the quality performance of a part and module set in manufacturing and the field so that I can determine if I should replace that part.” - Engineering “Understand a lead's underlying positions so that I can assess the quality of the investment opportunity.” “Understand a portfolio's exposures to assess portfolio-level investment mix.” - Portfolio Manager “I need to understand the cost drivers for this commodity so I can negotiate better terms with my suppliers and forecast business risk based on market indices.” - Procurement
  • 87. Comprehending ‘To generate insight by understanding the nature or meaning of something’ e.g. “I need to analyze and understand consumer-customer-market trends to inform brand strategy & communications plan” – Director, Brand Image
  • 88. Locating ‘To find a specific (possibly known) item’ e.g. “I need to find a new part with particular technical attributes and then source it from the most qualified supplier” – Engineer
  • 89. domain independent scale independent structurally consistent semantically distinct orthogonal conceptually connected sequencable combinable
  • 90. Modes seem to be internalized & common.
  • 91. they work like music notes
  • 92. MODE
  • 93. Exploring ‘To proactively investigate or examine something for the purpose of serendipitous knowledge discovery’ e.g. “I need to identify the cost drivers for this commodity so I can negotiate better terms with my suppliers and forecast business risk based on market indices” – Procurement
  • 94. Monitoring ‘To maintain awareness of the status of something for purposes of management or control’ e.g. “I need to monitor at risk/failing customers/dealers so I can prompt my Account Reps to fix the problems” – Sales Manager
  • 95. Locating ‘To find a specific (possibly known) item’ e.g. “I need to find a new part with particular technical attributes and then source it from the most qualified supplier” – Engineer
  • 96. Evaluate ‘To use judgement to determine the significance or value of something with respect to a specific benchmark’ e.g. “I need to determine my current state in my prints so I can evaluate if I have price variation to negotiate a better price” – Procurement
  • 97. Verify ‘To confirm or substantiate that something meets some specific criterion’ e.g. “How can I determine if I am looking at the latest information for a part or supplier?” – Supply Chain Specialist
  • 98. Compare ‘To examine two or more items to identify similarities and differences’ e.g. “I need to compare our module set teardowns with competitive teardown information to see if we’re staying competitive for cost, quality and functionality” – Engineer
  • 99. best route is?
  • 100. Locate Verify Monitor Compare Comprehend Explore Analyze Evaluate Synthesize 9 modes
  • 101. Locate To find a specific (possibly known) thing e.g. I need to find a new part with particular technical attributes and then source it from the most qualified supplier - Engineering Verify ‘To confirm or substantiate that an item or set of items meets some specific criterion’ e.g. How can I determine if I am looking at the latest information for a part or supplier? - Supply Chain Specialist Monitor ‘To maintain awareness of the status of an item or data set for purposes of management or control’ e.g. I need to monitor at risk/failing customers/dealers so I can prompt my Account Reps to fix the problems - Sales Manager
  • 102. Compare To examine two or more things to identify similarities & differences e.g. I need to compare our module set teardowns with competitive teardown information to see if we’re staying competitive for cost, quality and functionality - Engineering Comprehend To generate insight by understanding the nature or meaning of something e.g. I need to analyze and understand consumer-customer-market trends to inform brand strategy & communications plan – Director, Brand Image Explore To proactively investigate or examine something for the purpose of knowledge discovery e.g. I need to understand the cost drivers for this commodity so I can negotiate better terms with my suppliers and forecast business risk based on market indices - Procurement
  • 103. Analyze To critically examine the detail of something to identify patterns & relationships e.g. I need to know the cost drivers for a part such as materials that impact cost. Is the relationship a correlation or step function for a part cost driver? - Engineering Evaluate To use judgement to determine the significance or value of something with respect to a specific benchmark or model e.g. I need to determine my current state in my prints so I can evaluate if I have price variation to negotiate a better price - Procurement Synthesize To generate or communicate insight by integrating diverse inputs to create a novel artifact or composite view e.g. I need to prepare a weekly report for my boss (sales mgr) of how things are going - Account Rep
  • 104. grammatical structure & behavior
  • 105. Modes are the verbs of discovery scenarios.
  • 106. Explore something to effect result or goal. verb object predicate Discovery Goal
  • 107. You can explore: people places events objects data topics processes ...??
  • 108. you said they work like music?
  • 109. Mode
  • 110. Monitor Explore ...currently popular colors over useful intervals ...currently popular colors, or colors popular in the past Verify That a color is popular now or in the past When I use the tool, I can...
  • 111. Monitor Explore ...articles to see what is new and available. ...available articles and topics to identify those of interest to me. Locate ... and read articles of interest, supporting information, and related materials. As a reader, I can...
  • 112. Monitor Explore ...the tweets of people I follow, my followers, community interactions. ...trends and active topics, and suggestions for people to follow. ..tweets, people, hashtags / topics My twitter home page allows me to... Locate Synthesize ...new tweets via composition, retweet, or favorite tweets.
  • 113. The profile snapshot lets me... ...the author of a tweet to decide if I am interested in them ...the profile and homepage of the author of a tweet Locate Evaluate
  • 114. Comprehend Explore Evaluate A twitter profile page lets me... ...the authors profile to learn more about them ...their activity, followers, tweets, relevance to me ...the author’s interests, point of view,
  • 115. you said they work like music?
  • 116. scenario analysis: multiple / sequential modes
  • 117. Chains
  • 118. Comparative Search 1. Replace a problematic part (from sourcing, cost or technical perspective) 2. ...with an equivalent or better part 3. ...without compromising quality and cost. Analyze Compare Evaluate
  • 119. Comparative Search 1. Analyze 2. and understand gaps between current cost of commodity 3. versus best in class manufacturing costs. Analyze Compare Evaluate
  • 120. enterprise scenario chains
  • 121. Comparative Search Identify parts used for same function as candidates for commonization and complexity reduction - Core Engineer Replace a problematic part (from sourcing, cost or technical perspective) with an equivalent or better part without compromising quality and cost. - Engineering Compare our module set teardowns with competitive teardown information to see if we’re staying competitive for cost, quality and functionality. - Engineering Compare a lead's performance claims with relevant benchmarks to assess the lead's claims - Portfolio Manager See the difference between what we are spending and what we should be spending to maximize savings (between actual PO and should costs). - Procurement Analyze & understand gaps between current costs of commodity versus best in class manufacturing costs - Cost Estimators Analyze Compare Evaluate
  • 122. Exploratory Search Identify opportunities to optimize use of tooling capacity for my commodity/parts - Core Engineer Identify sales opportunities and targets (increased key customer market share across categories/brands; upsell-cross sell; promotional targets - District Manager Evaluate & optimize our product portfolio: Which products should we de-list and retire? What new products should we be making/selling? - Category Manager Identify the best customer/consumer/region targets for our brand/products - Brand Manager Determine suppliers to use for parts in my program and execute sourcing agreements - Core Buyer Identify customers/marketers/dealers failing & at risk of de-branding based on performance problems - Program Administrator Explore Analyze Evaluate
  • 123. Strategic Oversight Monitor how well we are tracking to revenue and margin targets by division - SVP Sales Monitor and grade incoming incidents; close incidents, add incident close codes - Supervisor/Inspector Monitor global commodity use in relation to plan/guidelines to identify gaps that require corrective action - Core Engineer Monitor how well we are tracking to revenue and margin targets by division - District Manager Monitor & evaluate how our brand is performing in re: revenue, margin, and market share targets - Brand Manager Financial Analyst: Monitor & assess commodity status against strategy/plan/target Monitor Analyze Evaluate
  • 124. Strategic Insight Track module cost versus functionality over time to determine trends. - Engineering Understand the quality performance of a part and module set in manufacturing and the field so that I can determine if I should replace that part. - Engineering Understand a lead's underlying positions so that I can assess the quality of the investment opportunity - Portfolio Manager Understand a portfolio's exposures to assess portfolio-level investment mix - Portfolio Manager I need to understand the cost drivers for this commodity so I can negotiate better terms with my suppliers and forecast business risk based on market indices. - Procurement Analyze Comprehend Evaluate
  • 125. Comparative Synthesis Analyze and understand consumer-customer-market trends to inform brand strategy & communications plan - Director, Brand Image Find out how many parts I have in my module set of parts and find ways to reduce cost across them - Engineering Formulate scope & strategy for sourcing and gap closure - Core Buyer Analyze and understand a market: marketer network, competitive position, customer sat, & share, etc. to inform brand strategy and communications plan - Brand Image Analyst Analyze Compare Synthesize
  • 126. Explore Analyze Evaluate Analyze Comprehend Evaluate Monitor Analyze Evaluate Analyze Compare Synthesize Comparative Synthesis Strategic Oversight Exploratory Search Strategic Insight Comparative Search Analyze Compare Evaluate Enterprise Scenario Chains
  • 127. consumer scenario chains http://www.flickr.com/photos/t_zero/7350565830/in/photostream/ consumer scenario chains
  • 128. 277 ‘micro-scenarios’ - brief narratives that illustrate the end user’s goal and the primary task/ action they take to achieve it. • Find best offers before the others do so I can have a high margin. • Get help and guidance on how to sell my car safely so that I can achieve a good price. • Understand what is selling by area/region so I can source the correct stock. • See year-on-year ad spend trends for TV and online to supply to the Head of Global Media.
  • 129. Qualified Search A variant of the stereotypical findability task in which immediate verification is required: “Find trucks that I am eligible to drive” (29 instances) Locate Verify A"Model"of"Consumer"Search"Behaviour" Tony  Russell-­‐Rose  and  Stephann  Makri http://red.cs.nott.ac.uk/~mlw//EuroHCIR2012-­‐Proceedings.pdf
  • 130. Insight-driven Search An exploratory search for insight to resolve an explicit information need: “Assess the proper market value for my car” (45 instances) Explore Analyze Comprehend A"Model"of"Consumer"Search"Behaviour" Tony  Russell-­‐Rose  and  Stephann  Makri http://red.cs.nott.ac.uk/~mlw//EuroHCIR2012-­‐Proceedings.pdf
  • 131. Opportunity-driven Search A semi-directed exploration aiming at serendipitous discovery: “Find useful stuff on my subject topic”(31 instances) Explore Locate Evaluate A"Model"of"Consumer"Search"Behaviour" Tony  Russell-­‐Rose  and  Stephann  Makri http://red.cs.nott.ac.uk/~mlw//EuroHCIR2012-­‐Proceedings.pdf
  • 132. Explore Analyze Evaluate Insight-driven Search Opportunity- driven Search Comprehend Explore Locate Qualified Search Locate Verify Consumer Scenario Chains
  • 133. Mode
  • 134. recognizable mode chains
  • 135. Analyze Evaluate Comparative Search 1. Analyze the popularity and importance of colors over time to see patterns 2. Compare colors in terms of importance and popularity at various cycles, trends, and moments. 3. Evaluate colors vs. their current and historic importance and popularity. Color Forecast users can... ...of colors I may use for my purposes Compare
  • 136. Analyze Comprehend Evaluate Strategic Insight 1. Analyze events and topics using the data and tools provided 2. Understand the events and topics using the Guardian’s perspective and my own. 3. Evaluate all perspectives, as well as the actions and decisions based on them. Data blog readers can... into events & actions of government & society
  • 137. Analyze Comparative synthesis 1. Analysis of the causes, participants and events of the UK riots 2. Comparison of suggested causes, insights and explanations into the events. 3. Synthesis of these insights into a coordinated perspective on the riots Data blog readers can... of all insights into the causes of the UK riots Compare Synthesize
  • 138. Evaluate Exploratory search 1. Explore the author’s profile, activity and community interactions. 2. Analyze the author’s followers, activity, tweets, community interaction, who they follow. 3. Evaluate the author to decide their relevance and value. Twitter users can... ... for valuable people streams to follow Explore Analyze
  • 139. mode networks
  • 140. Analyze AnalyzeMonitor Explore Compare Comprehend Synthesize Evaluate Verify Mode Networks
  • 141. AnalyzeExplore Comprehend Evaluate Verify Locate Mode Networks
  • 142. Exploratory Search Identify opportunities to optimize use of tooling capacity for my commodity/parts - Core Engineer Identify sales opportunities and targets (increased key customer market share across categories/brands; upsell-cross sell; promotional targets - District Manager Evaluate & optimize our product portfolio: Which products should we de-list and retire? What new products should we be making/selling? - Category Manager Identify the best customer/consumer/region targets for our brand/products - Brand Manager Determine suppliers to use for parts in my program and execute sourcing agreements - Core Buyer Identify customers/marketers/dealers failing & at risk of de-branding based on performance problems - Program Administrator Explore Analyze Evaluate
  • 143. Initial SummaryOperative
  • 144. Identify opportunities to optimize use of tooling capacity for my commodity/parts - Core Engineer Identify sales opportunities and targets (increased key customer market share across categories/brands; upsell-cross sell; promotional targets - District Manager Evaluate & optimize our product portfolio: Which products should we de-list and retire? What new products should we be making/selling? - Category Manager Identify the best customer/consumer/region targets for our brand/products - Brand Manager Determine suppliers to use for parts in my program and execute sourcing agreements - Core Buyer Identify customers/marketers/dealers failing & at risk of de-branding based on performance problems - Program Administrator Explore Analyze Evaluate Initial SummaryOperative
  • 145. Analyze AnalyzeMonitor Explore Compare Comprehend Synthesize Evaluate Verify Initial SummaryOperative
  • 146. Source: The Sensemaking Process & Leverage Points For Analyst Technology Sensemaking
  • 147. Initial SummaryOperative
  • 148. Using the languageUsing the language
  • 149. To inform the core principles for the user experience of the product To coordinate the design of product features and functions across channels and form-factors To evaluate the quality and success of product designs, in terms of usability, engagement, value, etc. To establish a roadmap for the product's evolution and determine development efforts To shape strategy for a portfolio of products by understanding the value proposition of current and potential new products Product Strategy, Definition & Design
  • 150. Value Proposition
  • 151. Fully specified, known Predictable, repeatable, linear, known Uncertain, ambiguous, subjective Unpredictable, iterative, adaptive, looped, opportunity driven Fully specified, known Uncertain, unknown changeable, multi-faceted Ill DefinedWell Defined Wicked Are we hitting our revenue targets? Which is the best product for my category? What are our best market opportunities? GOAL PATH INFO
  • 152. Ill-Defined & Wicked Problems: A range of examples What are the main causes of returns & dis- satisfaction? What & where are the best market opportunities ? How can we quickly detect cases of fraud? What are the major risk/causal factors for X disease?How can we improve the fuel efficiency, safety etc. of our vehicle fleet? How can we optimize our market campaigns, portfolio, etc.? How can we identify potential terror cells?
  • 153. Well defined & stable problem statement Definite stopping point/solution Solution can be evaluated as right or wrong Belongs to a class of similar problems which are all solved in a similar way Comes with a limited set of alternative solutions Don’t understand problem until you’ve developed a solution; solutions reveal new facets of or redefine the problem No stopping rule; “satisficing”, stopping when solution is judged as “good enough” Solutions are not right or wrong ; solutions assessed in social context Essentially unique or novel, no standardized solution path or well defined “best practice” No given alternative solutions; no predefined boundaries on solution Tame Wicked
  • 154. Discovery Spectrum: Simple Answers to Complex Insights Awareness Facts & Answers Insight* Meaning & Context Knowing that Knowing how & why Locating Verifying Monitoring Exploring Analyzing Synthesizing Simple Complex These regions are below target.. This is the best product for my category These are the best market opportunities….. * Insight: • Grasping or understanding meaning, significance, and/or a solution • A valuable change in perspective or understanding that enables or guides further action
  • 155. To guide the deployment of the product as part of a solution for customers Identifying needs via scenarios and other solution specification tools Crafting functional requirements and interaction designs for deployed applications To describe and publish patterns and best practices in implementation of the product - workspace, application, application suite solution design for product customers To guide the deployment of the product as part of a solution for customers Identifying needs via scenarios and other solution specification tools Crafting functional requirements and interaction designs for deployed applications To describe and publish patterns and best practices in implementation of the product - workspace, application, application suite
  • 156. Mode-based design
  • 157. discovery application template Supply Chain Management Analytics and Forecasting
  • 158. Enables understanding of discovery needs and context
  • 159. Define & Review the Goals, Problems, & User Context Goals & Scenarios §Plan §Optimize §Launch §Build User Types §Knowledgeable §Enthusiast §Uncertain Explorer §Manager Business Goals §Engagement §Conversion §Cross-Sell §Adoption §Acquisition Discovery Assets §Product info §Rich Media §Textual Info §Social Media §Metrics What decision- discovery support and information assets will help them achieve their goals? What are business- user critical goals & scenarios? What do they need to know to succeed? What are the business strategies, objectives, & priorities? Modes & Chains §Locate §Explore §Strategic Insight §Qualified Search How do people need to interact with information assets & each other to achieve their goals? Who are the critical users and how do their discovery needs & behaviors vary?
  • 160. Supply Chain Process Source ManufacturePlan Distribute Replenish Planning Team Planner / Analyst Planning Manager
  • 161. Planners: Needs & Goals Planner / Analyst • Create and update accurate forecasts on a weekly basis at a very detailed level, such as the number of packs of each product SKU needed for a single store. Forecasts evolve through several iterations before reaching their final state, allowing and requiring Planners to incorporate data on sales, inventory, customer activity, etc. as it accumulates in real time. • Improve the accuracy of forecasts and forecasting methods by understanding the nature, degree, and source of forecasting errors in reference to a large number of defined metrics and performance measures. • Analyze and understand changes in the factors affecting forecast accuracy, and enhance forecasting methods to reflect these changes.
  • 162. Planning Manager • Monitor and review the accuracy of Planners’ forecasts to assess individual and team performance • Determine the specific metrics and performance measurements that Planning teams use for reference, based on the long-term goals of the organization. • Evaluate and improve the effectiveness of forecasting practices and tools used by planning teams Managers: Needs & Goals • Achieve 100% forecast accuracy • Maintain forecast accuracy over time, and in all situations. Planning Team
  • 163. recognizable mode chains
  • 164. Synthesize Analyze To create new forecasts, Planners: Analyze their previous forecasts and newly identified causal factors Compare them to accuracy baselines and the expected impact of correlating factors such as seasonal events or weather Create new forecasts that reflect insights from analytical activities Planners: Mode Chains Comparative Synthesis Compare
  • 165. Demand Forecast activitydata +
  • 166. To improve forecasting accuracy, Planners: Analyze cumulative and historical accuracy and error rates to Understand the factors affecting forecasts Evaluate the relevance and usefulness of newly identified causal factors by retrospectively including them in previous forecasts Planners: Mode Chains Analyze Comprehend Evaluate Strategic Insight
  • 167. Causal Factor activitydata +
  • 168. Analyze Managers assessing Planner performance: Monitor the accuracy of forecasts made by individual analysts and the team Analyze forecasts for patterns and trends in variance and accuracy Evaluate the effectiveness of analysts, and forecasting methods. Planning Managers: Mode Chains Evaluate Strategic Oversight Monitor
  • 169. Forecasting Method activitydata +
  • 170. Location Forecast Causal Factor Forecasting Methodology Item Forecast Discovery scope ???
  • 171. Generative tool for discovery capability and experiences
  • 172. how much? when & where? what behavior? Information in workspaces:
  • 173. 3 screen types composed of defined components (portlets) offering discovery ‘functions’ • faceted navigation • data visualization • application navigation • tabular data • search • context management • metrics • alerts • filtering Application Structure
  • 174. Dashboard Screen
  • 175. Planners Monitor the accuracy of their own forecasts compared with established baselines and targets. Planning Managers Monitor the accuracy of all the forecasts made by the Planning team. Dashboard Screen Planner / Analyst Planning Manager Monitor Analyze Evaluate Strategic Oversight
  • 176. One pane enables monitoring of each major area of supply chain activity, such as Inventory or Capacity. Provides summary status of processes via KPIs and measurements. Dashboard Screen A chart presents historical values of these measures for Analysis.
  • 177. Alerts allow Planners to monitor, analyze, and evaluate changes to supply chain flow. Initiate the Strategic Insight chain: follow linked data points in charts, metrics and alerts ‘deeper’ into the information space. Dashboard Screen
  • 178. Focused on one sub-function of the supply chain: forecasts and activity for ‘restocking’ of products in retail settings through stages of the supply chain. Search, Breadcrumb, and Faceted Navigation components allow the user to understand & manage the data that is presented in the workspace tables, charts, while analyzing the information. Summarize and communicate workspace context to users to provide orientation and comprehension. Analysis Screen
  • 179. ‘Metric summary’, which follows on from the performance indicators identified on the Dashboard, Visibility into the smaller scale measures that determine the status of the supply chain; specifically, the accuracy of forecasts (compare & evaluate). Analysis Screen
  • 180. Below the summary, a group of components presents a visualization and data grid of a single metric grouped by one or more variables (e.g. quantity by product type) to enable analysis. These ‘metric breakouts’ help Planners and Managers comprehend the factors contributing to the status of each metric. This combination facilitates a wider range of analysis methods than either presentation method supports alone. Analysis Screen
  • 181. Supporting tables provide lists of the individual transactions for detailed analysis and evaluation. Analysis Screen
  • 182. Analysis Screen Analyze Comprehend Evaluate Strategic Insight Analyze Compare Synthesize Comparative Synthesis Planner / Analyst Planning Manager
  • 183. Planning teams use the Trends screen to explore and understand the state of the supply chain, and the accuracy of their forecasts over time. For this purpose, the Trends screen is primarily designed to support the Exploratory Search (Explore-Analyze- Evaluate) and Comparative Synthesis (Analyze- Compare-Synthesize) chains, in which Planners and Managers seek to identify new patterns in time and supply chain activity and suggest potential causal factors. The value of the Trends screen is best understood in the context of sequences of mode chains, such as Strategic Oversight in companion with Comparative Synthesis or Exploration Driven Search in companion to Strategic Insight. Trends Screen Analyze Compare Synthesize Comparative Synthesis Explore Analyze Evaluate Exploration-driven Search Planner / Analyst Planning Manager
  • 184. Sequences
  • 185. Planners will follow the Strategic Oversight chain for visibility into the status of their published final forecasts vs. actual activity in the supply chain; When errors or variances beyond an acceptable threshold emerge in one or more forecasts, they will switch to the Strategic Insight chain in order to understand the new situation. They will move on to the Comparative Synthesis chain to revise their forecasts to reflect their newly generated insights and improved understanding. They will then switch back to Strategic Oversight to maintain ongoing awareness of the accuracy and effectiveness of their revised forecasts over time. Strategic Insight Comparative Synthesis Strategic Oversight Strategic Oversight Planners: Mode Sequences Planner / Analyst
  • 186. Strategic Insight Comparative Synthesis Strategic Oversight Strategic Oversight Mode Sequences Business Process Optimization “Process optimization is the discipline of adjusting a process so as to optimize some specified set of parameters without violating some constraint. The most common goals are minimizing cost, maximizing throughput, and/or efficiency. This is one of the major quantitative tools in industrial decision making. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Process_optimization A business process or business method is a collection of related, structured activities or tasks that produce a specific service or product (serve a particular goal) for a particular customer or customers.
  • 187. Planning Managers seeking to improve the forecasting practices and methods of their teams will employ a sequences of mode chains that begins with Exploratory driven Search, to identify exemplars of particularly strong or weak forecasts and forecasting practices. They will move to Strategic Insight to understand how and why these practices exhibit strength or weakness. Comparative Synthesis will help Managers formulate new or improved measurements and forecasting practices. They will rely on Strategic Oversight to gauge the effectiveness of new or enhanced practices once in effect. Strategic Insight Comparative Synthesis Exploratory Search Strategic Oversight Managers: Mode Sequences Planning Manager
  • 188. Strategic Insight Comparison-driven Synthesis Exploration-driven Search Strategic Oversight Mode Sequences Business Process Re-Engineering / Design “Business process re-engineering is the analysis and design of workflows and processes within an organization.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Business_process_reengineering
  • 189. language for business- level dialog around sense making
  • 190. Enterprise Information Usage Enterprise Information Usage
  • 191. Enterprise Information Engagement Scenario Manage My Benefits Simone -- a marketing director working for a discount travel seller -- had her first child earlier in the year, and wants to modify her benefits elections. Specifically she wants to begin depositing money in the dependent care spending account offered by her employer's benefit plan.   Simone does not know how the dependent care accounts 'work' (depositing funds, claiming funds, directing reimbursements, filing taxes, etc.) under her benefits plan. Simone needs to find information answering these questions.   Simone also needs to locate and use the tools for setting up and managing a dependent care spending account.
  • 192. Mode Group Specific Modes of Engagement Enterprise Information Engagement Landscape Information Source Specific examples System / physical sources Tools / systems people use Usage profile Interaction type Specific relationships Data structure Sources Form of data Summary of users’ activities “Kind of insight”
  • 193. Enterprise Information Engagement Scenario Manage My Benefits Simone -- a marketing director working for a discount travel seller -- had her first child earlier in the year, and wants to modify her benefits elections. Specifically she wants to begin depositing money in the dependent care spending account offered by her employer's benefit plan.   Simone does not know how the dependent care accounts 'work' (depositing funds, claiming funds, directing reimbursements, filing taxes, etc.) under her benefits plan. Simone needs to find information answering these questions.   Simone also needs to locate and use the tools for setting up and managing a dependent care spending account. Lookup Locate Verify Monitor Seeking definitive answers “Knowing that __” Structured data Internal sources Data point / factoid Procedural Business <-> Staff Self-service tools Universal usage Transactional systems HR, payroll, IT, procurement, expenses, travel, corporate directories, etc. Records, standard policies and procedures
  • 194. Self-Service Scenario Join A Project Team Avery -- a medical billing supervisor for a regional hospital group -- is newly attached to a long-running project to improve customer satisfaction around billing processes within the hospital group.   He needs to get 'up to speed' on what has happened with the project to date, understand who is part of the project and their roles, and begin participating directly in the project's ongoing activities.   Avery needs to find and secure access to active project-related areas and artifacts in the hospital network's collaboration tools, identify the other embers of the project team and understand their roles on the project as well as within the hospital network's organizational landscape, and locate numerous collections of project- specific information residing in a number of specialized applications used by the various groups that facilitate the billing process.
  • 195. Self-Service Scenario Join A Project Team Avery -- a medical billing supervisor for a regional hospital group -- is newly attached to a long-running project to improve customer satisfaction around billing processes within the hospital group.   He needs to get 'up to speed' on what has happened with the project to date, understand who is part of the project and their roles, and begin participating directly in the project's ongoing activities.   Avery needs to find and secure access to active project- related areas and artifacts in the hospital network's collaboration tools, identify the other embers of the project team and understand their roles on the project as well as within the hospital network's organizational landscape, and locate numerous collections of project-specific information residing in a number of specialized applications used by the various groups that facilitate the billing process. Learn Explore Compare Comprehend Collaboration tools Similar usage Groupware Wikis, group / team / project sites & workspaces, employee forums, Enterprise 2.0, email Document repositories, file shares, ECM, sharepoint Qualitative info Internal sources Assets / containers Communicative Business <-> Staff Staff <-> Staff Unit <-> Unit Learning from diverse assets “Knowing about __”
  • 196. Self-Service Scenario Take Over Customer Accounts Stuti -- a customer accounts manager working for a training and development firm -- needs to 'take over' the client accounts handled by a co-worker going on leave. Stuti receives a cursory briefing before her co-worker goes on leave, but has to begin working directly with clients before she has the opportunity to study them in depth.   Stuti has to learn the status and history of all the accounts she is taking over, understand and communicate the firm's plans for the various products and services clients purchase from the firm, and identify and pursue the firm's sales and relationship goals for these clients based on the importance of each client to the firm.   Stuti has comprehensive access to the all the applications, collaboration tools, and information repositories used by customer accounts managers to service clients, and work with other teams inside the firm.   However, she has little guidance on which specific resources, documents, artifacts, and collections of data can most effectively tell her the current state of her new accounts, and which tools and pieces of information usefully communicate the history of the firm's relationships with these clients.
  • 197. Self-Service Scenario Take Over Customer Accounts Stuti -- a customer accounts manager working for a training and development firm -- needs to 'take over' the client accounts handled by a co-worker going on leave. Stuti receives a cursory briefing before her co-worker goes on leave, but has to begin working directly with clients before she has the opportunity to study them in depth.   Stuti has to learn the status and history of all the accounts she is taking over, understand and communicate the firm's plans for the various products and services clients purchase from the firm, and identify and pursue the firm's sales and relationship goals for these clients based on the importance of each client to the firm.   Stuti has comprehensive access to the all the applications, collaboration tools, and information repositories used by customer accounts managers to service clients, and work with other teams inside the firm.   However, she has little guidance on which specific resources, documents, artifacts, and collections of data can most effectively tell her the current state of her new accounts, and which tools and pieces of information usefully communicate the history of the firm's relationships with these clients. Investigate Analyze Evaluate Synthesize Investigating data for insight “Knowing why __” Analytical Unit <-> Unit Business <-> Market Poly-structured data Internal & external sources Data sets & graphs Operational systems R&D, product development, ERP, financials and EPM, sales & marketing, CRM operational data, 3rd party data & public data Discovery tools Idiosyncratic usage
  • 198. Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 Lookup Locate Verify Monitor Learn Explore Compare Comprehend Investigate Analyze Evaluate Synthesize Simple ??’s Complex ??’s Self-service Enterprise Information Engagement Landscape Transactional systems HR, payroll, IT, procurement, expenses, travel, corporate directories, etc. Records, standard policies and procedures Groupware Wikis, group / team / project sites & workspaces, employee forums, Enterprise 2.0, email Document repositories, file shares, ECM, sharepoint Operational systems R&D, product development, ERP, financials and EPM, sales & marketing, CRM operational data, 3rd party data & public data Self-service tools Universal usage Collaboration tools Similar usage Discovery tools Idiosyncratic usage Analytical Unit <-> Unit Business <-> Market Procedural Business <-> Staff Communicative Business <-> Staff Staff <-> Staff Unit <-> Unit Structured data Internal sources Data point / factoid Qualitative info Internal sources Assets / containers Poly-structured data Internal & external sources Data sets & graphs Seeking definitive answers “Knowing that __” Learning from diverse assets “Knowing about __” Investigating data for insight “Knowing why __”
  • 199. Twitter.comTwitter.com
  • 200. Monitor Synthesize Locate Explore
  • 201. Monitor • New tweets by people the user follows • Interactions with other twitter users • Activity related to the user’s profile • People, topics, or items recommended
  • 202. • New tweets by people the user follows • Interactions with other twitter users • Activity related to the user’s profile • People, topics, or items recommended Monitor Analyze Evaluate Strategic Oversight
  • 203. Analyze AnalyzeMonitor Explore Compare Comprehend Synthesize Evaluate Verify Mode Networks
  • 204. Explore Analyze Evaluate Insight-driven Search Opportunity- driven Search Comprehend Explore Locate Qualified Search Locate Verify Consumer Scenario Chains
  • 205. AnalyzeExplore Comprehend Evaluate Verify Locate Mode Networks
  • 206. Header Stream CoreSecondary
  • 207. Monitoring consoles Monitoring consoles Search results Home Me #Discover@Connect Favorites Lists Following Followers Mentions Activity Who to follow Find friends Browse categories Tweet Shared asset Exploration & extension workspaces
  • 208. Best Practices
  • 209. • Using the modes as a generative design tool requires mapping of information assets. • Not a one-to-one correspondence between a composite of modes such as a chain, and an interaction component of any size or scope. • Modes are useful as alignment tool for product’s concept model and users’ mental models. • Well designed interaction components combine modes together into compact functions that accomplish more than one ‘micro-task’ at the same time – e.g. Show conversation link locates and presents info for exploration / comprehension/ analysis.
  • 210. • Every individual system will have its own idiosyncratic network of modes and chains that arises from the particular user journeys it needs to support.  Designers must understand and reference this local map to create effective systems, and specifically to define the right UX architecture. • Local mode networks should be analyzed along three axes: for recurring modes and mode chains, for intersecting or overlapping modes and mode chains, and for sequences of modes and chains. • Constructive units need ‘linkages’ – not sure what / how to represent linkage using current language. Continuity is one thing linkages address and enable. Need an understanding / definition of continuity. • Scope of information needed for an activity and the interaction component that enables it can be addressed via density of info, or scope of interaction component. •
  • 211. learn hearts & minds rely on known modes & sequences parsimonious composition hunt cross-channel flows optimize for core scenarios every interaction enhances insight
  • 212. References & Resources Language of Discovery
  • 213. Publications Russell-Rose, T., Lamantia, J. and Burrell, M. 2011. A Taxonomy of Enterprise Search and Discovery. Proceedings of EuroHCIR 2011, London, UK. http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-763/paper4.pdf Russell-Rose, T., Lamantia, J. and Burrell, M. 2011. A Taxonomy of Enterprise Search and Discovery. Proceedings of HCIR 2011, California, USA. https://docs.google.com/a/kent.edu/viewer? a=v&pid=sites&srcid=ZGVmYXVsdGRvbWFpbnxoY2lyd29ya3Nob3B8Z3g6NzdmYjc3OWY2ZjQ2Zjg4MQ Russell-Rose, T. and Makri, S. 2012 A Model of Consumer Search Behavior. Proceedings of EuroHCIR 2012, Nijmegen, NL. Designing the Search Experience: http://www.amazon.com/Designing-Search-Experience-Information- Architecture/dp/0123969816
  • 214. References & Resources The sensemaking process and leverage points for analyst technology as identified through cognitive task analysis, Pirolli, P., & Card, S. (2005) https://analysis.mitre.org/proceedings/Final_Papers_Files/206_Camera_Ready_Paper.pdf Exploratory search: from finding to understanding, Gary Marchionini, Communications of the ACM, Volume 49 Issue 4, April 2006 http://www.ischool.utexas.edu/~i385t-sw/readings/Marchionini-2006-Exploratory_Search.pdf Lamantia, Joe. “Goal Based Information Retrieval Experiences” JoeLamantia.com, (June 20, 2006). http://www.joelamantia.com/informationarchitecture/goalbasedinformationretrievalexperiences Lamantia, Joe. “10 Information Retrieval Patterns” JoeLamantia.com, (June 29, 2006). http://www.joelamantia.com/information-architecture/10-information-retrieval-patterns Lamantia, Joe. “Discovering User Goals / IR Goal Definitions” JoeLamantia.com, (June 24, 2006). http://www.joelamantia.com/information-architecture/discovering-user-goals-ir-goal-definitions Spencer, D. 2006. “Four Modes of Seeking Information and How to Design for Them”. Boxes & Arrows: http://www.boxesandarrows.com/view/four_modes_of_seeking_information_and_how_to_design_for_them Bates, Marcia J. 1979. "Information Search Tactics." Journal of the American Society for Information Science 30: 205-214 Bates, Marcia J. 1989. "The Design of Browsing and Berrypicking Techniques for the Online Search Interface." Online Review 13: 407-424. Broder, A. 2002. A taxonomy of web search, ACM SIGIR Forum, v.36 n.2, Fall 2002
  • 215. References & Resources Cool, C. & Belkin, N. 2002. A classification of interactions with information. In H. Bruce (Ed.), Emerging Frameworks and Methods: CoLIS4: proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Conceptions of Library and Information Science, Seattle, WA, USA, July 21-25, 2002, (pp. 1-15). Glaser, B. & Strauss, A. 1967. The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research. New York: Aldine de Gruyter. Jarvelin, K. and Ingwersen, P. 2004. “Information seeking research needs extension towards tasks and technology”, Information Research, Vol. 10, No. 1. (October 2004) Kuhlthau, C. C. 1991. Inside the information search process: Information seeking from the user's perspective. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 42, 361-371. Marchionini, G. 2006. Exploratory search: from finding to understanding. Commun. ACM 49(4): 41-46 Norman, Donald A. 2006. Logic versus usage: the case for activity centered design. Interactions 13, 6 O'Day, V. and Jeffries, R. 1993. Orienteering in an information landscape: how information seekers get from here to there. INTERCHI 1993: 438-445 Rose, D. and Levinson, D. 2004. Understanding user goals in web search, Proceedings of the 13th international conference on World Wide Web, New York, NY, USA Salton, G. 1989. Automatic Text Processing: The Transformation, Analysis, and Retrieval of Information by Computer. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA. Sutcliffe, A.G. and Ennis, M. 1998. Towards a cognitive theory of information retrieval. Interacting with Computers, 10:321–351.
  • 216. References & Resources Cool, C. & Belkin, N. 2002. A classification of interactions with information. In H. Bruce (Ed.), Emerging Frameworks and Methods: CoLIS4: proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Conceptions of Library and Information Science, Seattle, WA, USA, July 21-25, 2002, (pp. 1-15). Cool, C. & Belkin, N. 2002. A classification of interactions with information. In H. Bruce (Ed.), Emerging Frameworks and Methods: CoLIS4: proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Conceptions of Library and Information Science, Seattle, WA, USA, July 21-25, 2002, (pp. 1-15). Ellis, D. 1989. A Behavioural Approach to Information Retrieval System Design. Journal of Documentation, 45(3), pp. 171-212. Ellis, D., Cox, D. & Hall, K. 1993. A Comparison of the Information-seeking Patterns of Researchers in the Physical and Social Sciences. Journal of Documentation 49(4), pp. 356-369. Ellis, D. & Haugan, M. 1997. Modelling the Information-seeking Patterns of Engineers and Research Scientists in an Industrial Environment. Journal of Documentation 53(4), pp. 384-403. Makri, S., Blandford, A. & Cox, A.L. 2008. Investigating the Information-Seeking Behaviour of Academic Lawyers: From Ellis’s Model to Design. Information Processing and Management 44(2), pp. 613-634. Meho, L. & Tibbo, H. 2003. Modeling the Information-seeking Behavior of Social Scientists: Ellis’s Study Revisited. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 54(6), pp. 570-587.
  • 217. Joe Lamantia Product Strategy and Design: Oracle @moJoe Joe.Lamantia@oracle.com http://slideshare.net/mojoe