Designing Ethically

Communicating Conflict
Design For the Integrated Experience




                                       1
A Story About Conflict

“Please Restore My: Reputation

   
   
   
     Dignity

   
   
   
     Privacy”



            ...
Themes of this story
• conflict as aspect of social media
• how design responds to conflict
• ethical consequences of design...
May 2007 - Tagged.com invite emails proliferate

                         Anonymous


       Anonymous has added you as a ...
YASNS (Yet Another Social Networking Site)




                     EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel   Joe Lamantia   5

        ...
From: Anonymous <anonymous@gmail.com>
Date: May 5, 2007 4:38 PM
Subject: Re: Anonymous has Tagged you! :)
To: Joe Lamantia...
From: Anonymous <anonymous@gmail.com>
Date: May 5, 2007 4:38 PM
Subject: Re: Anonymous has Tagged you! :)
To: Joe Lamantia...
Tagged.com Turns Profitable - May Be Fastest Growing Social
Network
“Tagged is also very aggressive with signing up new use...
From: “Anonymousquot; <anonymous@gmail.com>
Date: September 13, 2007 10:34:28 AM EDT
To: quot;Joe Lamantiaquot; <joe@joela...
From: Anonymous <anonymous@gmail.com>
Date: May 8, 2007 1:59 PM
Subject: PLEASE STOP SENDING EMAILS TO PEOPLE IN MY ADDRES...
From: customer service <support@tagged.com>
Date: May 8, 2007 1:59 PM
Subject: Re: PLEASE STOP SENDING EMAILS TO PEOPLE IN...
The experience of being Tagged
“What happened next was nightmarish. My inbox started filling up with auto-
responses, since...
YASNS (Yet Another Social Networking Scam)




                    EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel   Joe Lamantia   13

        ...
More than an inconvenience -


Is this ethical…?




                     EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel   Joe Lamantia   14

 ...
Depends on how you look at it!

To Users / Customers                              To the Business
• Considerable damage to...
Clear conflict: users vs. business




                EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel   Joe Lamantia   16

                     ...
How is design involved?




               EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel   Joe Lamantia   17

                                ...
The user experience is the product!




                EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel   Joe Lamantia   18

                   ...
User Experience:
All aspects of the system, solution, product or
design that users experience in some way.




           ...
Designer:
Person making design decisions that shape the
user experience - IA, ID, VD, UXA, etc..




                     ...
How does this involve ethics?
1. Generally
2. Specifically



                 EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel   Joe Lamantia   2...
“Ethical dilemmas occur when
values are in conflict.”

  Source: American Library Association Code of Ethics - adopted June...
Main Entry: eth·ic
Etymology: Middle English ethik, from Middle French ethique, from Latin
   ethice, from Greek EthikE, f...
“dealing with what is good and bad”




                EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel   Joe Lamantia   24

                   ...
Designing an experience means
deciding what is “good” and “bad”
in many ways.



                EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel...
Design works to understand users
• how they think
• what they value
>> build empathy
>> create relationships



          ...
People do not agree all the time…


…Conflict is natural and inevitable




                EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel   Joe...
Many forms and expressions of conflict:
• Mental Model                 • Language

• Task Flow                    • Cultura...
Specific context from computer ethics field
quot;A typical problem in computer ethics arises because there is a policy vacuu...
quot;According to Moor, the computer revolution is occurring in two stages.
The first stage was that of quot;technological ...
“Just as the major ethical theories of Bentham and Kant were developed in
response to the printing press revolution, so a ...
Many design decisions require
compromise




               EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel   Joe Lamantia   32

               ...
Design decisions have ethical
aspects…


…and ethical consequences.

                EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel   Joe Laman...
In social media, network
mechanisms amplify the effects of
design decisions



                EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel  ...
Design decisions affect more
people, in more ways.




               EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel   Joe Lamantia   35

     ...
The design of integrated
experiences affects the physical
and tangible aspects of life.




                EuroIA 2007: E...
Conflict presents ethical dilemmas
design does not yet address.




               EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel   Joe Lamantia...
Conflicts present ethical dilemmas
for designers.




               EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel   Joe Lamantia   38

       ...
Design must understand conflict to
support informed ethical decisions.




                EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel   Joe ...
Design cannot resolve ethical
dilemmas alone.




                EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel   Joe Lamantia   40

         ...
Design must educate stakeholders
• discovered conflicts
• values affected
• necessary compromises
• ethical implications of...
Conflict: The Missing Ingredient




                       EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel   Joe Lamantia   42

                ...
Current design approaches do not
specifically address conflict.




               EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel   Joe Lamantia ...
Many design approaches:
• Elements of Experience

• Emotional Design

• Forces of User Experience

• Experience Design

• ...
Many design approaches:
• User Centered Design

• User Experience Honeycomb

• User Centric Design

• Contextual Design

•...
EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel   Joe Lamantia   46

                                           46
Design is not prepared to discover,
communicate, educate all parties.




                EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel   Joe ...
A Conflicted (Integrated) Future




                        EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel   Joe Lamantia   48

               ...
Quechup is rotten: don't accept invites
While you were Burning / vacationing / spacing out offline this Labor Day
weekend, ...
Are You Getting Quechup Spammed?
“One controversial issue among social networks is how hard they should push
for user acqu...
Rancid Bacn
“It's getting easier and easier for services to raid your address book.
I got nearly a dozen notes from people...
3 shifts in culture show growing
 technology permeation




                EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel   Joe Lamantia   52
...
These shifts indicate a future of
integrated virtual and physical user
experiences



                 EuroIA 2007: Ethics...
Integration = greater complexity,
connectedness, and awareness




                EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel   Joe Lamanti...
Integration means increases in:
• potential for conflict
• effects of design decisions
• ethical dilemmas for design(ers)

...
1. Social shift




                  EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel   Joe Lamantia   56

                                     ...
The Social Shift
• Network effects

• Group and community dynamics
   • Social memory

   • Social identity mechanisms

• ...
Unilateral is now multilateral




                 EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel   Joe Lamantia   58

                       ...
Designing Web Applications for Use
By Larry Constantine, Constantine & Lockwood, Ltd. - Dec 11, 2006
“A third problem with...
Multilateral = conflicts




                 EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel   Joe Lamantia   60

                              ...
2. DIY (Do It Yourself) shift




                  EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel   Joe Lamantia   61

                       ...
Aspects of the DIY shift:
• “Small Pieces Loosely Joined”

• Design moves up the value / scope pyramid
   • Designers crea...
DIY = Everyone is a designer




               EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel   Joe Lamantia   63

                           ...
Negotiation is the new governance




               EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel   Joe Lamantia   64

                      ...
3. Rise of the SPIME




               EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel   Joe Lamantia   65

                                   ...
SPIMEs bridge physical and virtual worlds
• “Mostly virtual, occasionally physical”
   • Physical manifestation
   • Tempo...
When Blobjects Rule the Earth
“Scenario: You buy a Spime with a credit
card. Your account info is embedded in the
transact...
When Blobjects Rule the Earth
“So …you would be able to swiftly understand:
• where it was
• when you got it
• how much it...
When Blobjects Rule the Earth
• what it had been used for

• where and when it was used
• what other people who own this k...
Emerging SPIME ecology:
• RFID
• GIS / geo-location
• tagging
• white-label social networking
• smart objects
• ubiquitous...
Design = multi-dimensional




               EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel   Joe Lamantia   71

                             ...
New dimensions = new conflicts




              EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel   Joe Lamantia   72

                           ...
What Does This Mean For Design?




                      EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel   Joe Lamantia   73

                 ...
Does the integrated future mean
new kinds of conflict to resolve?




                EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel   Joe Laman...
Integration = many new conflicts...




                EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel   Joe Lamantia   75

                    ...
How Design Can Address Conflict?




                     EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel   Joe Lamantia   76

                  ...
Design must become aware of
conflict to support ethical decisions,
avoid ethical compromises



                 EuroIA 200...
Professional codes of ethics help, but
only when all parties understand the
conflicts at hand.




                  EuroIA...
Codes = top-down, costly, slow




               EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel   Joe Lamantia   79

                         ...
Treat conflict as a natural element of context
• Conflict = “new layer” of context

• Works with existing design tools and m...
Adapt common design / discovery methods
Include conflict from the start:
1. discover
2. understand
3. communicate
4. design...
Vision Themes
   • ‘Talking points’ for design vision

   • Allow stakeholders to communicate
    shared vision



How To ...
Stakeholder / Business Goals
   • Defined as part of vision phase

   • Translate business needs into aspects and
    capab...
Map conflicts to business strategy and goals


                     Barriers to Product Adoption
       Data &             ...
Include and communicate conflict throughout the
design cycle. “Bake it in…”
                              User Roles +
    ...
Functional Requirements
   • Synthesize findings of discovery
    activities for business, user and system
    perspectives...
Goals and Needs Matrices
   • Itemizes goals and needs by type of user



How To Address Conflict:
   • Identify specific in...
Personas
   • Describes types of user / customer /
    person



How To Address Conflict:
   • Flag personas associated wit...
Identify conflicts relevant to individual personas
                        Chen Xiang                                      ...
Scenarios
  • Scenarios should narrate aspects of
    the user experience and vision



How To Address Conflict:
  • Label ...
Share the experience of conflict via scenarios
A poor user experience lowers perceptions of services and offerings




    ...
Share the experience of conflict via scenarios
A poor user experience lowers perceptions of services and offerings

 Exampl...
Share the experience of conflict via scenarios
A poor user experience lowers perceptions of services and offerings

 Exampl...
Concept Maps
  • Define key conceptual objects and map
    relationships



How To Address Conflict:
  • Begin with simplifie...
Site Maps
  • Summarizes structure and flow through
    information space / environment



How To Address Conflict:
  • Comp...
Wire Frames
  • Schematics capture function, layout,
    interaction



How To Address Conflict:
  • Identify screen compon...
Use Cases
  • Document behavior of system and actors



How To Address Conflict:
  • Write use cases for all understandings...
proposing design needs to develop practical tools methods and viewpoint for
discovering, understanding and communicating c...
The Future of Design?




                        EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel   Joe Lamantia   97

                         ...
EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel   Joe Lamantia   98

                                           98
EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel   Joe Lamantia   99

                                           99
EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel   Joe Lamantia    100

                                           100
EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel   Joe Lamantia    101

                                           101
Questions?




                  Thank You!




      EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel   Joe Lamantia    102

                   ...
Joe Lamantia:
   Involved in the information architecture and user experience fields since 1996
   In 2000, became an entre...
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Designing Ethically - EuroIA 2007 Ethics Panel Presentation

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What does the future of design hold? Greater ethical challenges. In the coming world of integrated experiences, design will face increasing ethical dilemmas born of the conflicts between broader, diverse groups of users in social media; new hybrids such as the SPIME which bridges the physical and virtual environments simultaneously, and the DIY shift that changes the role of designers from creators of elegant point solutions, to the authors of elegant systems and frameworks used by others for their own expressive and functional purposes. To better prepare designers for the increased complexity, connectedness, and awareness included in the coming future, here are some practical suggestions for easily addressing conflict during the design of integrated experiences, by using known and familiar experience design methods and techniques.

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Designing Ethically - EuroIA 2007 Ethics Panel Presentation

  1. 1. Designing Ethically Communicating Conflict Design For the Integrated Experience 1
  2. 2. A Story About Conflict “Please Restore My: Reputation Dignity Privacy” EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 2 2
  3. 3. Themes of this story • conflict as aspect of social media • how design responds to conflict • ethical consequences of design decisions EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 3 3
  4. 4. May 2007 - Tagged.com invite emails proliferate Anonymous Anonymous has added you as a friend on Tagged. Is Anonymous your friend?  Please respond or Anonymous may think you said no :( EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 4 4
  5. 5. YASNS (Yet Another Social Networking Site) EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 5 5
  6. 6. From: Anonymous <anonymous@gmail.com> Date: May 5, 2007 4:38 PM Subject: Re: Anonymous has Tagged you! :) To: Joe Lamantia<joe.lamantia@gmail.com > Hi Joe - Sorry about this email - it was not sent intentionally by me and you should ignore it.  *Definitely do not visit tagged.com* -Anonymous EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 6 6
  7. 7. From: Anonymous <anonymous@gmail.com> Date: May 5, 2007 4:38 PM Subject: Re: Anonymous has Tagged you! :) To: Joe Lamantia<joe.lamantia@gmail.com > Ouch. I'm really sorry about that. I got an invite from someone and then went through the registration process which checks your contacts from GMail list as part of the registration funnel and allows you to add users in your contacts. Little did I know that below the fold, it included every email recipient from my GMail, so when I clicked submit, it sent to every contact in my GMail account including all my email lists. How embarrassing for me.  :(  I should have read the copy on the page first. Sorry again. EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 7 7
  8. 8. Tagged.com Turns Profitable - May Be Fastest Growing Social Network “Tagged is also very aggressive with signing up new users. At registration users are strongly encouraged to invite their entire address book as friends. It’s a highly viral, albeit controversial, way to quickly add lots of new users.” Michael Arrington (of TechCrunch) http://www.techcrunch.com/2007/05/09/tagged-turns-profitable-may-be-fastest-growing-social- network/ EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 8 8
  9. 9. From: “Anonymousquot; <anonymous@gmail.com> Date: September 13, 2007 10:34:28 AM EDT To: quot;Joe Lamantiaquot; <joe@joelamantia.com> Subject: Re: Tagged.com email address harvesting Ugh. Don't make me relive that experience. The funny things is that most of the facebook apps that I'm installing these days feature the opt out method of inviting your friends, e.g. the flixter quiz. Anyway, here's the apology I wrote to all my contacts. If you publish anything about this, I would appreciate if you not mention me by name, for obvious reasons. -Anonymous EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 9 9
  10. 10. From: Anonymous <anonymous@gmail.com> Date: May 8, 2007 1:59 PM Subject: PLEASE STOP SENDING EMAILS TO PEOPLE IN MY ADDRESS BOOK!!!!! To: customer service <support@tagged.com> Hi - when I signed up for tagged.com you fooled me into giving you all the email addresses in my gmail address book.  Now all 783 contacts appear to be getting emails even though I canceled my tagged.com account. PLEASE MAKE THIS STOP IMMEDIATELY! -Anonymous EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 10 10
  11. 11. From: customer service <support@tagged.com> Date: May 8, 2007 1:59 PM Subject: Re: PLEASE STOP SENDING EMAILS TO PEOPLE IN MY ADDRESS BOOK!!!!! To: Anonymous <anonymous@gmail.com> Hello, Thank you for contacting Tagged. We have removed your invitations. We apologize for the inconvenience we have caused you and your friends. If you need help with anything else please let us know. Sincerely, Alex Customer Support EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 11 11
  12. 12. The experience of being Tagged “What happened next was nightmarish. My inbox started filling up with auto- responses, since tagged was basically emailing everyone and everything in my inbox. Emails were sent to prospective employers, jeopardizing my job prospects with them. Emails were also sent to old girlfriends, some of who responded quite angrily. Emails were sent to professional colleagues, some of whom will be listening to the very presentation you are giving. I must've sent over a 100 personal responses to people apologizing profusely and explaining that the email was not sent intentionally.” -Anonymous EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 12 12
  13. 13. YASNS (Yet Another Social Networking Scam) EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 13 13
  14. 14. More than an inconvenience - Is this ethical…? EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 14 14
  15. 15. Depends on how you look at it! To Users / Customers To the Business • Considerable damage to social fabric • Rising number of users • Individual • Rapid growth in registration • Group • Leveraging network strategy • Community • Lower customer acquisition costs • Privacy violation • Profitability • Emotional discomfort >> Positive outcomes • Unknown future costs >> Negative experience EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 15 15
  16. 16. Clear conflict: users vs. business EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 16 16
  17. 17. How is design involved? EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 17 17
  18. 18. The user experience is the product! EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 18 18
  19. 19. User Experience: All aspects of the system, solution, product or design that users experience in some way. EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 19 19
  20. 20. Designer: Person making design decisions that shape the user experience - IA, ID, VD, UXA, etc.. EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 20 20
  21. 21. How does this involve ethics? 1. Generally 2. Specifically EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 21 21
  22. 22. “Ethical dilemmas occur when values are in conflict.” Source: American Library Association Code of Ethics - adopted June 28, 1995 EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 22 22
  23. 23. Main Entry: eth·ic Etymology: Middle English ethik, from Middle French ethique, from Latin ethice, from Greek EthikE, from Ethikos 1. the discipline dealing with what is good and bad and with moral duty and obligation 2. a : a set of moral principles : a theory or system of moral values b : the principles of conduct governing an individual or a group c : a guiding philosophy d : a consciousness of moral importance Source: http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/ethics EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 23 23
  24. 24. “dealing with what is good and bad” EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 24 24
  25. 25. Designing an experience means deciding what is “good” and “bad” in many ways. EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 25 25
  26. 26. Design works to understand users • how they think • what they value >> build empathy >> create relationships EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 26 26
  27. 27. People do not agree all the time… …Conflict is natural and inevitable EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 27 27
  28. 28. Many forms and expressions of conflict: • Mental Model • Language • Task Flow • Cultural Concept • Priority • Ownership • Precedents • Pace • Information Needs • Context • Terminology • Emotion • Labeling • Identity • Function • Confidentiality • Legality • Interaction EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 28 28
  29. 29. Specific context from computer ethics field quot;A typical problem in computer ethics arises because there is a policy vacuum about how computer technology should be used. Computers provide us with new capabilities and these in turn give us new choices for action. Often, either no policies for conduct in these situations exist or existing policies seem inadequate. A central task of computer ethics is to determine what we should do in such cases, that is, formulate policies to guide our actions.... One difficulty is that along with a policy vacuum there is often a conceptual vacuum. Although a problem in computer ethics may seem clear initially, a little reflection reveals a conceptual muddle. What is needed in such cases is an analysis that provides a coherent conceptual framework within which to formulate a policy for action.“ Moor, James H. (1985) quot;What Is Computer Ethics?quot; In Bynum, Terrell Ward, ed. (1985) Computers and Ethics, Blackwell, 266-75. [Published as the October 1985 issue of Metaphilosophy.] EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 29 29
  30. 30. quot;According to Moor, the computer revolution is occurring in two stages. The first stage was that of quot;technological introductionquot; in which computer technology was developed and refined. This already occurred in America during the first forty years after the Second World War. The second stage -- one that the industrialized world has only recently entered -- is that of quot;technological permeationquot; in which technology gets integrated into everyday human activities and into social institutions, changing the very meaning of fundamental concepts, such as quot;moneyquot;, quot;educationquot;, quot;workquot;, and quot;fair electionsquot;. Computer Ethics http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-computer/ EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 30 30
  31. 31. “Just as the major ethical theories of Bentham and Kant were developed in response to the printing press revolution, so a new ethical theory is likely to emerge from computer ethics in response to the computer revolution.” Krystyna Gorniak-Kocikowska, quot;The Computer Revolution and the Problem of Global Ethicsquot; 1996, EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 31 31
  32. 32. Many design decisions require compromise EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 32 32
  33. 33. Design decisions have ethical aspects… …and ethical consequences. EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 33 33
  34. 34. In social media, network mechanisms amplify the effects of design decisions EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 34 34
  35. 35. Design decisions affect more people, in more ways. EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 35 35
  36. 36. The design of integrated experiences affects the physical and tangible aspects of life. EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 36 36
  37. 37. Conflict presents ethical dilemmas design does not yet address. EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 37 37
  38. 38. Conflicts present ethical dilemmas for designers. EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 38 38
  39. 39. Design must understand conflict to support informed ethical decisions. EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 39 39
  40. 40. Design cannot resolve ethical dilemmas alone. EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 40 40
  41. 41. Design must educate stakeholders • discovered conflicts • values affected • necessary compromises • ethical implications of decisions EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 41 41
  42. 42. Conflict: The Missing Ingredient EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 42 42
  43. 43. Current design approaches do not specifically address conflict. EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 43 43
  44. 44. Many design approaches: • Elements of Experience • Emotional Design • Forces of User Experience • Experience Design • Design Maturity Model • Making Meaning EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 44 44
  45. 45. Many design approaches: • User Centered Design • User Experience Honeycomb • User Centric Design • Contextual Design • Activity Centered Design • Participatory Design EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 45 45
  46. 46. EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 46 46
  47. 47. Design is not prepared to discover, communicate, educate all parties. EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 47 47
  48. 48. A Conflicted (Integrated) Future EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 48 48
  49. 49. Quechup is rotten: don't accept invites While you were Burning / vacationing / spacing out offline this Labor Day weekend, many folks online were hit with invitations from a social networking service called Quechup that violates your address book, and abuses user trust by spamming all your contacts. Now that people are coming back from the Labor Day holiday, expect a bunch of invites -- I've received a dozen just this morning. Delete 'em if you know what's good for you Posted by Xeni Jardin, September 4, 2007 6:30 AM http://www.boingboing.net/2007/09/04/quechup-is-rotten-do.html EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 49 49
  50. 50. Are You Getting Quechup Spammed? “One controversial issue among social networks is how hard they should push for user acquisition. Most social networks these days let you to import your email address book in some way (Twitter is the latest), but most make it clear if they’re about to mail your contacts. One site that’s catching people off guard is Quechup: we’ve got a volley of complaints about them in the mailbox this weekend, and a quick Google reveals that others were caught out too. The issue lies with their “check for friends” form: during signup you’re asked to enter your email address and password to see whether any of your friends are already on the service. Enter the password, however, and it will proceed to mail all your contacts without asking permission. This has led to many users issuing apologies to their friends for “spamming” them inadvertently. Hopefully the bad PR on this one will force them to change the system.” September 2, 2007 — 03:05 AM PDT — by Pete Cashmore http://mashable.com/2007/09/02/quechup/ EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 50 50
  51. 51. Rancid Bacn “It's getting easier and easier for services to raid your address book. I got nearly a dozen notes from people I don't even know today, all asking me to join their network at a service called Quechup. quot;Wow,quot; I thought, quot;this service is really getting traction.quot; Then I got a note from Scott, pointing out that the service had automatically sent email to his entire address book without his participation. My guess is that it's not quite that automatic, but there's definitely a danger here... a danger to services that end up alienating people by sending email they didn't expect, a danger to people who end up alienating their network, and a danger to my (and your) inbox, which is already overflowing.” Seth Godin http://sethgodin.typepad.com/seths_blog/2007/09/rancid-bacn.html EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 51 51
  52. 52. 3 shifts in culture show growing technology permeation EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 52 52
  53. 53. These shifts indicate a future of integrated virtual and physical user experiences EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 53 53
  54. 54. Integration = greater complexity, connectedness, and awareness EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 54 54
  55. 55. Integration means increases in: • potential for conflict • effects of design decisions • ethical dilemmas for design(ers) EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 55 55
  56. 56. 1. Social shift EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 56 56
  57. 57. The Social Shift • Network effects • Group and community dynamics • Social memory • Social identity mechanisms • Visible cultural differences • Shifting organizational structures • Distributed organizations • Knowledge markets • Tagging / folksonomies • Power distance dichotomies • Overlapping identities (personal / professional) EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 57 57
  58. 58. Unilateral is now multilateral EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 58 58
  59. 59. Designing Web Applications for Use By Larry Constantine, Constantine & Lockwood, Ltd. - Dec 11, 2006 “A third problem with users is that there are so many of them. And they are all different. They want different things and like different things and react differently. I have watched teams run in circles as they redesign for each new user who gives them feedback on a paper prototype or each new group passing through the usability lab. The genuine diversity of real people can distract designers from the commonality of their needs and interests.” http://www.uie.com/articles/designing_web_applications_for_use/ EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 59 59
  60. 60. Multilateral = conflicts EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 60 60
  61. 61. 2. DIY (Do It Yourself) shift EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 61 61
  62. 62. Aspects of the DIY shift: • “Small Pieces Loosely Joined” • Design moves up the value / scope pyramid • Designers create frameworks and systems, *not point solutions* • Low barriers to entry • Commoditized design and development • Empowered amateurs • Business designers • Free or low-cost tools and data sources • Open source • APIs • Web Services / SOA • Public data sets • Public infrastructure for mashups • Yahoo Pipes • Google Gadgets EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 62 62
  63. 63. DIY = Everyone is a designer EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 63 63
  64. 64. Negotiation is the new governance EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 64 64
  65. 65. 3. Rise of the SPIME EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 65 65
  66. 66. SPIMEs bridge physical and virtual worlds • “Mostly virtual, occasionally physical” • Physical manifestation • Temporal persistence • Real in both worlds at the same time • Geolocatable • Semantically interconnected • Tied to deep pools of collective metadata • Findable • Full lifecycle awareness • Must be sustainable / green >> a reified Platonic ideal…? EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 66 66
  67. 67. When Blobjects Rule the Earth “Scenario: You buy a Spime with a credit card. Your account info is embedded in the transaction, including a special email address set up for your Spimes. After the purchase, a link is sent to you with customer support, relevant product data, history of ownership, geographies, manufacturing origins, ingredients, recipes for customization, and bluebook value. The spime is able to update its data in your database (via radio-frequency ID), to inform you of required service calls, with appropriate links to service centers. This removes guesswork and streamlines recycling. EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 67 67
  68. 68. When Blobjects Rule the Earth “So …you would be able to swiftly understand: • where it was • when you got it • how much it cost • who made it • what it was made of • where those resources came from • what a better model looked like • what a cheaper model looked like • who to thank for making it • who to complain to about its inadequacies • what previous kinds of Spime used to look like • why this Spime is better than earlier ones • what you could do to help that happen • what people think the Spime of Tomorrow might look like • the history of the Spime's ownership EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 68 68
  69. 69. When Blobjects Rule the Earth • what it had been used for • where and when it was used • what other people who own this kind of Spime think about it • how other people more or less like you have altered or fancied-up or modified their Spime • what most people use Spimes for • the entire range of unorthodox uses of Spimes by the world's most extreme Spime geek fandom • and how much your Spime is worth on an auction site And especially -- absolutely critically -- where to get rid of it safely.” SIGGRAPH, Los Angeles, August 2004 EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 69 69
  70. 70. Emerging SPIME ecology: • RFID • GIS / geo-location • tagging • white-label social networking • smart objects • ubiquitous connectivity • PLM (Product Life Cycle Management) New niche: Collective services >> GetSatisfaction.com EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 70 70
  71. 71. Design = multi-dimensional EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 71 71
  72. 72. New dimensions = new conflicts EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 72 72
  73. 73. What Does This Mean For Design? EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 73 73
  74. 74. Does the integrated future mean new kinds of conflict to resolve? EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 74 74
  75. 75. Integration = many new conflicts... EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 75 75
  76. 76. How Design Can Address Conflict? EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 76 76
  77. 77. Design must become aware of conflict to support ethical decisions, avoid ethical compromises EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 77 77
  78. 78. Professional codes of ethics help, but only when all parties understand the conflicts at hand. EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 78 78
  79. 79. Codes = top-down, costly, slow EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 79 79
  80. 80. Treat conflict as a natural element of context • Conflict = “new layer” of context • Works with existing design tools and methods • No disruption to stakeholder models • No new artifacts or deliverables EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 80 80
  81. 81. Adapt common design / discovery methods Include conflict from the start: 1. discover 2. understand 3. communicate 4. design EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 81 81
  82. 82. Vision Themes • ‘Talking points’ for design vision • Allow stakeholders to communicate shared vision How To Address Conflict: • Prioritize themes for importance to vision • Treat conflicting themes as optional • Require unanimous vote to include themes EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 82 82
  83. 83. Stakeholder / Business Goals • Defined as part of vision phase • Translate business needs into aspects and capabilities of solution How To Address Conflict: • Track active disagreements in documentation • Map relationships between conflicting items • Use Delphi process to resolve EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 83 83
  84. 84. Map conflicts to business strategy and goals Barriers to Product Adoption Data & Employees  Limited integration of data and features Analytics  Lack of common user experience Data & Analytics Markets Quantitative Users Barriers to Ratings and Research Xyz Ratings & Expansion Adjacent Markets Research  Ineffective Basic & Advanced Search Equity Investors, Hedge Fund Managers  Limited related research navigation Traditional Markets Issuers, Intermediaries & Fixed Barriers to Emerging Market Income Investors Global Development  Numerous barriers to getting basic information Expansion  Lack of integration between the main website and Emerging Markets New Issuers, Intermediaries, & Investors local content Non-Client Users Barriers to Value Perception Maintain Co Shareholders, Regulators, Recruits  Inconsistent research content & Journalists Integrity &  Sub-standard user experience Reputation EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 84 84
  85. 85. Include and communicate conflict throughout the design cycle. “Bake it in…” User Roles + Interviews & User Needs Personas Scenarios Findings = Matrix Search for Relevant Research Learn about Client.com Surveyor View Latest Research Evaluate New Product Understand Methodology Track 1: Monitor Portfolio Information Researching Complex Topic Retrieval Respond to Customer Call Evaluate/Rate New Issue Monitor credit risk over time Learn about Client.com Understand the rating agency Track 2: Identify and compare entities Unified Service Delivery Access ratings, research & opinion Perform customer service Perform credit risk analysis EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 85 85
  86. 86. Functional Requirements • Synthesize findings of discovery activities for business, user and system perspectives How To Address Conflict: • Cross-reference conflicting requirements by owner / sponsor • ‘Narrow the funnel’: reduce # of allowed conflicts at each review / revision • Auction limited set of conflict slots • Owners can bid’ on requirements with fixed number of points EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 86 86
  87. 87. Goals and Needs Matrices • Itemizes goals and needs by type of user How To Address Conflict: • Identify specific instances of conflict between groups or goals • Score conflicts on a heat scale to highlight trouble spots • Total the conflicts associate with each goal and user type to prioritize resolution efforts EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 87 87
  88. 88. Personas • Describes types of user / customer / person How To Address Conflict: • Flag personas associated with conflicts • Enumerate any singular features / functions • Map persona landscape to show relationships and conflicts with other personas EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 88 88
  89. 89. Identify conflicts relevant to individual personas Chen Xiang Surveyor: Emerging Market Development > Corporate User Investment Banker, Shanghai, China Subsidiary Seeker “I’m looking for a ratings agency I can partner with.” General Description Critical User Needs  Learn about Client.com and their operations in China Chen is a recent graduate and a new employee of the Bank of China. In his role as an investment banker he  Select the agency he feels will be best for his clients will be helping to structure debt offerings and sell them in China’s emerging capital markets. He knows that a Key Job Functions respected and authoritative third party assessment of the debt will increase its liquidity and improve its price  Assist corporations in raising funds in China’s emerging capital in the marketplace. markets  Provides strategic advisory services for mergers, acquisitions As such he is working to assess the relative and other types of corporate financial transactions advantages and disadvantages of using the emerging local ratings agencies versus the internationally established agencies such as Client.com. He is looking Conflicts and Opportunities to find the highest levels of transparency, so that he  Highlight the breadth and depth of information offered in each can be confident in whom he chooses to work with country / region moving forward.  Support localization, allowing content, search parameters, By gaining Chen as a client, Client.com would likely currency, reference indices, and formatting styles to be gain the issuers he’ll eventually bring to market. targeted to user’s preferred region and language EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 89 89
  90. 90. Scenarios • Scenarios should narrate aspects of the user experience and vision How To Address Conflict: • Label scenarios that contain internal conflicts • Cross reference scenarios that conflict with one another • Identify which personas agree with / conflict with each scenario EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 90 90
  91. 91. Share the experience of conflict via scenarios A poor user experience lowers perceptions of services and offerings ! ! ! ! Detail page contains Related Research tab shows Research is split across a Goes to competitor’s site assorted links and tabs; a seemingly random list number of ill-defined doc first, because competitor’s content not on one page of assorted documents types, published at site is easier to use different times EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 91 91
  92. 92. Share the experience of conflict via scenarios A poor user experience lowers perceptions of services and offerings Example Scenario: View Latest Research Ratings Advisory ! ! ! ! Detail page contains Related Research tab shows Research is split across a Goes to competitor’s site assorted links and tabs; a seemingly random list number of ill-defined doc first, because competitor’s content not on one page of assorted documents types, published at site is easier to use different times “I’ll go to (a competitor’s site) first, then I’ll go to (the company’s) if I have the time…” — Director, Global Ratings Advisory EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 91 91
  93. 93. Share the experience of conflict via scenarios A poor user experience lowers perceptions of services and offerings Example Scenario: View Latest Research Ratings Advisory ! ! ! ! Detail page contains Related Research tab shows Research is split across a Goes to competitor’s site assorted links and tabs; a seemingly random list number of ill-defined doc first, because competitor’s content not on one page of assorted documents types, published at site is easier to use different times “I’ll go to (a competitor’s site) first, then I’ll go to (the company’s) if I have the time…” — Director, Global Ratings Advisory User Conflicts  Research content is inconsistent Business Conflicts  Hampers deepening of relationships  Related research functions are ineffective with established clients  Sites are difficult for users to understand  Detracts from the company’s reputation as and navigate an authoritative source of high quality info EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 91 91
  94. 94. Concept Maps • Define key conceptual objects and map relationships How To Address Conflict: • Begin with simplified single view • Create additional views to reflect conflicting understandings • Document conflicts via color and annotation layers • List contested objects / concepts • Require resolution for signoff • Use mapping tool that can track and show dependencies in relationships EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 92 92
  95. 95. Site Maps • Summarizes structure and flow through information space / environment How To Address Conflict: • Compare / contrast conflicting high-level structures • Build modularly, highlight areas of conflict • Document conflicts in navigation model separately • Flag conflicts in content structure and detailed IA discussed in other artifacts - topic maps, taxonomies, etc. • Cross-reference to alternative functional interactions and flows (use cases and process flows) EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 93 93
  96. 96. Wire Frames • Schematics capture function, layout, interaction How To Address Conflict: • Identify screen components affected by conflict • Cross-reference to conflicting personas / scenarios EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 94 94
  97. 97. Use Cases • Document behavior of system and actors How To Address Conflict: • Write use cases for all understandings • Cross-reference alternate / conflicting use cases EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 95 95
  98. 98. proposing design needs to develop practical tools methods and viewpoint for discovering, understanding and communicating conflicts between goals of diverse groups in order to 1. enable compliance with any specific ethical imperatives 2. further the creation of ethically sound experiences design must acknowledge conflicts in order to be equipped to respond to growing range of ethical and moral contexts and questions not advocating for a particular set of ethics / morals Call to action regarding design methods / approaches EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 96 96
  99. 99. The Future of Design? EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 97 97
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  104. 104. Questions? Thank You! EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 102 102
  105. 105. Joe Lamantia: Involved in the information architecture and user experience fields since 1996 In 2000, became an entrepreneur and started my own company Creator of the leading freely available tool for card sort analysis Creator of the Building Blocks design framework for portals and user experiences Currently based in New York - but enjoying Spain a great deal… On the Web: www.joelamantia.com www.Boxesandarrows.com www.tagsonomy.com Email to joe (at) joelamantia.com Where to get a good bowl of noodles Your favorite kind of hot sauce EuroIA 2007: Ethics Panel Joe Lamantia 103 103

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