Designing Big Data Interactions Using the Language of Discovery
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Designing Big Data Interactions Using the Language of Discovery

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The oncoming tidal wave of Big Data, with its rapidly evolving ecosystem of multi-channel information saturated environments and services, brings profound challenges and opportunities for the design ...

The oncoming tidal wave of Big Data, with its rapidly evolving ecosystem of multi-channel information saturated environments and services, brings profound challenges and opportunities for the design of effective user experiences that UX practitioners are just beginning to engage with in a meaningful fashion.

Looking deeper than the celebratory rhetoric of information quantity, at its core, Big Data makes possible unprecedented awareness and insight into every sphere of life; from business and politics, to the environment, arts and society. In this coming Age of Insight, 'discovery' is not only the purview of specialized Data Scientists who create exotic visualizations of massive data sets, it is a fundamental category of human activity that is essential to everyday interactions between people, resources, and environments.

To provide architects and designers with an effective starting point for creating satisfying and relevant user experiences that rely on discovery interactions, this session presents a simple analytical and generative toolkit for understanding how people conduct the broad range of discovery activities necessary in the information-permeated world.

Specifically, this session will present:
• A simple, research-derived language for describing discovery needs and activities that spans domains, environments, media, and personas
• Observed and reusable patterns of discovery activities in individual and collaborative settings
• Examples of the architecture of successful discovery experiences at small and large scales
• A vocabulary and perspective for discovery as a critical individual and organizational capability
• Leading edge examples from the rapidly emerging space of applied discovery
• Design futures and concepts exploring the possible evolution paths of discovery interactions

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Designing Big Data Interactions Using the Language of Discovery Designing Big Data Interactions Using the Language of Discovery Presentation Transcript

  • The Language #UXAustralia #languageofdiscoveryof Discovery #ageofinsight
  • Joe LamantiaUX Lead: Discovery Products Oracle@moJoeJoeLamantia.comJoe.Lamantia@oracle.comhttp://slideshare.net/mojoe
  • designed manydiscovery solutions
  • discovery is...?
  • more thanvisualization
  • not just search
  • DiscoveryAct or experience of seeing, finding,learning, or solving something.Something seen, found, learned, or solved.
  • discovery ismaking sense of the world search prediction visualization analysis
  • InsightGrasping or understanding meaning,significance, and/or a solution.A valuable change in perspective or understandingthat enables or guides further action.
  • Welcome toThe Age of Insight
  • “In the next tenyears, digital dataalone is expectedto grow 44 times.By 2020, therewill be 4 billionpeople onlinecreating 50trillion gigabytesof data.”HP Intelligent Research
  • Volume: yotta, yotta, yottaVaried data ‘materials’ social, cultural, personal, environmental, economic, scientificFull spectrum of granularityReal-time & historical perspectivesCommoditized infrastructure storage, processing, distribution, publishingData ecosystem(s)
  • Everything isdiscoverable
  • Horizon of Discoverability future soon present past
  • urban status http://citydashboard.org/london/
  • WAYWT?
  • social exchange
  • influence
  • humanity
  • data journalism
  • ‘Cliodynamics’ is atransdisciplinary area ofresearch integratinghistorical macrosociology,economic history/cliometrics, mathematicalmodeling of long-termsocial processes, and theconstruction and analysis ofhistorical databases. scientific disciplines
  • “The instability of large,complex societies is apredictable phenomenon,according to a newmathematical model thatexplores the emergence ofearly human societies viawarfare.”“Capturing hundreds of years of human history, the model revealsthe dynamical nature of societies, which can be difficult to uncoverin archaeological data.” http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/01/110119151816.htm
  • “What we found are the constants that describe every city,” he says. I don’t know anything about this city or even where it is or its history, but I can tell you all about it. And the reason I can do that is because every city is really the same.”http://www.nytimes.com/2010/12/19/magazine/19Urban_West-t.html
  • cultural analytics
  • Everyonediscovers
  • “The ability to take data - to be able to understand it, toprocess it, to extract value from it, to visualize it, tocommunicate its going to be a hugely important skill in thenext decades, not only at the professional level but even at the educational level forelementary school kids, for high school kids, for college kids. Because now wereally do have essentially free and ubiquitous data. So thecomplimentary scarce factor is the ability to understandthat data and extract value from it.”Hal Varianhttp://www.mckinseyquarterly.com/Hal_Varian_on_how_the_Web_challenges_managers_2286
  • ready data
  • interaction tools
  • management tools
  • engagement models
  • consumer devices
  • “The datasexual looks a lot likeyou and me, but what’s different istheir preoccupation with personaldata.They are relentlessly digital, theyobsessively record everythingabout their personal lives, andthey think that data is sexy. Infact, the bigger the data, the sexierit becomes.Their lives - from a data data as lifestyleperspective, at least - are perfectlygroomed.”
  • Discovery is the leadingemerging interaction categoryof the Age of Insight
  • discovery capability is expectedin all interaction contexts
  • As I was waiting for a table at alocal restaurant the other day, Iflipped through a couple of thefree classified papers.I was shocked to realize howdependent I’ve grown onthree simple features that justaren’t available in the analogworld: search, sort and filter. http://uxdesign.smashingmagazine.com/2012/04/10/ui-patterns-for-mobile-apps-search-sort-filter/
  • mediated sense making
  • Complex ecosystems: multi-channel experiences everyware environmentsnetwork & service models dynamic perspectives fluid data
  • How to design discoveryexperiences...?
  • precursorsBates - tactics & categoriesOʼDay & Jeffries - categoriesCool & BelkinEllis - behaviors & modesMarchionini - IR frameworkSpencer - ModesLamantia - Modes & patterns
  • Need & context vary wildly Patterns of form are inadequate.
  • Task patterns = vague...
  • Activity Centered Design
  • The Language of Discovery:A concrete descriptive language forhuman discovery activity in diversecontexts.A simple and consistent vocabulary thatis independent of domain, role,information type, etc.
  • Leverages what is commonin human discovery.Allows for what varies incontexts of discovery
  • Enables understanding ofdiscovery needs and context
  • Generative tool for discoverycapability and experiences
  • works like musical notes
  • grammaticalstructure & behavior
  • visual grammars
  • activity grammars
  • Research-based
  • scenario analysis
  • Call Centers & Maintenance Data Quality & Knowledge Repair & Governance Mgmt Overhaul Claims Analysis Enterprise Search Digital Asset & Knowledge Mgmt Mgmt Warranty Analysis Field Service Operations Financial Analysis & Planning Analysis Service Measure Customer Human Capital Risk Analysis Support & Plan & Management Maintain Operate Market Research Program & Portfolio Pricing Sell & Develop & Mgmt Analysis Deliver Produce Manufacturing & Quality Inventory & Inventory & Demand VisibilitySales & DeliveryCustomer Part, CommodityAnalysis Product & Supplier Information Analysis Market Spend Mgmt Intelligence diverse contexts Analysis
  • User Scenarios“Understand the quality performance of a part and module set inmanufacturing and the field so that I can determine if I should replacethat part.”- Engineering“Understand a leads underlying positions so that I can assess thequality of the investment opportunity.”“Understand a portfolios exposures to assess portfolio-levelinvestment mix.”- Portfolio Manager“I need to understand the cost drivers for this commodity so I cannegotiate better terms with my suppliers and forecast business riskbased on market indices.”- Procurement
  • DISCOVERY S
  • Literary Modes“a broad, but identifiable literary method, mood, or manner, that is not tied exclusively to a particular form or genre.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mode_(literature)
  • ArgumentationThe purpose of argumentation (also called persuasive writing) is to prove the validityof an idea, or point of view, by presenting sound reasoning, discussion, andargument that thoroughly convince the reader.
  • Discovery Modes“a broad, but identifiable discovery activity that is not tied exclusively to a particular context or domain.”
  • MODE
  • Identifying Modes“Understand the quality performance of a part and module set in manufacturingand the field so that I can determine if I should replace that part.”- Engineering“Understand a leads underlying positions so that I can assess the quality of theinvestment opportunity.”“Understand a portfolios exposures to assess portfolio-level investment mix.”- Portfolio Manager“I need to understand the cost drivers for this commodity so I can negotiate betterterms with my suppliers and forecast business risk based on market indices.”- Procurement
  • Comprehending‘To generate insight by understanding the nature ormeaning of an item or data set’e.g. “I need to analyze and understand consumer-customer-market trends to informbrand strategy & communications plan” – Director, Brand Image
  • Identifying Modes“I need visibility into the parts my colleagues are using globally in order to find thebest part possible for my assembly.”- Engineering“I need to identify customers/marketers/dealers failing & at risk of de-brandingbased on performance problems.”- Account Rep“I need to identify problem/success areas and where to intervene and reward.”- SVP Sales“I need to identify the best customer/consumer/region targets for our brand/products.”- Brand Manager
  • Exploring‘To proactively investigate or examine an item or data setfor the purpose of serendipitous knowledge discovery’e.g. “I need to identify the cost drivers for this commodity so I can negotiate betterterms with my suppliers and forecast business risk based on market indices”– Procurement
  • Modes are the verbs ofdiscovery scenarios.
  • Explore something to... result or goal. verb object predicate
  • You can explore:peopleplaceseventsobjectsdatatopicsprocesses...??
  • Locate Verify Monitor Compare9 distinct Comprehendmodes Explore Analyze Evaluate Synthesize
  • Mode
  • When I use the tool, I can... Monitor...currently popular colors over usefulintervals Explore...currently popular colors, or colorspopular in the past VerifyThat a color is popular now or in thepast
  • As a reader, I can... Monitor...articles to see what is new andavailable. Explore...available articles and topics toidentify those of interest to me. Locate... and read articles of interest,supporting information, andrelated materials.
  • My twitter home page allows me to... Monitor...the tweets of people I follow, myfollowers, community interactions. Explore...trends and active topics, andsuggestions for people to follow. Locate..tweets, people, hashtags / topics Synthesize...new tweets via composition,retweet, or favorite tweets.
  • The profile snapshot lets me... Evaluate...the author of a tweet to decide if Iam interested in them Locate...the profile and homepage of theauthor of a tweet
  • A twitter profile page lets me... Explore...the authors profile to learn moreabout them Evaluate...their activity, followers, tweets,relevance to me Comprehend...the author’s interests, point of view,
  • domain independentscale independentstructurally consistentsemantically distinctorthogonalconceptually connectedsequencablecombinable
  • Modes seem to beinternalized & common.
  • you said theywork like music?
  • Chains
  • scenario analysis: multiple /sequential modes
  • Comparative Search1. Replace a problematic part Analyze (from sourcing, cost or technical perspective)2. ...with an equivalent or better part Compare3. ...without compromising quality Evaluate and cost.
  • Comparative Search1. Analyze Analyze2. and understand gaps between current cost of commodity Compare3. versus best in class manufacturing costs. Evaluate
  • recognizable mode chains
  • Comparative Search Analyze Compare EvaluateIdentify parts used for same function as candidates for commonization and complexity reduction - Core EngineerReplace a problematic part (from sourcing, cost or technical perspective) with an equivalent or better part withoutcompromising quality and cost. - EngineeringCompare our module set teardowns with competitive teardown information to see if we’re staying competitive for cost,quality and functionality. - EngineeringCompare a leads performance claims with relevant benchmarks to assess the leads claims - Portfolio ManagerSee the difference between what we are spending and what we should be spending to maximize savings (betweenactual PO and should costs). - ProcurementAnalyze & understand gaps between current costs of commodity versus best in class manufacturing costs - CostEstimators
  • Exploratory Search Explore Analyze EvaluateIdentify opportunities to optimize use of tooling capacity for my commodity/parts - Core EngineerIdentify sales opportunities and targets (increased key customer market share across categories/brands; upsell-crosssell; promotional targets - District ManagerEvaluate & optimize our product portfolio: Which products should we de-list and retire? What new products should webe making/selling? - Category ManagerIdentify the best customer/consumer/region targets for our brand/products - Brand ManagerDetermine suppliers to use for parts in my program and execute sourcing agreements - Core BuyerIdentify customers/marketers/dealers failing & at risk of de-branding based on performance problems - ProgramAdministrator
  • Strategic Oversight Monitor Analyze EvaluateMonitor how well we are tracking to revenue and margin targets by division - SVP SalesMonitor and grade incoming incidents; close incidents, add incident close codes - Supervisor/InspectorMonitor global commodity use in relation to plan/guidelines to identify gaps that require corrective action - CoreEngineerMonitor how well we are tracking to revenue and margin targets by division - District ManagerMonitor & evaluate how our brand is performing in re: revenue, margin, and market share targets - Brand ManagerFinancial Analyst: Monitor & assess commodity status against strategy/plan/target
  • Strategic Insight Analyze Comprehend EvaluateTrack module cost versus functionality over time to determine trends. - EngineeringUnderstand the quality performance of a part and module set in manufacturing and the field so that I can determine if Ishould replace that part. - EngineeringUnderstand a leads underlying positions so that I can assess the quality of the investment opportunity - PortfolioManagerUnderstand a portfolios exposures to assess portfolio-level investment mix - Portfolio ManagerI need to understand the cost drivers for this commodity so I can negotiate better terms with my suppliers and forecastbusiness risk based on market indices. - Procurement
  • Comparative Synthesis Analyze Compare SynthesizeAnalyze and understand consumer-customer-market trends to inform brand strategy & communications plan -Director, Brand ImageFind out how many parts I have in my module set of parts and find ways to reduce cost across them - EngineeringFormulate scope & strategy for sourcing and gap closure - Core BuyerAnalyze and understand a market: marketer network, competitive position, customer sat, & share, etc. to inform brandstrategy and communications plan - Brand Image Analyst
  • Comparative Analyze Compare EvaluateSearchExploratory Explore Analyze EvaluateSearchStrategic Analyze Comprehend EvaluateInsightStrategic Monitor Analyze EvaluateOversightComparative Analyze Compare SynthesizeSynthesis
  • Mode
  • As a user, I can... Analyze 1. Analyze the popularity and importance of colors over time to see patterns 2. Compare colors in terms Compare of importance and popularity at various cycles, trends, and moments. 3. Evaluate colors vs. their Evaluate current and historic importance and popularity.Comparative Search ...of colors I may use for my purposes
  • As a reader, I can... Analyze 1. Analyze events and topics using the data and tools provided Comprehend 2. Understand the events and topics using the Guardian’s perspective and my own. Evaluate 3. Evaluate all perspectives, as well as the actions and decisions based on them.Strategic Insight into events & actions of government & society
  • As a reader, I get... Analyze 1. Analysis of the causes, participants and events of the UK riots 2. Comparison of Compare suggested causes, insights and explanations into the events. Synthesize 3. Synthesis of these insights into a coordinated perspective on the riotsComparative synthesis of all insights into the causes of the UK riots
  • Twitter Profile viewers can... Explore 1. Explore the author’s profile, activity and community interactions. 2. Analyze the author’s Analyze followers, activity, tweets, community interaction, who they follow.Evaluate 3. Evaluate the author to decide their relevance and value.Exploratory search ... for valuable people streams to follow
  • MICRO view - visual artdata: 25 canonical paintings representingtransition from realism to modernism,1849-1916
  • Strategic Analyze Comprehend EvaluateInsightComparative Analyze Compare SynthesizeSynthesis
  • Strategic Analyze Comprehend EvaluateInsight
  • Analyze Synthesize Explore Compare ComprehendCultural Analytics software running on HIPerSpace (May 2009)
  • Comparative Analyze Compare SynthesizeSynthesis
  • mode networks
  • VerifyAnalyze Comprehend Synthesize Compare EvaluateMonitor AnalyzeExplore
  • Initial Operative Summary VerifyAnalyze Comprehend Synthesize Compare EvaluateMonitor AnalyzeExplore
  • Initial Operative Summary
  • SensemakingSource: The Sensemaking Process & Leverage Points For Analyst Technology
  • Initial Operative Summary
  • Using the language
  • To inform the core principles for the user experience of the product To coordinate the design of product features and functions across channels and form-factorsproduct To evaluate the quality and success ofstrategy, product designs, in terms of usability, engagement, value, etc.definition To establish a roadmap for the products& design evolution and determine development efforts To shape strategy for a portfolio of products by understanding the value proposition of current and potential new products
  • To guide the deployment of the product as part of a solution for customerssolution identifying needs via scenarios and other solution specification toolsdesign for crafting functional requirements and interaction designs forproduct deployed applications To describe and publish patterns andcustomers best practices in implementation of the product - workspace, application, application suite
  • Mode-based design
  • discovery application templateSupply Chain ManagementAnalytics and Forecasting
  • Personas, Scenarios, Goals •Create and update accurate forecasts on a weekly basis at a very detailed level, such as the number of packs of each product SKU needed for a single store. Forecasts evolvePlanner / Analyst through several iterations before reaching their final state, allowing and requiring Planners to incorporate data on sales, inventory, customer activity, etc. as it accumulates in real time. •Improve the accuracy of forecasts and forecasting methods by understanding the nature, degree, and source of forecasting errors in reference to a large number of defined metrics and performance measures. •Analyze and understand changes in the factors affecting forecast accuracy, and enhance forecasting methods to reflect these changes.
  • Personas, Scenarios, Goals •Monitor and review the accuracy of Planners’ forecasts to assess individual and team performance •Determine the specific metrics and performancePlanning Manager measurements that Planning teams use for reference, based on the long-term goals of the organization. •Evaluate and improve the effectiveness of forecasting practices and tools used by planning teams •Achieve 100% forecast accuracy •Maintain forecast accuracy over time, and in all situations.Planning Team
  • Planners: Mode ChainsPlanners needing to create new forecasts will:Analyze their previous forecasts and newly identified causal AnalyzefactorsCompare them to accuracy baselines and the expected Compareimpact of correlating factors such as seasonal events orweatherCreate new forecasts that reflect insights from analytical Synthesizeactivities Comparative synthesis
  • Planners: Mode ChainsPlanners working to improve forecasting accuracy will:Analyze cumulative and historical accuracy and error rates to AnalyzeUnderstand the factors affecting those forecasts ComprehendEvaluate the relevance and usefulness of newly identified Evaluatecausal factors by retrospectively including them in previousforecasts Strategic Insight
  • Planning Managers: Mode ChainsWhen assessing the performance of Planners, Managers will:Monitor the accuracy of forecasts made by individual analysts Monitorand the teamAnalyze forecasts for patterns and trends in variance and AnalyzeaccuracyEvaluate the effectiveness of analysts, and forecasting Evaluatemethods. Strategic Insight
  • Application Structure3 screen types composed ofdefined components (portlets)offering discovery ʻfunctionsʼ• faceted navigation• data visualization• application navigation• tabular data• search• context management• metrics• alerts• filtering
  • Dashboard ScreenIndividual Planners use the Dashboard toMonitor the accuracy of their own forecastscompared with established baselines andtargets. Planning Managers use the Dashboardscreen to Monitor the accuracy of all theforecasts made by the Planning team.One pane enables monitoring of each majorarea of supply chain activity, such as Inventoryor Capacity, providing summaries of the statusof processes via KPIs and measurements usinga component from our library, as well as a chartpresenting historical values of these measuresfor Analysis via visualization component.A list of alerts provides a guide to notablechanges across the supply chain, allowingPlanners and Managers to monitor, analyze,and evaluate notable events and changes aspart of a steady flow of information. Planner / Analyst Planning ManagerThe Dashboard enables Planners andManagers to execute the Strategic Insight Strategic Oversightchain by following the linked data points incharts, metrics and alerts ‘deeper’ into the Monitor Analyze Evaluateinformation for analysis.
  • Analysis ScreenEach Analysis screen in the template is focused on onesub-function of the supply chain. This Analysis screenfocuses on the forecasts and activity for ‘restocking’ ofproducts in retail settings and various stages of the supplychain.On the left side, the Search, Breadcrumb, and FacetedNavigation components allow the user to manage the datathat is presented in the tables, charts, and lists to the right,by exploring the underlying information space. They alsocommunicate this context to users to keep them oriented.At the top of the screen there is a ‘metric summary’, whichfollows on from the performance indicators identified onthe Dashboard, providing visibility into the smaller scalemeasures that determine the status of the supply chain;specifically, the accuracy of forecasts.Below the summary, a group of components presents avisualization and data grid of a single metric grouped byone or more variables (e.g. quantity by product type) toenable analysis. These ‘metric breakouts’ help Plannersand Managers comprehend the factors contributing to thestatus of each metric. This combination facilitates a widerrange of analysis methods than either presentation Strategicmethod supports alone. Analyze Comprehend Evaluate InsightAt the bottom of the template, tables provide lists of the Planner / Analyst Planning Managerindividual transactions for detailed analysis and Comparative Analyze Compare Synthesizeevaluation. Synthesis
  • Trends Screen Planning teams use the Trends screen to explore and understand the state of the supply chain, and the accuracy of their forecasts over time. For this purpose, the Trends screen is primarily designed to support the Exploratory Search (Explore-Analyze- Evaluate) and Comparative Synthesis (Analyze- Compare-Synthesize) chains, in which Planners and Managers seek to identify new patterns in time and supply chain activity and suggest potential causal factors. The value of the Trends screen is best understood in the context of sequences of mode chains, such as Strategic Oversight in companion with Comparative Synthesis or Exploration Driven Search in companion to Strategic Insight. Exploration-driven Explore Analyze Evaluate Search ComparativePlanner / Analyst Planning Manager Analyze Compare Synthesize Synthesis
  • Sequences
  • Planners: Mode Sequences Planner / AnalystPlanners will follow the Strategic Oversight chain for Strategicvisibility into the status of their published final forecasts Oversightvs. actual activity in the supply chain;When errors or variances beyond an acceptable Strategicthreshold emerge in one or more forecasts, they will Insightswitch to the Strategic Insight chain in order tounderstand the new situation.They will move on to the Comparative Synthesischain to revise their forecasts to reflect their newly Comparative Synthesisgenerated insights and improved understanding.They will then switch back to Strategic Oversight to Strategicmaintain ongoing awareness of the accuracy and Oversighteffectiveness of their revised forecasts over time.
  • Mode SequencesA business process or business method is a collection of related, structured activities or tasksthat produce a specific service or product (serve a particular goal) for a particular customer orcustomers.“Process optimization is the discipline of adjusting a process so as to optimize some specifiedset of parameters without violating some constraint. The most common goals are minimizingcost, maximizing throughput, and/or efficiency. This is one of the major quantitative tools inindustrial decision making.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Process_optimization Business Process Optimization Strategic Strategic Strategic Comparative Synthesis Oversight Insight Oversight
  • Managers: Mode Sequences Planning ManagerPlanning Managers seeking to improve the forecasting Exploratorypractices and methods of their teams will employ a Searchsequences of mode chains that begins with Exploratorydriven Search, to identify exemplars of particularly strongor weak forecasts and forecasting practices. Strategic InsightThey will move to Strategic Insight to understand howand why these practices exhibit strength or weakness. ComparativeComparative Synthesis will help Managers formulate Synthesisnew or improved measurements and forecastingpractices.They will rely on Strategic Oversight to gauge the Strategic Oversighteffectiveness of new or enhanced practices once in effect.
  • Mode Sequences“Business process re-engineering is the analysis and design of workflows and processeswithin an organization.”http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Business_process_reengineering Business Process Re-Engineering / DesignExploration-driven Strategic Comparison-driven Strategic Search Insight Synthesis Oversight
  • interaction-basedlanguage for business- level dialog
  • learn hearts & mindsrely on known modes & sequencesparsimonious compositionhunt cross-channel flowsoptimize for core scenariosevery interaction enhances insight
  • Language of DiscoveryReferences & Resources
  • Language of Discovery PublicationsRussell-Rose, T., Lamantia, J. and Burrell, M. 2011. A Taxonomy of Enterprise Search and Discovery.Proceedings of EuroHCIR 2011, London, UK. http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-763/paper4.pdfRussell-Rose, T., Lamantia, J. and Burrell, M. 2011. A Taxonomy of Enterprise Search and Discovery.Proceedings of HCIR 2011, California, USA. https://docs.google.com/a/kent.edu/viewer?a=v&pid=sites&srcid=ZGVmYXVsdGRvbWFpbnxoY2lyd29ya3Nob3B8Z3g6NzdmYjc3OWY2ZjQ2Zjg4MQRussell-Rose, T. and Makri, S. 2012 A Model of Consumer Search Behavior. Proceedings of EuroHCIR 2012,Nijmegen, NL.Russell-Rose and Tate. Designing the Search Experience [forthcoming]
  • References & ResourcesThe sensemaking process and leverage points for analyst technology as identified through cognitive taskanalysis, Pirolli, P., & Card, S. (2005)https://analysis.mitre.org/proceedings/Final_Papers_Files/206_Camera_Ready_Paper.pdfExploratory search: from finding to understanding, Gary Marchionini, Communications of the ACM, Volume49 Issue 4, April 2006http://www.ischool.utexas.edu/~i385t-sw/readings/Marchionini-2006-Exploratory_Search.pdfLamantia, Joe. “Goal Based Information Retrieval Experiences” JoeLamantia.com, (June 20, 2006).http://www.joelamantia.com/informationarchitecture/goalbasedinformationretrievalexperiencesLamantia, Joe. “10 Information Retrieval Patterns” JoeLamantia.com, (June 29, 2006).http://www.joelamantia.com/information-architecture/10-information-retrieval-patternsLamantia, Joe. “Discovering User Goals / IR Goal Definitions” JoeLamantia.com, (June 24, 2006).http://www.joelamantia.com/information-architecture/discovering-user-goals-ir-goal-definitionsSpencer, D. 2006. “Four Modes of Seeking Information and How to Design for Them”. Boxes & Arrows:http://www.boxesandarrows.com/view/four_modes_of_seeking_information_and_how_to_design_for_themBates, Marcia J. 1979. "Information Search Tactics." Journal of the American Society for Information Science30: 205-214Bates, Marcia J. 1989. "The Design of Browsing and Berrypicking Techniques for the Online SearchInterface." Online Review 13: 407-424.Broder, A. 2002. A taxonomy of web search, ACM SIGIR Forum, v.36 n.2, Fall 2002
  • References & ResourcesCool, C. & Belkin, N. 2002. A classification of interactions with information. In H. Bruce (Ed.), EmergingFrameworks and Methods: CoLIS4: proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Conceptions ofLibrary and Information Science, Seattle, WA, USA, July 21-25, 2002, (pp. 1-15).Glaser, B. & Strauss, A. 1967. The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research. NewYork: Aldine de Gruyter.Jarvelin, K. and Ingwersen, P. 2004. “Information seeking research needs extension towards tasks andtechnology”, Information Research, Vol. 10, No. 1. (October 2004)Kuhlthau, C. C. 1991. Inside the information search process: Information seeking from the users perspective.Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 42, 361-371.Marchionini, G. 2006. Exploratory search: from finding to understanding. Commun. ACM 49(4): 41-46Norman, Donald A. 2006. Logic versus usage: the case for activity centered design. Interactions 13, 6ODay, V. and Jeffries, R. 1993. Orienteering in an information landscape: how information seekers get fromhere to there. INTERCHI 1993: 438-445Rose, D. and Levinson, D. 2004. Understanding user goals in web search, Proceedings of the 13thinternational conference on World Wide Web, New York, NY, USASalton, G. 1989. Automatic Text Processing: The Transformation, Analysis, and Retrieval of Information byComputer. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA.Sutcliffe, A.G. and Ennis, M. 1998. Towards a cognitive theory of information retrieval. Interacting withComputers, 10:321–351.
  • References & ResourcesCool, C. & Belkin, N. 2002. A classification of interactions with information. In H. Bruce (Ed.), EmergingFrameworks and Methods: CoLIS4: proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Conceptions ofLibrary and Information Science, Seattle, WA, USA, July 21-25, 2002, (pp. 1-15).Cool, C. & Belkin, N. 2002. A classification of interactions with information. In H. Bruce (Ed.), EmergingFrameworks and Methods: CoLIS4: proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Conceptions ofLibrary and Information Science, Seattle, WA, USA, July 21-25, 2002, (pp. 1-15).Ellis, D. 1989. A Behavioural Approach to Information Retrieval System Design. Journal of Documentation, 45(3), pp. 171-212.Ellis, D., Cox, D. & Hall, K. 1993. A Comparison of the Information-seeking Patterns of Researchers in thePhysical and Social Sciences. Journal of Documentation 49(4), pp. 356-369.Ellis, D. & Haugan, M. 1997. Modelling the Information-seeking Patterns of Engineers and ResearchScientists in an Industrial Environment. Journal of Documentation 53(4), pp. 384-403.Makri, S., Blandford, A. & Cox, A.L. 2008. Investigating the Information-Seeking Behaviour of AcademicLawyers: From Ellis’s Model to Design. Information Processing and Management 44(2), pp. 613-634.Meho, L. & Tibbo, H. 2003. Modeling the Information-seeking Behavior of Social Scientists: Ellis’s StudyRevisited. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 54(6), pp. 570-587.
  • @moJoeJoeLamantia.comJoe.Lamantia@oracle.comhttp://slideshare.net/mojoe@tgr2ukInformation Interaction http://isquared.wordpress.com/http://www.slideshare.net/tgr2uk/
  • Language of DiscoveryMode Definitions
  • Comprehending‘To generate insight by understanding the nature ormeaning of an item or data set’e.g. “I need to analyze and understand consumer-customer-market trends to informbrand strategy & communications plan” – Director, Brand Image
  • Comparing‘To examine two or more items to identify similarities anddifferences’e.g. “I need to compare our module set teardowns with competitive teardowninformation to see if we’re staying competitive for cost, quality and functionality”– Engineer
  • Exploring‘To proactively investigate or examine an item or data setfor the purpose of serendipitous knowledge discovery’e.g. “I need to understand the cost drivers for this commodity so I can negotiate betterterms with my suppliers and forecast business risk based on market indices”– Procurement
  • Locating‘To find a specific (possibly known) item’e.g. “I need to find a new part with particular technical attributes and then source it fromthe most qualified supplier”– Engineer
  • Verifying‘To confirm or substantiate that an item or set of itemsmeets some specific criterion’e.g. “How can I determine if I am looking at the latest information for a part or supplier?”– Supply Chain Specialist
  • Monitoring‘To maintain awareness of the status of an item or data setfor purposes of management or control’e.g. “I need to monitor at risk/failing customers/dealers so I can prompt my AccountReps to fix the problems”– Sales Manager
  • Analyzing‘To critically examine the detail of an item or data set toidentify patterns & relationships’e.g. “I need to know the cost drivers for a part such as materials that impact cost. Is therelationship a correlation or step function for a part cost driver?”– Engineering
  • Evaluating‘To use judgement to determine the significance or valueof an item or data set with respect to a specific benchmarkor model’e.g. “I need to determine my current state in my prints so I can evaluate if I have pricevariation to negotiate a better price”– Procurement
  • Synthesizing‘To generate or communicate insight by integrating diverseinputs to create a novel artifact or composite view’e.g. “I need to prepare a weekly report for my boss (sales mgr) of how things are going”– Account Rep
  • Language of DiscoveryMode Chains & Sequences
  • Comparison–driven Search Analyze Compare EvaluateIdentify parts used for same function as candidates for commonization and complexity reduction - Core EngineerReplace a problematic part (from sourcing, cost or technical perspective) with an equivalent or better part withoutcompromising quality and cost. - EngineeringCompare our module set teardowns with competitive teardown information to see if we’re staying competitive for cost,quality and functionality. - EngineeringCompare a leads performance claims with relevant benchmarks to assess the leads claims - Portfolio ManagerSee the difference between what we are spending and what we should be spending to maximize savings (betweenactual PO and should costs). - ProcurementAnalyze & understand gaps between current costs of commodity versus best in class manufacturing costs - CostEstimators
  • Strategic Oversight Monitor Analyze EvaluateMonitor how well we are tracking to revenue and margin targets by division - SVP SalesMonitor and grade incoming incidents; close incidents, add incident close codes - Supervisor/InspectorMonitor global commodity use in relation to plan/guidelines to identify gaps that require corrective action - CoreEngineerMonitor how well we are tracking to revenue and margin targets by division - District ManagerMonitor & evaluate how our brand is performing in re: revenue, margin, and market share targets - Brand ManagerFinancial Analyst: Monitor & assess commodity status against strategy/plan/target
  • Exploration-driven Search Explore Analyze EvaluateIdentify opportunities to optimize use of tooling capacity for my commodity/parts - Core EngineerIdentify sales opportunities and targets (increased key customer market share across categories/brands; upsell-crosssell; promotional targets - District ManagerEvaluate & optimize our product portfolio: Which products should we de-list and retire? What new products should webe making/selling? - Category ManagerIdentify the best customer/consumer/region targets for our brand/products - Brand ManagerDetermine suppliers to use for parts in my program and execute sourcing agreements - Core BuyerIdentify customers/marketers/dealers failing & at risk of de-branding based on performance problems - ProgramAdministrator
  • Strategic Insight Analyze Comprehend EvaluateTrack module cost versus functionality over time to determine trends. - EngineeringUnderstand the quality performance of a part and module set in manufacturing and the field so that I can determine if Ishould replace that part. - EngineeringUnderstand a leads underlying positions so that I can assess the quality of the investment opportunity - PortfolioManagerUnderstand a portfolios exposures to assess portfolio-level investment mix - Portfolio ManagerI need to understand the cost drivers for this commodity so I can negotiate better terms with my suppliers and forecastbusiness risk based on market indices. - Procurement
  • Comparative Synthesis Analyze Compare SynthesizeAnalyze and understand consumer-customer-market trends to inform brand strategy & communications plan -Director, Brand ImageFind out how many parts I have in my module set of parts and find ways to reduce cost across them - EngineeringFormulate scope & strategy for sourcing and gap closure - Core BuyerAnalyze and understand a market: marketer network, competitive position, customer sat, & share, etc. to inform brandstrategy and communications plan - Brand Image Analyst