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Njtesol07

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    • 1. ELL Learners Melda N. Yildiz [email_address]
    • 2. Resources/ Presentation Slides
      • Media Literacy Resources
      • Presentation Slides/ Course outlines
      • http://medialiteracyproject.blogspot.com/
      • http://www.slideshare.net/mnyildiz
    • 3. Language , Culture , Media : Developing Literacy Skills in Teacher Education Melda N. Yildiz [email_address] Resources & Presentation Slides http://medialiteracyproject.blogspot.com May 2006 Somerset, NJ
    • 4.  
    • 5. http://www.state.nj.us/njded/njpep/tutorials/ell_mainstream/part_two/answers.html
      • The Theory of Second Language Acquisition
      • Check Your Knowledge/Answers
      • A Quiz - What do you know about second language acquisition?
      • Native language literacy assists students who are learning English. (True) Research has shown that knowledge of the structures and rules in a first language transfer in learning English. Students who have studied academic content in first language can and do transfer their knowledge of language and content from first language to second language. On the other hand, students who have had little formal schooling or interrupted schooling in native language will have more difficulty learning English.
      • Younger children learn English more quickly than older children. (False) Younger language learners may be able to pronounce without an accent. However, older children have more sophisticated language skills. As a child gets older, the child needs to use language in more developed contexts. Younger children acquire social language [or BICS] more quickly than older children and therefore appear to be more fluent speakers of English. However, older students, who have attended school in their native countries and have had native language content instruction can, as mentioned above, transfer their knowledge of language and content from first language to second language. The rate of learning a second language depends on several variables: 1. Age at the time of eexposure to he second language; 2. Previous schooling in first language; 3 the type of second language instruction the student receives.
      • It can take up to seven years to attain English language proficiency. (True) Academic language takes English Language Learners up to seven or more years to become proficient. The reason that academic language is so difficult for the ELL to master is that:
        • there are few if any non-verbal cues to provide a context for learning;
        • there is often little, if any, face-to-face interaction or communicative discourse;
        • academic language, unlike communicative language, has a higher degree of abstract concepts and context specific vocabulary;
        • information is contained in narrative and expository text;
        • textbooks are written beyond the language proficiency of the ELL; and
        • students need a body of cultural and linguistic knowledge, which they have not developed, to comprehend academic content in a second language.
      • Acquiring the English necessary to succeed academically in all content areas is equally challenging for all second language learners. (False) English Language Learners who have been given content area instruction in their native language will have an advantage over ELLs who have not. Some ELLs have had little or no education in their native countries. The ability to speak English guarantees success in academic settings. (False) Being able to speak English fluently in social and conversational settings does not mean that the ELL will be able to use the language academically in the content areas.
      • Teachers should focus on learning the English language first and learning content later. Learning grammar first is the best way to teach second language learners. (False) Schools should not focus on teaching English through decontextualized instruction [e.g. verb tenses, articles, pronunciation skills, etc.] Integrated instruction which includes learning English through content, teaching learning strategies, incorporating the linguistic features needed to negotiate the content has been shown to be an effective for teaching content academic language proficiency [CALP]. Sheltered methods of instruction which include both content and language instruction, as well as teaching learning strategies include CALLA [Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach] and SIOP [Sheltered Instruction Observational Protocol].
      • Second language learners should be placed in an English speaking environment as quickly as possible. (False) Learning a second language is a process, like learning one’s first language. Learning to speak and interact in the new language takes one to three years on average. Learning to use the new language in academic contexts takes from seven to ten years to master. Conversational skills are know as BICS, while academic language proficiency is known as CALP.
      • An English Language Learner cannot participate in other school programs such as Title I, gifted and talented, and special education until he/she has exited from an ESL or bilingual program. (False) Under the 14th Amendment and Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, school districts cannot deny any services, remedial or enrichment to any immigrant child. If the child is eligible for additional services or programs, he/she must be included in those programs.
      • When new English Language Learners enter the school speaking little or no English, they should be placed with younger students. (False) Students should be placed with their age/grade classmates. This is the only appropriate placement. Because a student doesn’t speak the language does not mean that he/she belongs with younger students. Learning a language is a social, as well as cognitive endeavor and works best when students are with his academic peers. Pair and cooperative group work in the appropriate age/grade setting often provide more comprehensible input and help the beginner learn English.
      • ESL/bilingual education and special education have similar instructional philosophies. Therefore, ELLs can be placed in special education programs. (False) ESL or bilingual education are programs based on the philosophy of the development of new or second language skills for English Language Learners who have had little or no exposure to English, their second language. Special education programs for native English speakers are specialized programs, which are specifically designed to remediate or provide individualized instruction that will assist native English speakers in learning content in English, their native language. In order for ELLs to be placed in a special education program it must be determined, through appropriate testing in either native language or English, whichever is the dominant language that special education services are warranted. Second language learners who have recently enrolled in your school should never automatically be placed in a special education program without appropriate assessment.
      • Sources:
      • Roe, Peggy, The ESOL Multicultural Newsletter , In-Service on Myths and Realities on Acquiring a Second Language, November 2003 www.fhsu.edu/~rbscott/news/nov2003/story14.htm  
      • Cummins, Jim, http:// www.iteachilearn.com/cummins
      • Samway, K. D. & McKeon, D., Myths and Realities:  Best Practices for Language Minority Students , Portsmouth , NH , Heinemann, 1999.  ISBN 0-325-00057-3
      • © Judith O'Loughlin, "Helping the Mainstream Teacher Work with English Language Learners in the Classroom," TESOL Denver Academy, 2003
    • 6. http://www.ldldproject.net/model.html
    • 7.  
    • 8. http://www.njpep.org/tutorials/ell_mainstream/index.html
    • 9.  
    • 10.  
    • 11.  
    • 12.  
    • 13.  
    • 14.  
    • 15.  
    • 16.  
    • 17.  
    • 18.  
    • 19.  
    • 20.  
    • 21. GUIDELINES FOR SELECTING MULTICULTURAL LITERATURE 10 Quick Ways to Analyze Children's Books for Racism and Sexism 1. Check the Illustrations 2. Check the Story Line 3. Look at the Lifestyles 4. Weigh the Relationships Between People 5. Note the Heroes 6. Consider the Effect on a Child's Self-Image 7. Consider the Author's or Illustrator's Background 8. Check Out the Author's Perspective 9. Watch for Loaded Words 10. Look at the Copyright Date
    • 22.  
    • 23.  
    • 24.  
    • 25.  
    • 26. How to Teach Media Literacy
    • 27. As we enter the twenty first century, it is essential that the schools be places that help students better understand the complex, symbol-rich culture in which they live in. A new vision of literacy is essential if educators are serious about the broad goals of education: preparing students to function as informed and effective citizens in a democratic society; preparing students to realize personal fulfillment; and preparing students to function effectively in a rapidly changing world that demands new, multiple literacies . Renee Hobbs, 1997
    • 28.
      • It is no longer enough to simply read and write. Students must also become literate in the understanding of visual images. Our children must learn how to spot a stereotype , isolate a social cliché and distinguish facts from propaganda , analysis from banter, important news from coverage.
      • Ernest Boyer
    • 29.
      • Media Education is both essential to the exercising of our democratic rights and a necessary safeguard against the worst excesses of media manipulation for political purposes.
      • Len Masterman
    • 30. Reasons using new media
      • Provides:
      • Access -- Liberate teachers and students from textbook format. Provide alternative resources- Teachers and students will be able to research through online resources.
      • Global Point of View -- Students and teachers will participate online discussion groups, weblogs, wikis, and listservs.
      • New tools for classrooms– Students and teachers will be able to produce media presentations, learning objects, interactive teaching material.
    • 31. Course has three main parts
      • De-construct: ( Read Media ) Media Literacy Activities (deconstructing webpages, news, advertisement, and newspapers; POV (point of view) exercise, etc.)
      • Research: ( Use Media ) Information Literacy (Library Skills, researching internet resources, etc.)
      • Construct: ( Write Media ) Media Production (Create an oral history project, video documentary, website, webquest, weblog, and multimedia presentation)
    • 32.
      • The aim is to develop an awareness about print and the newer technologies of communications so that we can orchestrate them, …. And get the best out of each in the educational process.
      • Without understanding of media languages and grammars , we cannot hope to achieve a contemporary awareness of the world in which we live.
      • Marshall McLuhan
    • 33.
      • Media Literacy The ability to access, analyze, evaluate, and communicate media messages in a variety of forms.
      • The Aspen Institute, 1989
    • 34. Learn one thing!
      • Language Arts Literacy
      • STANDARD 3.5 (VIEWING AND MEDIA LITERACY ) ALL STUDENTS WILL ACCESS, VIEW, EVALUATE, AND RESPOND TO PRINT, NONPRINT, AND ELECTRONIC TEXTS AND RESOURCES.
      • http://www.state.nj.us/njded/cccs/s3_lal.htm#35
    • 35. Why Study Media?
      • Media Saturation
      • Media Influence
      • Manufacture and Management of Information
      • Media Democracy/ Critical Autonomy
      • Increasing Importance & Emphasis
      • Privatization of Information
      • Educating for the future
    • 36. Principles of Media Literacy
      • Media construct reality
      • Media use identifiable techniques
      • Media have commercial interests
      • Media presents ideologies
      • New media creates new languages, new audiovisual grammars and new ways of using language
    • 37.
      • Media are symbolic systems; not simply reflection of reality which must be accepted, but with languages which need to be actively read, and interrogated.
      • Len Masterman
    • 38. Main Questions
      • Who produces it? Originator, creator, or author
      • Who are the stories intended for? Target Audience
      • What is missing?
      • Whose point of view is being presented?
    • 39. Teacher’s Role
      • Education must begin with the solution of the teacher-student contradiction, by reconciling the poles of the contradiction so that both are simultaneously teachers and students.
      • Paulo Freire
    • 40. "I learned how to deconstruct commercials, how to use the camera equipment, and how to create a public service announcement. Most importantly, I experienced that every message can be interpreted differently. Depending on the era, personal experience, each sign makes different meaning to different people. Prior to taking this course, I simply watched a commercial at face value. I never really looked at the details or asked myself what target audience the advertising company was aiming for. Since class, I have been a commercial-analyzing junkie. I look at the color scheme, the logo, the endorser (if there is one), choice of music, and the intended target audience.”
    • 41. “ I am happy to have met you, because you have given me much more to think about than just the content of this class. … More than learning video production, this course gave me the chance to reflect on my own viewing habits and I learned something about myself.”
    • 42.
      • Video (TV) is helping or hurting education?
      • Can school video production efforts compete with commercial endeavors?
      • Are teachers using video effectively?
      • Can students learn anything from planning or producing their own videos? (Valmont 1995, p.1)
    • 43. Media (video) production is considered to be time consuming
      • Reasons not to have production in the curriculum. Lack of:
        • equipment
        • technical knowledge to be able to use the equipment
        • support department
        • interest
        • time allocated in the curriculum
    • 44. Production is crucial because
      • Students need variety ways to present their ideas.
      • Different learning styles demands different ways to present a project besides essays. (Gardner, 1993)
      • Teaches Media Literacy skills
      • Gives students different perspectives and point of view to look at the world/ surroundings- Multiculturalism
    • 45.
      • Media Production is an essential component in education
      • Teachers education needs to include media production techniques and pedagogy
      • Media Literacy skills are important component for multicultural education
    • 46. Bloom's Taxonomy and Critical Thinking The goal is to go beyond Knowledge/ Comprehension Judge Panel Discussion Editorial Debate Mock Trial Book Review
      • appraise, value
      Evaluation Produce Role Play Mural Video Production Newspaper Story Advertisement
      • create, combine
      Synthesis Organize Graph Survey Questionnaire Research Plan dissect, generalize Analysis Value Map Model Interview Diagram Illustration use, practice Application Respond Report Review Summary Discussion
      • understand
      Comprehension Receive List fact Worksheet Chart Oral recitation
      • recall
      Knowledge
    • 47.
      • The study explored the wide range of meanings K-12 teacher participants associate with media production; the impact of video production activities on their understanding of media; and the ways in which they integrated media education in their curriculum projects. This participatory paper presentation outlines strategies for integrating media literacy and media production into the curriculum, offers creative suggestions for producing video in the classroom with minimal resources and equipment, and showcases the participants’ video and multimedia projects and describes their experiences with media. We will explore how a critical approach to the study of new media combines knowledge, reflection, and action; promotes educational equity; and prepares new generation to be socially responsible members of a multicultural, democratic society.
    • 48. Advantages of semiotics
      • Allows us to break down a message into its component parts and examine them separately and in relationship to one another.
      • Allows us to look for patterns across different forms of communication.
      • Helps us understand how our cultural and social conventions relate to the communication we create and consume.
      • Helps us get beyond “the obvious,” which may not be all that obvious after all.
    • 49. Low Self-Esteem
      • “ 92% of girls want to change at least one aspect of their appearance.Dove believes all girls deserve to see how beautiful they really are and is committed to raising self-esteem in girls everywhere. That's why we created the Dove Self-Esteem Fund.”
      • (www.campaignforrealbeauty.com)
    • 50.  
    • 51. http://www.pbs.org/race/000_General/000_00-Home.htm
    • 52.  
    • 53.  
    • 54. http://www.thriveoncreative.com/clients/seejane.org/pdfs/where.the.girls.arent.pdf#search='findings%20of%20the%20study%2C%20Where%20the%20Girls%20Aren%27t ‘
      • The study examined 101 animated and live-action films made from 1990 to 2004. It found only 28 per cent of speaking characters were female and, in crowd scenes, only 17 per cent were female.
      • Among the films studied were Finding Nemo, The Lion King, Monsters, Inc., Chicken Run, The Princess Diaries, Babe, The Santa Clause 2 and Toy Story .
    • 55. Findings of the study, Where the Girls Aren't
      • Children's films devalue women by making most characters male, says Geena Davis
      • http://enjoyment.independent.co.uk/film/news/article345283.ece
    • 56.
      •   Half the Population, a Fifth of the News     By Sanjay Suri     Inter Press Service
      •      Wednesday 15 February 2006
      •      London - More and more women are now reporting the news, but still only about a fifth of the subjects are women, a new survey shows.
      •      "What we see in news subjects is that whilst women make up 52 percent of the world's population, they make up only 21 percent of news subjects," Anna Turley from the World Association for Christian Communication (WACC) told IPS. WACC is a non-governmental organisation that promotes communication for social change.
      • http://www.truthout.org/issues_06/021506WA.shtml
    • 57.  
    • 58.  
    • 59. As we enter the twenty first century, it is essential that the schools be places that help students better understand the complex, symbol-rich culture in which they live in. A new vision of literacy is essential if educators are serious about the broad goals of education: preparing students to function as informed and effective citizens in a democratic society; preparing students to realize personal fulfillment; and preparing students to function effectively in a rapidly changing world that demands new, multiple literacies . Renee Hobbs, 1997
    • 60.
      • It is no longer enough to simply read and write. Students must also become literate in the understanding of visual images. Our children must learn how to spot a stereotype , isolate a social cliché and distinguish facts from propaganda , analysis from banter, important news from coverage.
      • Ernest Boyer
    • 61.
      • Media Education is both essential to the exercising of our democratic rights and a necessary safeguard against the worst excesses of media manipulation for political purposes.
      • Len Masterman
    • 62.
      • What do they have in common?
    • 63.  
    • 64.
      • They are Arab-Americans
      • http://www.aaiusa.org/famous_arab_americans.htm
      • http://www.aaiusa.org/PDF/Cas.Broch.(AAIF-V).pdf
    • 65.
      • Paula Abdul
      • Selma Hayek
      • Casey Kasem
      • Spencer Abraham
      • Ralph Nader
      • Christa McAuliffe
      • Spencer Abraham
      • Ralph Nader
      • Doug Flutie
    • 66.
      • Oh I come from a land, from a faraway place
      • Where the caravan camels roam
      • Where it's flat and immense
      • And the heat is intense
      • It's barbaric, but hey, it's home
      • { Original first verse (1992-93):
      • Oh I come from a land, from a faraway place
      • Where the caravan camels roam
      • Where they cut off your ear
      • If they don't like your face It's barbaric, but hey, it's home }
    • 67. WHO ARE THE ARAB AMERICANS?
        • Arab Muslims constitute about 20% of the world's Muslim population.
        • Some 3.5 million Arab Americans live in all 50 states and the District of Columbia.
        • According to the 1990 Census, 82% are citizens and 63% were born in the U.S.
        • Arab Americans in U.S. schools represent more than 20 countries in the Middle East and Northern Africa.
        • Arab Americans can be Muslim, Christian, Jewish, atheist or a follower of another faith.
    • 68. WHAT IS ISLAM?
      • With some 7 million Muslims living in the U.S.
      • Counting about 1 billion followers, Islam is the world's second largest religion after Christianity.
      • Indonesia, which is non-Arab, is the largest Islamic country, and a sizable population of Christian Arabs live in the Middle East.
      • The word "Islam" is derived from root words Silm and Salam , which mean "peace."
      • Muslims consider Allah the creator of all human beings and the god for Christians, Jews, Muslims, Buddhists, Hindus, atheists, and others.
    • 69.
      • Muslims who believe that any image of Mohammed is blasphemous and non-Muslims who believe in freedom of expression .
      • http://www.boston.com/news/globe/editorial_opinion/oped/articles/2006/02/12/questionable_cartoons/
    • 70.
      • Muslims believe it is sacrilege to present any image, even those that may seem benign, of the Prophet Muhammad. That's in contrast to adherents of many other religions, who view the display of figures such as Buddha or Jesus Christ to be a sign of devoutness.
      • http://www.indystar.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20060212/COLUMNISTS07/602120391/1040
    • 71. http://nieonline.com/columbus/cftc.cfm?cftcfeature=archive
    • 72. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ppd0rWKGMfk&search=south%20park
    • 73.  
    • 74.  
    • 75.  
    • 76.  
    • 77.
      • Before Dr. Seuss became famous for his children's books that celebrate diversity and nonviolence, he worked as an illustrator and political cartoonist. As part of that work, he created a series of war bonds and advertisements during World War II. Propaganda like this, prevalent during the era, shaped the way Americans viewed people living in Japan. It also contributed to fears and suspicious about people of Japanese ancestry living in the U.S. The government acted on these fears in February 1942 by ordering some 112,000 U.S. residents of Japanese descent to be held in so-called internment camps, against their will and often in unhealthy conditions. Two-thirds of those sent to the camps were U.S. citizens.
      • Unflattering images of "the enemy" eventually sink into our subconscious and make it easier to fight, and to hate. This practice of dehumanizing adversaries continues today.
      • When you think of the word enemy, what images come to mind? Why?
      • Image Source: Image Source: The Dr. Seuss Collection, Mandeville Special Collection Library, University of California, San Diego.
    • 78.
      • APRIL 12, 2006 Our addiction to TV is killing us BY PETER EICHENBERGER http:// www.indyweek.com/gyrobase/Content?oid =oid%3A30270
      • Illustration by V.C. Rogers
    • 79. Construction of Meaning Sign Experience Meaning Construction Time/ era Context/ place
    • 80. The factors that create meaning
      • The meaning of signs or representations is dependent on social, cultural, and historical contexts
        • Time/ era you live in
        • Context/ place it occurs
        • Previous personal and cultural experience
        • The physical appearance
    • 81.
      • The discipline studying everything which can be used in order to lie , …. Semiotics is concerned with everything that can be taken as a sign. A sign is everything which can be taken as significantly substituting for something else. Umberto Eco
    • 82. Statistics
      • In political Washington, Statistics are weapons of war . That’s why they get manipulated, massaged, and twisted until any connection to reality is strictly coincidental.
      • Peter Carlson
    • 83.
      • CNN.com posted misleading graph showing poll results on Schiavo case
      • http://mediamatters.org/items/200503220005
    • 84.  
    • 85.  
    • 86. The Truth but not the Whole Truth
    • 87.  
    • 88.  
    • 89. The V Sign
    • 90. V for Victory Winston Churchill gives the victory sign at a political rally, Liverpool, 1951
    • 91. The "V" for victory that Winston Churchill used (with the palm facing outward, same as the American sign for "peace"), when the palm is reversed, it means something else... If a person used two fingers to order two beers in a British pub.. it has insulting connotations…
    • 92. # 2 the two fingers in a 1st grade math class may refer to the number "two"
    • 93. OK (okay) vs. 0K (zero kilobyte)
    • 94. This sign might mean
      • "OK" in the United States
      • "money" in Japan
      • "sex" in Mexico
      • "homosexual" in Ethiopia
      • an obscenity in Brazil
      • “Zero” in Southern France
    • 95. Advantages of semiotics
      • Allows us to break down a message into its component parts and examine them separately and in relationship to one another.
      • Allows us to look for patterns across different forms of communication.
      • Helps us understand how our cultural and social conventions relate to the communication we create and consume.
      • Helps us get beyond “the obvious,” which may not be all that obvious after all.
    • 96.  
    • 97.  

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