Media Literacy

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  • Abstract: This paper promotes media literacy through media production in teacher education; provides activities and resources integrating media education into the curriculum; focuses on researching historical documents and deconstructing social studies materials and curricula using Semiotics Theory and Multicultural perspective; describes participants’ experience with documentary storytelling, showcases video projects and best practice; and focuses on unmasking the history in teacher education programs through the process of producing video documentaries. The study is based on the participatory research conducted on teaching online course called, “Rediscovering History through Media Education.” Participants deconstructed and assessed national and local social studies curriculum and standards; documented their stories in order to articulate the realities of conditions in schools through their research, analysis, and dialog. Through the rediscovery process, the teachers redesigned their curricula for improving student outcomes, gained alternative point of view on historical events, and renewed interest and commitment to multiculturalism. This paper promotes media production in teacher education through the process of producing video documentaries; provides resources integrating media education into the curriculum; focuses on researching historical documents and deconstructing social studies materials and curricula using Semiotics Theory and Multicultural perspective; describes participants’ experience with documentary storytelling; and showcases video projects. The study is based on the participatory research conducted during an online course called, “Rediscovering History through Media Education.” Participants deconstructed and assessed social studies curriculum and standards; documented their stories in order to articulate the realities of conditions in schools through their research, analysis, and dialog. Through the rediscovery process, the teachers redesigned their curricula for improving student outcomes, gained alternative point of view on historical events, and renewed interest and commitment to multiculturalism. This paper promotes media literacy through media production in teacher education; provides activities and resources integrating media education into the curriculum, focuses on researching historical documents and deconstructing social studies materials and curricula using Semiotics Theory and Multicultural perspective; describes participants’ experience with documentary storytelling, showcases video projects and best practice; and focuses on unmasking the history in teacher education programs through the process of producing video documentaries. The study is based on the participatory research conducted on teaching online course called, “Rediscovering History through Media Education” and investigated over one hundred educators in seven different states. To date, few scholarly studies have investigated either the power of documentary storytelling in the classroom or the impact of media production on multicultural education. This study attempts to fill the gap by outlining the natural links between teacher education and communication. Methodology included analysis of media surveys, process papers, questionnaires, electronic journals and reflection papers, responses to online activities and the process of producing documentaries, transcripts of interviews, and the content analysis of multimedia projects and presentations. The study explored the wide range of meanings participants associate with media education; the impact of video production activities in social studies curriculum; and the ways in which they integrated history and multicultural education in their documentaries. As Robert Penn Warren said, “History is not Truth, Truth is in the Telling.” If our goal is to prepare ourselves for the media -rich culture they live in, then we need to focus on the needs of the new generation. As they produce their own media projects, they develop media literacy skills, and become informed consumers and citizen of the world. By “Rethinking Curriculum,” participants deconstructed and assessed the national and local social studies curriculum and standards; documented their stories in order to articulate the realities of conditions in schools through their research, analysis, and dialog. Through the rediscovery process, the teachers redesigned their curricula for improving student outcomes, gained alternative point of view on historical events, and renewed interest and commitment to multiculturalism. This study provides a model for teaching and learning through media education. It involves researching online resources, deconstructing curriculum, and creating documentaries and oral history projects. It especially provides research based examples, resources and tools for integrating media production into social studies curriculum. Teachers in the study collaborated virtually among themselves but also participated listservs, online forums, and discussions online. Teachers had a chance to ask questions to the scholars and attended online conferences. I would work on building learning communities among NECC participants online before and after the conference. The format of the session will be showcase of teachers' selected video projects, interactive group discussion, deconstruction exercises, and a presentation of the study and the resources. The research paper and the results of the study will be provided as a handout. The presentation (PowerPoint) and the online course outline will be posted on the website. http://euphrates.wpunj.edu/faculty/yildizm/RH/ Objectives and Purposes The goals of this participatory presentation will discuss strategies for integrating media education into the social studies curriculum, offer creative suggestions for producing video in the classroom with minimal resources and equipment, outline participants’ online course experience with documentary storytelling, and showcase their video projects. This session will also focus on researching historical documents; deconstructing social studies history books and curricula using Semiotics Theory and Multicultural perspective; and exploring activities, exercises, and assessment strategies and tools that align with the local and national curriculum standards addressing Media Literacy and Social Studies curriculum. Significance Although media production is considered to be a time consuming, difficult, and expensive process, educators need to integrate media literacy and media production into their curriculum in order to prepare new generation for media-rich culture. Rather than just being technical or peripheral, media production must be simple and central to the learning process. This research promotes literacy through media production in teacher education, describes teacher candidates' reactions, discoveries, and experiences with media, and showcases their multimedia projects. Research Questions: Methods Some of the research questions and theoretical framework used in the study: 1. AUDIENCE-What are the participants’ personal experiences in media production? How can educators prepare students for the symbol-rich culture in which they live in and function as informed and productive citizens in a democratic society? 2. PROBLEMS- What common problems do the participants share in their media production activities? 3. SUGGESTIONS- What suggestions do participants make in order to improve teaching and learning history? 4. MEDIA LITERACY- What does it mean to be a literate person living in a media rich culture? Why study media? 5. DESIGN- How to design effective instruction integrating media education, semiotics theory and multicultural education into the social studies curriculum? Methodology included analysis of media surveys, process papers, questionnaires, electronic journals and reflection papers, responses to online activities and the process of producing documentaries, transcripts of interviews, and the content analysis of multimedia projects and presentations. The study used three theoretical framework; semiotics, media literacy, and multicultural education. The study explored the wide range of meanings participants associate with media education; the impact of video production activities in social studies curriculum; and the ways in which they integrated history and multicultural education in their documentaries. Conference participants will be able to: • argue the challenges and advantages of media production in social studies curriculum, • develop skills in deconstructing existing curricula in social studies and communicating media messages, • examine the process of producing documentaries as classroom tools for teaching and learning, • integrate the use of media in an instructional context, • explore lesson plans, assessment tools, and curriculum guides that incorporate new media and technologies across grades and subjects • evaluate the suitability of the medium to the material. In conclusion, the main goal of this presentation is to draw on the natural links between media literacy and teacher education. We will explore how a critical approach to the study of new media combines knowledge, reflection, and action; promotes educational equity; and prepares new generation to be socially responsible members of a multicultural, democratic society. Although media production is considered to be a time consuming, difficult, and expensive process, educators need to integrate media literacy and media production into their curriculum in order to prepare new generation for media-rich culture. Rather than just being technical or peripheral, media production must be simple and central to the learning process. This presentation will focus on reconstructing social studies curriculum in teacher education programs through the process of producing video documentaries. Teacher candidates researched, produced, and presented their video documentaries researching and reflecting on American History, People and their stories. Candidates deconstructed and assessed the national and local social studies curriculum and standards; interviewed k-12 educators; and documented their stories in order to articulate the realities of conditions in schools through their research, analysis, and dialog. Through the rediscovery process, the teacher candidates explored, designed, and created the strategies, curricula, and programs for improving student outcomes, also the candidates gained alternative point of view on historical events and renewed interest and commitment to multiculturalism. This presentation promotes literacy through media production in teacher education, describes teacher candidates' reactions, discoveries, and experiences with media, and showcases their multimedia projects. It is based on the qualitative research conducted on teaching online classes and investigated over one hundred educators in seven different states. To date, few scholarly studies have investigated either the power of documentary storytelling in the classroom or the impact of media production on multicultural education. This study attempts to fill the gap by outlining the natural links between multicultural education and communication. Methodology included analysis of media surveys, process papers, questionnaires, electronic journals and reflection papers, responses to online activities and the process of producing documentaries, transcripts of interviews, and the content analysis of multimedia projects and presentations. The study used three theoretical framework; semiotics, media literacy, and multicultural education. The study explored the wide range of meanings participants associate with media education; the impact of video production activities in social studies curriculum; and the ways in which they integrated history and multicultural education in their documentaries. Some of the research questions answered in the study: 1. AUDIENCE-What are the participants’ personal experiences in media production? How can educators prepare students for the symbol-rich culture in which they live in and function as informed and productive citizens in a democratic society? 2. PROBLEMS- What common problems do the participants share in their media production activities? 3. SUGGESTIONS- What suggestions do participants make in order to improve teaching and learning history? 4. MEDIA LITERACY- What does it mean to be a literate person living in a media rich culture? Why study media? 5. DESIGN- How to design effective instruction integrating media education into the multicultural curriculum? The goals of this participatory presentation will discuss strategies for integrating media education into the social studies curriculum, offer creative suggestions for producing video in the classroom with minimal resources and equipment, outline teacher candidates’ online course experience with documentary storytelling, and showcase the teacher candidates' multimedia projects. This session will also focus on researching historical documents; deconstructing social studies history books and curricula using Semiotics Theory and Multicultural perspective; and exploring activities, exercises, and assessment strategies and tools that align with the local and national curriculum standards addressing Media Literacy and Social Studies curriculum. This session will benefit teacher candidates, k-12 educators and students, parents, media specialists, and administrators who seek alternative strategies and tools in teaching and learning history. This session is especially designed for new or experienced teacher educators who would like to integrate new media and technologies into social studies curriculum. The format of the session will be a presentation of the study and the resources, showcase of teacher candidates’ selected video projects, and interactive group discussion. The research paper and the results of the study will be provided as a hand-out. The presentation (PowerPoint) and the online course outline will be posted on the website. http://euphrates.wpunj.edu/faculty/yildizm/Patterson2004 Conference participants will be able to: argue the challenges and advantages of media production in social studies curriculum, develop skills in deconstructing existing curricula in social studies and communicating media messages, examine the process of producing documentaries as classroom tools for teaching and learning, integrate the use of media in an instructional context, develop ideas for lesson plans, assessment tools, and curriculum guides that incorporate new media and technologies across grades and subjects. In conclusion, the main goal of this presentation is to draw on the natural links between media literacy and multicultural education. We will explore how a critical approach to the study of new media combines knowledge, reflection, and action; promotes educational equity; and prepares new generation to be socially responsible members of a multicultural, democratic society.
  • Media Literacy

    1. 1. Teachers discovering the power of Media Education and liberating the curriculum: From Awareness to Action in Teacher Education Melda N. Yildiz William Paterson University [email_address]
    2. 5. Technology <ul><li>BB- for course content, discussion board, content management-eportfolios </li></ul><ul><li>Digital editing software (imovie or movie maker) for editing their digital story. </li></ul><ul><li>youtube.com for showcasing their video, </li></ul><ul><li>Webserver such as google pages to post their webpage/e-portfolio, </li></ul><ul><li>Webcams- for online tutoring and mentoring to K12 students, first year students at WPU </li></ul><ul><li>Telephony systems, skype.com for online chat and collaborations among each other and with the instructor </li></ul>
    3. 6. Reasons using new media <ul><li>Provides: </li></ul><ul><li>Access -- Liberate teachers and students from textbook format. Provide alternative resources- Teachers and students will be able to research through online resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Global Point of View -- Students and teachers will participate online discussion groups, weblogs, wikis, and listservs. </li></ul><ul><li>New tools for classrooms– Students and teachers will be able to produce media presentations, learning objects, interactive teaching material. </li></ul>
    4. 7. Course has three main parts <ul><li>De-construct: ( Read Media ) Media Literacy Activities (deconstructing webpages, news, advertisement, and newspapers; POV (point of view) exercise, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Research: ( Use Media ) Information Literacy (Library Skills, researching internet resources, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Construct: ( Write Media ) Media Production (Create an oral history project, video documentary, website, webquest, weblog, and multimedia presentation) </li></ul>
    5. 8. <ul><li>http://mnyildiz.googlepages.com/digitalstorytelling </li></ul><ul><li>http://mnyildiz.googlepages.com/e-portfoliosamples </li></ul>
    6. 9. Vocabulary average of a 14-year-old dropped from 25,000 words in 1950s to only 10,000 words in 1999. <ul><li>“ Numbers.” Time Magazine 155, no 6 (Feb 14, 2000); 25 </li></ul>
    7. 10. How to Teach Media Literacy
    8. 11. Learn one thing! <ul><li>Language Arts Literacy </li></ul><ul><li>STANDARD 3.5 (VIEWING AND MEDIA LITERACY ) ALL STUDENTS WILL ACCESS, VIEW, EVALUATE, AND RESPOND TO PRINT, NONPRINT, AND ELECTRONIC TEXTS AND RESOURCES. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.state.nj.us/njded/cccs/s3_lal.htm#35 </li></ul>
    9. 12. As we enter the twenty first century, it is essential that the schools be places that help students better understand the complex, symbol-rich culture in which they live in. A new vision of literacy is essential if educators are serious about the broad goals of education: preparing students to function as informed and effective citizens in a democratic society; preparing students to realize personal fulfillment; and preparing students to function effectively in a rapidly changing world that demands new, multiple literacies . Renee Hobbs, 1997
    10. 13. <ul><li>It is no longer enough to simply read and write. Students must also become literate in the understanding of visual images. Our children must learn how to spot a stereotype , isolate a social cliché and distinguish facts from propaganda , analysis from banter, important news from coverage. </li></ul><ul><li>Ernest Boyer </li></ul>
    11. 14. <ul><li>Media Education is both essential to the exercising of our democratic rights and a necessary safeguard against the worst excesses of media manipulation for political purposes. </li></ul><ul><li>Len Masterman </li></ul>
    12. 15. <ul><li>I cdnuolt blveiee taht I cluod aulaclty uesdnatnrd waht I was rdanieg. The phaonmneal pweor of the hmuan mnid Aoccdrnig to a rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it deosn't mttaer inwaht oredr the ltteers in a wrod are, the olny iprmoatnt tihng is taht the frist and lsat ltteer be in the rghit pclae. </li></ul><ul><li>The rset can be a taotl mses and you can sitll raed it wouthit a porbelm. Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe. Amzanig huh? yaeh and I awlyas thought slpeling was ipmorantt. </li></ul>
    13. 19. <ul><li>See the link http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v =HqK7fOA56bc&search=pepsi%20shakira </li></ul><ul><li>watch and identify and respond </li></ul><ul><li>what they sell? </li></ul><ul><li>a) Pepsi b) God c) Beauty d) Youth e) all </li></ul><ul><li>who is their target audience? </li></ul><ul><li>a) you b) hispanic c) global d) young people </li></ul>
    14. 26. Media Literacy Quiz from <ul><li>http://www.griid.org/pdfs/medialit-exercise-01.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.griid.org/pdfs/medialit-exercise-04.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.grcmc.org/medialit/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.mediamouse.org/griid/ </li></ul>
    15. 28. http://www.snopes.com/inboxer/petition/drunk.asp
    16. 30. <ul><li>&quot;Somebody Should Have Taught Him&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>I went to a birthday party mom I remembered what you said. You told me not to drink at all mom So I drank soda instead. </li></ul><ul><li>I felt proud inside mom, Just the way you said I would, that I didn't choose to drink and drive mom Though some friends said I should. </li></ul><ul><li>I knew I made the right choice mom Because your advice to me was right And as the party finally ended mom The kids drove out of sight. </li></ul><ul><li>I got into my car mom Sure to get home in one piece, never knowing what was coming mom Something I expected least. </li></ul><ul><li>Now I'm lying on the pavement, mom I can hear the policeman say, &quot;The kid that caused this wreck was drunk,&quot; mom His voice seems far away. </li></ul><ul><li>My own blood is all around me, mom as I try hard not to cry. I can hear the paramedic say, mom &quot;This girl is going to die.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>I'm sure the guy had no idea, mom while he was flying high, because he chose to drink and drive mom that I would have to die. </li></ul><ul><li>So why do people do it, mom knowing that it ruins lives? But now the pain is cutting me now mom like a hundred stabbing knives. </li></ul><ul><li>Tell my sister not to be afraid, mom Tell daddy to be brave, and when I go to heaven mom Write &quot;Daddy's Girl&quot; on my grave. </li></ul><ul><li>Someone should have taught him mom that it's wrong to drink and drive. Maybe if his mom and dad had, mom I'd still be alive. </li></ul><ul><li>My breath is getting shorter, mom I'm getting really scared. These are my final moments, mom and I'm so unprepared. </li></ul><ul><li>I wish that you could hold me Mom, as I lie here and die. I wish that I could say Mom I love you and good-bye </li></ul>
    17. 31. Second Life Video http://youtube.com/watch?v=b72CvvMuD6Q
    18. 38. Dealing with Interactivity not TIME <ul><li>Everquest.com </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.station.sony.com/everquest/ </li></ul><ul><li>Ebay.com </li></ul><ul><li>http:// www.ebay.com / </li></ul>
    19. 39. Why Study Media? <ul><li>Media Saturation </li></ul><ul><li>Media Influence </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacture and Management of Information </li></ul><ul><li>Media Democracy/ Critical Autonomy </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing Importance & Emphasis </li></ul><ul><li>Privatization of Information </li></ul><ul><li>Educating for the future </li></ul>
    20. 40. Principles of Media Literacy <ul><li>Media construct reality </li></ul><ul><li>Media use identifiable techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Media have commercial interests </li></ul><ul><li>Media presents ideologies </li></ul><ul><li>New media creates new languages, new audiovisual grammars and new ways of using language </li></ul>
    21. 42. <ul><li>Media are symbolic systems; not simply reflection of reality which must be accepted, but with languages which need to be actively read, and interrogated. </li></ul><ul><li>Len Masterman </li></ul>
    22. 43. <ul><li>The aim is to develop an awareness about print and the newer technologies of communications so that we can orchestrate them, …. And get the best out of each in the educational process. </li></ul><ul><li>Without understanding of media languages and grammars , we cannot hope to achieve a contemporary awareness of the world in which we live. </li></ul><ul><li>Marshall McLuhan </li></ul>
    23. 44. Girls, Girls, Girls: Mc Donald’s Commercial Production Notes: Fast Food for Thought by Jason Simon USA 1986, video, 28:00 min PublisherVideo Date Bank
    24. 45. Grammar and Language of Media <ul><li>Color </li></ul><ul><li>Sound </li></ul><ul><li>Lyrics </li></ul><ul><li>Setting </li></ul><ul><li>Lights </li></ul><ul><li>Editing </li></ul><ul><li>Characters </li></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul>
    25. 46. Girls, Girls, Girls: Mc Donald’s Commercial Production Notes: Fast Food for Thought by Jason Simon <ul><li>You want more than a book, you want a funky look </li></ul><ul><li>Because that’s part of being a girl </li></ul><ul><li>Some guys are dreams, sometimes you want to scream </li></ul><ul><li>Look at now and watch out world </li></ul><ul><li>You’ve got a sense of fun, you’ve found your space and </li></ul><ul><li>McDonald is your kind of place </li></ul><ul><li>Funny how you feel, seems to show on your face </li></ul><ul><li>You’ve heard the latest rumors, you are expressing your views and </li></ul><ul><li>Rock and Roll is the music you choose </li></ul><ul><li>Glad you are girl right down to your shoes </li></ul><ul><li>It’s a good time … for this Great Taste of McDonald </li></ul>
    26. 47. Main Questions <ul><li>Who produces it? Originator, creator, or author </li></ul><ul><li>Who are the stories intended for? Target Audience </li></ul><ul><li>What is missing? </li></ul><ul><li>Whose point of view is being presented? </li></ul>
    27. 48. Circle of Life
    28. 49. Mickey Mouse Monopoly <ul><li>http://www.mediaed.org/videos/CommercialismPoliticsAndMedia/MickeyMouseMonopoly </li></ul>
    29. 50. Yeh- Shen: A Cinderella Story From China
    30. 54. L.A. Times Photographer Fired Over Altered Image <ul><li>http://www.poynter.org/resource/28082/asdf.swf </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.poynter.org/content/content_view.asp?id=28082&sid=29 </li></ul>
    31. 55. <ul><li>Video (TV) is helping or hurting education? </li></ul><ul><li>Can school video production efforts compete with commercial endeavors? </li></ul><ul><li>Are teachers using video effectively? </li></ul><ul><li>Can students learn anything from planning or producing their own videos? (Valmont 1995, p.1) </li></ul>
    32. 56. In schools, Media (video) production is considered to be time consuming <ul><li>Reasons not to have production in the curriculum. Lack of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>technical knowledge to be able to use the equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>support department </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>interest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>time allocated in the curriculum </li></ul></ul>
    33. 57. Media (video) production is considered to be time consuming <ul><li>Reasons not to have production in the curriculum. Lack of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>technical knowledge to be able to use the equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>support department </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>interest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>time allocated in the curriculum </li></ul></ul>
    34. 58. Production is crucial because <ul><li>Students need variety ways to present their ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>Different learning styles demands different ways to present a project besides essays. (Gardner, 1993) </li></ul><ul><li>Teaches Media Literacy skills </li></ul><ul><li>Gives students different perspectives and point of view to look at the world/ surroundings- Multiculturalism </li></ul>
    35. 59. Bloom's Taxonomy and Critical Thinking The goal is to go beyond Knowledge/ Comprehension Judge Panel Discussion Editorial Debate Mock Trial Book Review <ul><li>appraise, value </li></ul>Evaluation Produce Role Play Mural Video Production Newspaper Story Advertisement <ul><li>create, combine </li></ul>Synthesis Organize Graph Survey Questionnaire Research Plan dissect, generalize Analysis Value Map Model Interview Diagram Illustration use, practice Application Respond Report Review Summary Discussion <ul><li>understand </li></ul>Comprehension Receive List fact Worksheet Chart Oral recitation <ul><li>recall </li></ul>Knowledge
    36. 60. &quot;I learned how to deconstruct commercials, how to use the camera equipment, and how to create a public service announcement. Most importantly, I experienced that every message can be interpreted differently. Depending on the era, personal experience, each sign makes different meaning to different people. Prior to taking this course, I simply watched a commercial at face value. I never really looked at the details or asked myself what target audience the advertising company was aiming for. Since class, I have been a commercial-analyzing junkie. I look at the color scheme, the logo, the endorser (if there is one), choice of music, and the intended target audience.”
    37. 61. “ I am happy to have met you, because you have given me much more to think about than just the content of this class. … More than learning video production, this course gave me the chance to reflect on my own viewing habits and I learned something about myself.”
    38. 62. <ul><li>A democratic civilization will save itself only if it makes the language of the image into a stimulus for critical reflection , not an invitation to hypnosis. </li></ul><ul><li>Umberto Eco (l979) </li></ul>
    39. 63. Teacher’s Role <ul><li>Education must begin with the solution of the teacher-student contradiction, by reconciling the poles of the contradiction so that both are simultaneously teachers and students. </li></ul><ul><li>Paulo Freire </li></ul>
    40. 64. <ul><li>Media Production is an essential component in education </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers education needs to include media production techniques and pedagogy </li></ul><ul><li>Media Literacy skills are important component for multicultural education </li></ul>

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