MITOSIS How somatic (non-sex cells) divide and multiply.
Interphasethe cell gets itself ready for mitosisthe phase of the cell cycle in which the cell spendsthe majority of its time and performs the majorityof its purposes including preparation for celldivisionIn preparation for cell division, it increases its sizeand makes a copy of its DNAthe cell obtains nutrients, grows, reads its DNA
Prophase the chromosomes become visible the centrosomes start to move away from each other the nuclear envelope starts to disperse the spindle begins to form the nucleoli disappear Chromatin present in the nucleus starts to condense and it can be seen through the light microscope as chromosomes. The nucleolus disappears. It begins to move to opposite poles of the cell and fibers extend from the centromeres.
Prometaphase tetrads become connected to the spindle fibers by kinetochores the nuclear envelope fragments Microtubules emerging from the centromeres at the poles (ends) of the spindle reach the chromosomes each sister chromatid has a protein structure called a kinetochore Some of the spindle microtubules attach to the kinetochores, throwing the chromosomes into agitated motion The nuclear membrane will be dissolved and it indicates the start of prometaphase stage. Kinetochores will be created because of the attachment of proteins to the centromeres. The chromosomes begin its movement when Microtubules attach at the kinetochores.
Metaphase plateSpindle Centrosome at one spindle pole
Metaphase the alignment of chromosomes at the center of the cell the separation of sister chromatids to opposite mitotic spindle poles the centrosomes are now at opposite poles of the cell Spindle fibers align the chromosomes along the middle of the cell nucleus named metaphase plate
Anaphase the chromatids separate and move toward the spindle poles Anaphase begins when the duplicated centromeres of each pair of sister chromatids separate At the end of anaphase, a complete set of chromosomes are assembled at each pole of the cell. The chromosome pairs separate at the kinetochores and move to opposite sides of the cell.
Telophase and Cytokinesis The polar fibers continue to lengthen Nuclei (plural form of nucleus) begin to form at opposite poles The nuclear envelopes of these nuclei are formed from remnant pieces of the parent cells nuclear envelope Nucleoli (plural form of nucleolus) also reappear Chromatin fibers of chromosomes uncoil After these changes, telophase is complete and the genetic "contents" of one cell have been divided equally into two Cytokinesis, the division of the original cells cytoplasm, begins prior to the end of mitosis and completes shortly after telophase In animal cells, cytokinesis involves involves the formation of a cleavage furrow, which pinches the cell in twoAt the end of cytokinesis, there are two distinct daughter cells
MITOSIS The two daughter cells now become parent cells and each producetwo more daughter cell. This process continues to repeat