Underwater Vocalizations Of Harbor Seals

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Research Presentation presented at WIU and SCSU Spring 2007

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  • Shows similarity between sound types
  • Underwater Vocalizations Of Harbor Seals

    1. 1. Underwater vocalizations of Pacific Harbor Seals ( Phoca vitulina richardii ) Mehgan M. Clark
    2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Harbor Seal Background </li></ul><ul><li>Research Development </li></ul><ul><li>Goals </li></ul><ul><li>Materials </li></ul><ul><li>Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul>http://photos.aznightbuzz.com/gallery/view/1544
    3. 3. Pinniped Background <ul><li>Amphibious Carnivore </li></ul><ul><li>Varied Mating Systems (Le Boeuf, 2001) </li></ul><ul><li>Highly vocal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aerial and Underwater (Van Parijs and Kovacs, 2002) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evolutionary Relationship is Fuzzy (Arnason et al., 2002) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Order Carnivora </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mustelids vs. Ursids </li></ul></ul>http://www.brookfieldzoo.org/pagegen/images/fix/sealcut.jpg
    4. 4. Background Ecology (Riedman, 1990) <ul><li>Distribution (P.v.richardii) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alaska to Mexico </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fish, cephalopods, krill </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Life Span </li></ul><ul><ul><li>25 years in the wild </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maturity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Females: 3-7 yrs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Males: 2-7 yrs </li></ul></ul>https://www.washington.edu/burkemuseum/collections/mammalogy/mamwash/phvi.html
    5. 5. Background Mating Behavior (Riedman, 1990) <ul><li>Males </li></ul><ul><li>Dominance Hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Aggressive Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flipper Slaps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neck Bites </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Territory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vocalize </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Along travel corridor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Possible lek </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Van Parijs et al 1997) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Females </li></ul><ul><li>Post-Partum Estrus </li></ul><ul><li>Annually March-Sept. </li></ul><ul><li>Feeding trips </li></ul><ul><li>Aquatic Mating </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exact method not observed </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Background-Acoustic Studies <ul><li>Started </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1960s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poulter and Schusterman </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>California Sea Lions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Echolocation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Investigated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Debated </li></ul></ul>Photo By: Mehgan Clark
    7. 7. Background-Acoustic Studies <ul><li>Females </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mother-pup relations (Khan et al., 2006) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Males </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Breeding season (Van Parijs et al., 1997; Hanggi and Schusterman, 1994) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Announce breading readiness and dominance hierarchy (Hayes et al., 2002) </li></ul></ul>Photo By: Mehgan Clark
    8. 8. Background-Harbor Seal Acoustics <ul><li>Roars </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hanggi and Schusterman 1994 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mean 4.2 seconds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Occasional Harmonics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Van Parijs et al. 1997 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1/min </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 roar underwater </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mean = 665 Hz </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Van Parijs et a. 2003 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Geographic variation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Hearing Range (Renouf, 1991) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1-50 kHz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Above 15 kHz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Perceived as same pitch </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Above 60 kHz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bone Conductance </li></ul></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Sensory Systems and Communication (Renouf, 1991) <ul><li>Acoustics </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Smell </li></ul><ul><li>Tactile </li></ul><ul><li>Vision </li></ul><ul><li>Vibrassae </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrodynamics (Zimmer, 2001) </li></ul></ul>http://www.brookfieldzoo.org/pgpages/pagegen.278.aspx?shttplink=../pgpages/pagegen.278.aspx&nsection=2
    10. 10. Research at a Zoo <ul><li>Zoos and aquaria provide unique study site </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Control Variables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social Structure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Visibility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Animal History </li></ul></ul>Photo By: Mehgan Clark
    11. 11. Goals <ul><li>To record underwater sounds to look for ultrasonic components. </li></ul><ul><li>Catalog all sounds as part of the repertoire. </li></ul><ul><li>Determine if the calls types are truly different. </li></ul><ul><li>Determine the number of calls per minute. </li></ul>Photo By: Mehgan Clark
    12. 12. Materials <ul><li>Ithaco 605 Hydrophone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Linear to 75 kHz </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DELL XPS M140 Laptop. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Linear to 96 kHz </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Goldwave sound analysis program and recording software. </li></ul><ul><li>Spectrogram sound analysis program. </li></ul>Photo By: Mehgan Clark
    13. 13. Software Limitations <ul><li>Goldwave </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Great for: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recording </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Initial Analysis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accuracy Problems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spectrogram </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Great for: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accurate analysis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resolution Issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>±96 Hz </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>209 Hz </li></ul></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Methods <ul><li>Recordings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>April and October 2006 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6-10AM </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Behavioral </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Notes Taken as Possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adapted from Potter 2005 </li></ul></ul>Photo By: Dr. Thomas
    15. 15. Pinniped Point Graphic Courtesy Brookfield Staff Legend Hydrophone Recording Site = Animal Shift Gates N West Holding: 15’x9’x5’ 5050 gallons East Holding: 15’x6’x4’ 2700 gallons Pool #1: 38,000 gallons Pool #2: 135,000 gallons Pool #3: 125,000 gallons Pool #4: 32,000 gallons Harbor Seals Harbor Seals Walrus Sea Lion and Harbor Seals
    16. 16. Table 1. Animal Information Black Spots on Stomach Wild F 17 Stirling Phoca vitulina Crown on Forehead Pink Spots on Neck Wild F 17 Banda Phoca vitulina Completely Blind Darker Color Captive M 9 Scooter Phoca vitulina Notes Acquisition: Wild vs. Captive Born Sex Age Name Species
    17. 17. Acoustical Analysis <ul><li>Sonographic analysis: </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency </li></ul><ul><li>Sound Components </li></ul><ul><li>Harmonic Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Duration </li></ul>Photo By: Mehgan Clark
    18. 18. Component One Dominant Beginning Frequency Dom. Max. Freq. Dominant Minimum Frequency Dominant Ending Frequency Oscilogram Spectrogram Total Duration
    19. 19. Study Phases <ul><li>Pre-Mating Season </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Female Only (66) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Male Only (127) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Introduction of Groups (105) </li></ul><ul><li>Mating Season (298) </li></ul><ul><li>Post-Mating Season (331) </li></ul><ul><li>933 minutes Total </li></ul>Photo By: Mehgan Clark
    20. 20. Results-Call Types <ul><li>3 Call Types (713 calls) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Growls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short Roars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long Roars </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rare Call Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grunts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buzzes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Howls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creaks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clicks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Found only during the mating season </li></ul><ul><ul><li>June 25-28 2006 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Probable start </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>End of behavior date unknown </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Associated with Phase 2 and 3 </li></ul>
    21. 21. Growl Spectrogram
    22. 22. Short Roar Spectrogram
    23. 23. Long Roar Spectrogram
    24. 24. Call Parameter Means and Standard Deviations 1.84 ±0.65 336.5 ±148.1 1349.8 ±452.1 797.2 ±210.2 727.2 ± 133.7 Short Roar 4.80 ±1.77 210.6 ±18.4 1329.3 ±319.8 707.5 ±191.1 611.3 ±98.8 Long Roar 0.94 ±0.55 291.2 ±163.1 2060.2 ±566.6 1026.1 ±325.2 1026.1 ±315.1 Growl Comp. Dur. Dom. Min. Freq. Dom. Max. Freq. Dom. Ending Freq. Dom. Beg. Freq. Call Type
    25. 25. Dominant Maximum Frequency in All Three Call Types
    26. 26. Dominant Minimum Frequency in All Three Call Types
    27. 27. Results- Principle Component Analysis <ul><li>Components of Importance for Classification </li></ul><ul><li>All Components Used </li></ul>
    28. 28. 0.424 0.843 -0.062 Total Duration 0.579 -0.076 -0.189 Interval Duration 0.362 0.578 - 0.653 Component Duration 0.305 - 0.621 0.150 Dom. Min. Freq. 0.143 0.097 0.747 Dom. Max. Freq 0.441 -0.198 0.701 Dom. End. Freq 0.263 -0.203 0.811 Dom. Beg. Freq -0.213 0.492 0.758 Comp. Analyzed -0.199 0.514 0.712 Components in Series
    29. 29. Results- Principle Component Analysis <ul><li>No Rotations </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grouped together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Factor 1 </li></ul></ul>
    30. 31. Results: Two Sample T-tests p=0.000 unless noted df=254 df=235 5.550 12.451 9.351 14.106 LR vs. GR -2.221 p=0.105 10.731 6.526 9.753 SR vs. GR -9.537 -0.417 p= 0.667 -3.569 -7.891 SR vs. LR DMINF DMAXF DEF DBF Comparisons
    31. 32. Hierarchical Clustering <ul><li>Determines Correlations in data </li></ul><ul><li>Distance between call parameters </li></ul><ul><li>Dendrogram </li></ul><ul><li>Small branches = close relationships </li></ul>
    32. 34. Results-Calls Per Minute <ul><li>Phase 1 Females Only </li></ul><ul><ul><li>0.000 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phase 2 Male Only </li></ul><ul><ul><li>0.450 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phase 3 Introductions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>0.311 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phase 4 Mating Season </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2.595 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phase 5 Post Mating Season </li></ul><ul><ul><li>0.091 </li></ul></ul>Average Calls per Minute Calculated for Each Phase
    33. 36. Behaviors <ul><li>Male </li></ul><ul><li>Loops-counter clockwise </li></ul><ul><li>Haul Out </li></ul><ul><li>Bottling </li></ul><ul><li>Lobtailing </li></ul><ul><li>Vocalizing </li></ul><ul><li>Neck Biting </li></ul><ul><li>Flipper Slaps </li></ul><ul><li>Chasing </li></ul><ul><li>Female </li></ul><ul><li>Loops-clockwise </li></ul><ul><li>Haul Out </li></ul><ul><li>Sleeping </li></ul><ul><li>Bottling </li></ul><ul><li>Flipper Slaps </li></ul>Photo By: Mehgan Clark
    34. 37. Conclusions <ul><li>Differences in 3 Call types. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Statistically Significant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support Literature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequency Components Most Important </li></ul></ul>Banda http://static.flickr.com/79/250184186_7397d1ee5f_m.jpg
    35. 38. Conclusions <ul><li>Male vocalization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>roar-associated with mating behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>blowing bubbles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>selection by female </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No other males </li></ul><ul><li>May rule out that it is a competition call </li></ul><ul><li>Females are very quiet </li></ul>Photo By: Mehgan Clark
    36. 39. Future Research <ul><li>Similar Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Video Recordings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simultaneous with acoustic recording </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surface intervals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of roars per dive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral Components </li></ul></ul>
    37. 40. Literature Cited <ul><li>Hanggi, E. B. and Schusterman, R.J. 1994. Underwater acoustic displays and individual variation in male Harbour Seals, Phoca vitulina. Animal Behavoiur 48: 1275-1283 </li></ul><ul><li>Hayes, S.A, A. Kumar, D.P. Costa, D.K Mellinger, J.T. Harvey, B. L. Southall, and B.J. Le Boeuf. 2002. Evaluating the function of the male harbour seal, Phoca vitulina , roar through playback experiments. Animal Behaviour 67: 1133-1139 </li></ul><ul><li>Khan, C. B., H. Markowitz, and B. McCowan. 2006. Vocal development in captive harbor seal pups, Phoca vitulina richardii : Age, sex, and individual differences. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 120 (3):1684-1694. </li></ul><ul><li>Le Boeuf, B. J. Pinniped mating systems on land, ice and in the water: Emphasis on the Phocidae. in D. Renouf ed. Behavior of Pinnipeds. Chapman and Hall New York, NY. </li></ul><ul><li>Poulter, T. C. 1963. Sonar Signals of the Sea Lion. Science 139: 753-754. </li></ul><ul><li>Riedman, M. 1990. The Pinnipeds: Seals, Sea Lions and Walruses. University of California Press, Berkley, CA. </li></ul><ul><li>Schusterman et al. 2000. Why pinnipeds don’t echolocate. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 107 (4): 2256- 2264 </li></ul><ul><li>Van Parijs, S.M., P.M. Thompson,. D.J. Tollit and A. Mackay. 1997. Distribution and activity of male harbour seals during the mating season. Animal Behavior 54: 35-43 </li></ul><ul><li>Van Parijs, S.M. et al. 2003. Patterns in the vocalizations of male Harbor Seals. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 113 (6): 3403-3410 </li></ul><ul><li>Van Parijs, S.M., G.D. Hastie, and P.M. Thompson. 2000. Individual and geographical variation in display behaviour of male harbour seals in Scotland. Animal Behaviour 59: 559-568 </li></ul><ul><li>Zimmer, C. 2001. By a whisker, Harbor Seals catch their prey. Science 293 (5527): 29 </li></ul>
    38. 41. Acknowledgments <ul><li>Dr. Jeanette Thomas </li></ul><ul><li>Jennifer McGee, Rita Stacey, Wendy Komar, Brookfield Zoo Staff </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Musser and Dr. Meiers </li></ul><ul><li>Matthew Clark </li></ul><ul><li>Fellow Graduate Students </li></ul>
    39. 42. Questions?

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