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Built to last javascript for enterprise

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Common pattern, practices and optimizations for Enterprise Web Applications.

Common pattern, practices and optimizations for Enterprise Web Applications.

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  • 1. Reference architecture GUIDE
  • 2. marjan@emitknowledge.com mk.linkedin/marjan.nikolovski Marjan Nikolovski A professional senior software engineer and conference speaker who is mainly hooked on the .NET platform as development platform and its derivatives, but from time to time knows to kill some time with open source software. Usually spends his time writing systems backend and testing cutting edge technologies. In spare time actively participating in holding technical presentations on conferences and researching. Specially interested in Distributed programming, Software architecture, Middleware, SOA, Non-relational databases and Workflow driven systems.
  • 3.  Word-Two;  JavaScript mistakes from the C# programmer  Solution structure;  Solution architecture;  Product modules;  UI Components;  Event Driven Messaging;  Localization;  Logging  Optimizations
  • 4.  Enterprise JavaScript app - heavy data app that is hard to be maintained;  Development time increase as the complexity and the codebase grows up;  Frontend development usually not taken seriously;  Frontend development always underestimated and without certain development plan and architecture;
  • 5.  Writing jQuery still requires knowledge of JavaScript;  Using global variables and functions;  Object literal;  Self-Executing Anonymous Function;  Revealing Module Pattern;  Array and object declaration gone bad;  False value understanding;  Default value testing;  Using wrong comparison operators;  Misusing For..in statement on Arrays;  Function and Object Scope in JavaScript;  Not aware of JSLint;
  • 6. var invalid_username = "Username exists"; function log_in() { //Placed in global scope when executed invalid_username = "Really Bad"; } //Bad way to prevent namespace clashing function namespace_log_out() { } //Functions window.log_in(); window.namespace_log_out(); //Global variables are available off window object console.log(window.invalid_username); console.log(window.log_in); console.log(window.namespace_log_out);
  • 7.  Similar to JSON syntax;  Provide properties and function by choice;  Everything defined in the object literal is public; Pros Cons Remove global namespaces to properties, variables and methods Difficult to maintain and understand Functionality can be added at a later point No way to have private properties and/or methods All properties and methods are public //Object Literal declaring properties and methods var user_model = { //public property username: "Some user", //public method login: function() {} };
  • 8.  Non name function that executes after it is defined;  Isolate variables and functions from global namespace; //Self-Executing Anonymous Function: (function() { //private variable var username = "Some username"; //private function function login() {} login(); }()); Pros Cons Hide implementation from external code All information is hidden The code runs only once Complicated on first sight Not using object literal notation
  • 9.  Uses the concept of the Self-Executing Anonymous Function;  Store the result into a variable; //Revealing Module Pattern (Public & Private) var user_proxy = (function() { var me = {}, //Private property username = "Some username"; //Public property me.message = "A message"; //Public method me.Login = function() { pvtLogin(); }; //Private method function pvtLogin() { //Do something... } //Return just the public parts return me; }()); Pros Cons Allow private and public properties and methods Easy to understand
  • 10.  Many ways to create an object, but only one is the correct one;  Hesitate the temptation to use the new keyword; // bad practice var user = new Object(); // good practice var user = {}; // bad practice function User(uname){ this.username = uname; } var user = new User(‘test’); user.username == ‘test’ var user = User(‘test’); user.username != ‘test’ user.username == window. username
  • 11.  Same goes for arrays. Many ways to create an array, but only one is the correct one; // bad practice var userList = new Array(10); userList[0] === undefined; userList.length == 10; // good practice var userList = [];
  • 12. C# If(user != null && user.Length > 0) { // do something } JavaScript If(user) { // do something } OR user = user || ‘default value’;
  • 13.  JavaScript ninja behavior can sometimes gives us unexpected results;  Sometime value comparison is not what it looks like;  Always use === or !== when doing comparison in JavaScript; // Unexpected comparisons 0 == '‘ //true 0 == ‘0’ //true false == '0‘ //true null == undefined //true ' trn ' == 0 //true 0 === '' //false 0 === '0' //false false === '0' //false null === undefined //false ' trn ' === 0 //false
  • 14.  Does not guarantee the order of the items that are going to be retrieved by the iterator;  The iterator can iterate both array and objects;  Bad declaration can result in incorrect iterator execution; var user = { username: ‘Test’, name:’Some name’ }; for(var data in user){ alert(data); } // outputs username, name var userArray = []; userArray.push(‘data’) userArray.name = ‘Test’; for(var data in user){ alert(data); alert(user[data]); } // outputs 0, name // outputs data, Test
  • 15.  Variable scope visible in the function;  All internal closures or functions will see the defined variables in the parent function scope; function login() { var user = "test", isWrongCaptcha = true; if (isWrongCaptcha) { var timeToWait = 10; console.log( "Waiting " + timeToWait + " minutes" ); internal_log_in(); } function internal_log_in() { //The chew function also has access to the //timeToWait variable because it is part of the //eat function's scope console.log("After waiting " + timeToWait + " minutes, " + "I am going to login to the system"); } } login(); //Waiting 10 minutes //After waiting 10 minutes, I am going to login to the system
  • 16.  JSLint is a static code analysis tool used in software development for checking if JavaScript source code complies with coding rules;  Provided primarily as an online tool, but there are also command-line adaptations;
  • 17.  Large scale JavaScript development involves different source types and formats;  Presentation code;  Proxy code;  Third party libs;  Solution structure is tightly coupled with the solution architecture approach;  Physical structure should match the solution architecture abstraction;
  • 18.  /scripts  /utils  /controllers  /models  /modules  /bootstrappers  /libs  /components  /external  /content  /images  /css  /media  /scripts  Development helpers  Proxy classes to the server methods  Models used for the client and server side  Modules per functionality  Application/module/plugin initializers  /libs  Custom developed components  External libraries  /content  /images  /css  /media
  • 19.  Plan before execute;  Questions to be answered before the design:  What will be reused?  How many modules depend on other modules?  Are your module sandboxed?
  • 20.  Break your application into small single-purpose parts - modules;  Module pattern gives you implementation privacy, state and code organization;  Provide a way to handle private and public methods and variables;  Protects the code to leak into the global namespace;
  • 21. namespace.modulename = function(module) { var privateVar = 'some data'; module.init = function(){ }; module.doSomething = function(){ internalDoSomething(); }; function internalDoSomething(){ }; return module; }(namespace.modulename || {});
  • 22.  In some point there will be a need to establish module communication;  In order to avoid tight coupling we can utilize the mediator pattern;  The mediator pattern encapsulates how a set of modules interact;
  • 23.  Utilized via Pub/Sub;  Modules communicates via message publishing; ;(function ($) { var o = $({}); $.subscribe = function () { o.on.apply(o, arguments); }; $.unsubscribe = function () { o.off.apply(o, arguments); }; $.publish = function () { o.trigger.apply(o, arguments); }; } (jQuery)); $.subscribe('namespace/action', function (data) { alert(data); }); $.publish('namespace/action', 'data')
  • 24.  Wrapping it all together;  The modules publish events which inform the application that something is happening;  The modules in the system are subscribed to certain events;  The mediator enables the modules to communicate via the PubSub mechanism;
  • 25.  Utilizing the module pattern;  JavaScript coding pattern;  Module pattern implementation with anonymous closures;  Should be considered:  Every module should be part of a namespace;  Every module can contains sub modules;  What will be the global import of the module;  What will the module export;
  • 26. var namespace.module = (function (import) { var me = {}; // private property var somePrivateVar = 'Test data'; // public property me.publicProperty = 'Public data'; // private method function privateMethod() { somePrivateVar = 'executed pvt method'; } // publicmethod me.publicMethod = function () { return me.publicProperty; }; // the module export return me; }(GLOBAL_IMPORT));
  • 27.  Module inheritance can be done with module import; namespace.module = (function (baseModule) { var me = {}; // inherit the methods and properties for (key in baseModule) { if (baseModule.hasOwnProperty(key)) { me[key] = baseModule[key]; } } var base_publicMethod = baseModule.publicMethod; // public method override me.publicMethod = function () { return base_publicMethod(); }; // the module export return me; }(module));
  • 28.  Build your UI components in jQuery plugin fashion;  jQuery plugin pattern is well known and understood by most of the UI developers;  Offers simple implementation syntax and offers extensibility;
  • 29. $.fn.pluginName = function(options) { // Create some defaults, extending them with any options that were provided var settings = $.extend( { 'location' : 'top', 'background-color' : 'blue' }, options); // return the object back to the chained call flow return this.each(function() // This is the main processor // function that executes on // each selected element // (e.g: jQuery("div")) { var $this = $(this); alert($this); }); }; })(jQuery); // usage $(document).ready(function() { // create a new instance of the plugin $(‘selector’).pluginName(options); });
  • 30.  Allow communication between modules via event publishing managed by pub/sub component;  Each module can publish events, subscribe and unsubscribe to events;
  • 31. app.usermodule = (function () { var me = {}; me.onNewFriendNotificaion = function(notification){ alert(notification.from); }; me.init = function(){ $.subscribe('on-new-friend- notificaion', me.onNewFriendNotificaion); }; me.destroy = function(){ $.unsubscribe('on-new- friend-notificaion', me.onNewFriendNotificaion); }; return me; }()); app.streammodule = (function () { var me = {}; me.post = function(){ // do some client logic and notify the other modules $.publish('on-new-friend- notificaion', { from:'user' }); }; return me; }());
  • 32.  String localization;  Dates, times, numbers, and currencies;  Use jQuery Globalize plugin for Dates, times, numbers, and currencies;
  • 33.  Store string resources in JSON format so they would be native to client;  Server string resources per culture;  Build language manager for the string resources;  Load the JSON resources into the language manager;  User the language manager to translate plugins, DOM elements and strings;
  • 34.  Useful for tracking modules state, variables and processes while in development;  Natively supported in all of the new modern browsers;  Use an existing logging framework or wrap your logger around the existing browsers logger;
  • 35. var logger = function(){ var logger = {}; window.onerror = function(message, file, line) { logError(file + ':' + line + 'nn' + message); }; logger.log = function(message){ logError(message); }; function logError(message){ if(console && console.log){ console.log(message); } }; return logger; }();
  • 36.  Add style sheets in the HEAD  Add scripts at the bottom of the <BODY>  Add favicon  Create CSS sprites  Enable GZIP and static resource Caching  Minimize CSS and JavaScript files  Set cookie less domain for static resources
  • 37.  routes.IgnoreRoute("{*favicon}", new { favicon = @"(.*/)?favicon.ico(/.*)?" });
  • 38.  Put all of your icons and assets that you are using for your design into one file. Create CSS file to access the resources. You will minimize n*request per resource time that the browser would call for the separate assets.  Check out Sprite cow – http://www.spritecow.com
  • 39. <system.webServer> <staticContent> <remove fileExtension=".js" /> <remove fileExtension=".css" /> <mimeMap fileExtension=".js" mimeType="text/javascript" /> <mimeMap fileExtension=".css" mimeType="text/css" /> <clientCache cacheControlCustom="public" cacheControlMode="UseMaxAge" cacheControlMaxAge="500.00:00:00" /> </staticContent> <urlCompression doStaticCompression="true" doDynamicCompression="true" /> </system.webServer>
  • 40. @(Bundle.Css() .Add("~/Content/base.css") .Add("~/Content/CSS/Plugins/BootstrapDatepicker/daterangepicker-bs3.css") .MvcRender("~/Content/CSS/min/combined_#.css")) ------------------------ @(Bundle.JavaScript() .Add(@"~/Scripts/lib/jquery-2.0.2.min.js") .Add(@"~/Scripts/lib/jquery.slimscroll.min.js") .Add(@"~/Scripts/lib/jquery-ui-1.10.3.custom.min.js") .Add(@"~/Scripts/lib/typeahead.min.js") .Add(@"~/Scripts/lib/daterangepicker.js") .Add(@"~/Scripts/lib/moment.min.js") .MvcRender("~/Scripts/min/combined_#.js"))
  • 41.  Go to your domain hosting account and set a subdomain that point to your web application  Set your static resources to point to the subdomain to avoid cookie data transfer