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Presentation by Dr. Ellen Scully-Russ on New Media as a New Medium: Work, Learning, and Institutionalization in an Emerging Occupation

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  1. 1. Outline • Adult Education Perspective • Practice Problem • Research Problem • Research Design • Shifting Theoretical Ground • Findings
  2. 2. Adult Education Perspective Theories of Learning All theories of learning must grapple with the relationship between social structure and agency, the macro and micro processes of everyday life, and reproduction and social change (Sawchuk, 2005) Most relevant theories of learning explicitly reference a broader social theory
  3. 3. Shifting Opportunity Structures 1970’s 1990’s High Skills Medium Skills Low Skills •Erosion in the middle of the labor market •Some jobs upgraded, some de-skilled •Less experienced based advancement
  4. 4. Shifting Opportunity Structures 2000’s Domain Blended Knowledge Knowledge Capacity College +/- Multi-Skilled Basic Skills •Bifurcated labor market •What does mobility look like/how does it occur? •Nature of work: upgraded, de-skilled, how organized? What is going away/emerging(?)
  5. 5. Research Problem • Philosophers once perceived industrialization as a progressive process of historic human development. • The role of education in industrial society was to help individuals develop the will and capacity to fully participate in/develop in the industrialization process. • In the transition to post-industrial society, and in consideration of the disruptions this shift has caused, critical adult educators now debate whether and how to educate individuals for productive roles in society. • The problem is that these debates are based on a research tradition, conceptual frames, and outdated assumptions of the industrial era. • The problem is that we do not understand the nature of work and learning in post-industrial society.
  6. 6. Work, Learning & Institutionalization in Emerging Post-Industrial Occupation Purpose Problem Broaden debate: Shifting opportunity structure How people work & learn Don’t know emerging nature of work Contribute to research on nature of work Research Questions 1. What was work and learning experienced? 2. How was new work and learning and new knowledge distributed? 3. Whether and how was new work and learning institutionalized? Context Design Practice: Work-Learning, Labor Market Exploratory Case Study Theory: Developmental Theories/ New Media, DC Distributive Cognition/ Borrow from Professional Development Life History/Narrative Analysis
  7. 7. Shifting Theoretical Ground Context Progressive Neo-Liberal Commons Culture Broader Social Pragmatism /Humanism Learning Society Knowledge Society Theories Dewey, Rogers Illich, Beck, Castells Illich, Lyotard, Benkler Development: Institutionalization De-Institutionalization Cultural development How Society Professionalization Advances Humanizing institutions Role of Distribute scientific method De-couple knowledge and credentials Capacity building (convivial Education Establish social control Commodify education society) What is Change in experience A process: performance Distributive cognition Learning An outcome: i.e. competence, Sociological imagination ethical behavior Who/What Individuals and society Individuals with access to learning The distributive cognition system: Learns resources organizations also learn individuals, organizations, and develop networks, artifacts learn and develop together How Learn Habits and placidity Self-directed learning in experience Expansive learning in mediated Conjoined activities activity and practice Pedagogy Experiential learning Community of practice, Critical self Intent participation Scientific method reflection , Action science Articulated practices Social change Social justice, pluralism Consciousness Contradictions
  8. 8. What I Wanted to Know Agency Structure Changing Nature of Work and Learning Theory of Learning: Constructivist Development Context: Emerging Occupation
  9. 9. Constructivist Development The nature of an entity can be understood in the process of its development.... “for it is in movement that a body shows what it is” (Cole, 1978, p 65) Different Perspectives Social Interaction John Dewey Cognition begins with experience Experience is individual thought and action social action Experience is reciprocal Mind is social in its formation – emphasize learning processes (interaction) Cultural Development Lev Vygotsky Cognition is historic and cultural Internalized social relationships Mind is social in its formation and function Emphasize cultural process Embedded Subject Learns Consciousness
  10. 10. Context Emerging Occupation: New Media Pratt: Situated industry – convergence of industries, needs, and workforce skills in new media clusters Rosenblatt: Changing division of labor effecting nature of journalism: Them Media, Us Media, We Media Jenkins: Convergence culture and epistemology Benkler: Commons mode of production Professional Development Wilensky (1964): Professionalization follows a particular sequence of events (charting the pathway) Abbott (1991): Professionalization occurs as social actors organize to respond to social forces and opportunities (narrative analysis) Krauss (1971): Occupations as mediators of social change (role of occupation and in society – reproduce or change social order?)
  11. 11. Narrative Analysis of Individual Development Macro actions and interactions in work and learning Development themes and tensions in the stories of their work and learning over time Identity and sense of self Coherence Agency Patterns of work and learning
  12. 12. Key Narratives • Acts of imagination and praxis – researcher and researched • Performance of sense of self: Lens onto individual development • Socially situated action: Lens onto occupational development • Praxis: Creating conditions of own development • Coherence in sense of self: the meaning and how they make meaning of work and learning • My Genesis – A story of historic and personal dispositions • My Sense of Self – A story of individual development • My Field – A story of occupational development • My Narrative – A story of the broader cultural context Based on Misler, E.G., (1999)
  13. 13. Xavier: Building Up A Creditability Level Narrative Structure: Story Abstracts and Codas Play New Media in the Making Serious Tools Articulating New Media Content /Context Making the Media Maker Identity/ Creditability Revealing the Media Roles/ Models
  14. 14. PAULINE Narrative Themes Openness Community My The DC Humor DC Ambiguity List Openness Community My Kind of Openness Community Humor Ambiguity Journalism Humor Ambiguity My C- Becoming DC Spanon my kind of List ymity journalist Living Narrative Authenticity Coherence
  15. 15. Sejong: Stream of Consciousness Narrative Context Political Economy Of Media Industry Cultural Narrative: The Ether Pressure and Time Inhale Jack of All Trades Exhale My Projects ThingsNarrative The I Learned on My Own Always SEO writing Mindset Three Things at Once Uniqueness of Method Stream of Consciousness Social capital/Empowerment in PR Contextualizing Communications Stream of The Answer is Still Google Consciousness
  16. 16. Carol, The Journalist: A Narrative of the Seed The New Journalist/ Restaurateur Carol Seeking A Mother Ship The The Life Raft Producer Resistance Desire The TV Writer and Getting Models: Witness Comfortable •National Press Club Lunches The Wire •Old Time Georgetown Writer Old School Salon Journalism Models: Desire •The Journalist •The Booker Desire •The Pre Resistance • The Talent The Seed •The Blogger Models: •The vineyard (Wire) Models: •Walter – the God •Two women reporters •Charley- the Talent •High school teacher Journalism
  17. 17. Object: Sense of Self • Intention: Stabilize and Perform Fixed Identity • Themes & Tensions: – Hiding/Performing – Desire/Embrace • Coherence: In light of the past • Identity as site of struggle for meaning • Agency experienced as resistance/embrace • Learning experienced as self-directed learning from experience • Learning appeared as self-directed learning from experience – Critical reflection on conventional values, standards, norms, procedures – Watch/Rehearse: tools, role models, templates, genre – Mix voice, keen observation, perform way out, tinker, rehearse, seek feedback – Assessment: performance
  18. 18. Object: Media Practice • Intention: Position Self in the Present Day Order (both emergent) • Developmental Themes & Tensions: – Open/Close: Rules/Contingency; Naming/Contingency – Run Ahead/Claim Ground • Coherence: In light of present and anticipated future • Identity as ground • Agency experienced as ability to name/claim; tool/resource to self and others • Learning experienced as problem solving and articulated practice • Learning appeared as Reflective Practice/Community of Practice – Interactive learning with more competent peers – Contrast self with models (not ‘the model’, many models) – Real time trail and error with mediating artifacts: concepts, tools, roles – Oscillate among perspectives and horizontal positions – Chip away at perspectives: let things atrophy, leave things behind, unpack baggage – Assessment: Bootstrapping – create conditions for future personal work and learning
  19. 19. Object: Media System • Intention: Make sense of self a material reality • Developmental Themes & Tensions: – Multi-voice: narratives as well as communities – Deconstruction/Integration – Living with polarities and contradictions • Coherence: Alignment with awareness of historic moment • Agency experienced as ability to change the game • Learning experienced as individual and cultural development • Learning appeared as expansive learning and distributed cognition – Vision: link and reframing – Modeling: make and re-make – Moving up and down ladder/system/ oscillate among horizontal positions – Pragmatism – use knowledge and self like a tool – Blend domain knowledge – Assessment: Bootstrapping(dot)2: create conditions for emergent consciousness
  20. 20. New Media Media convergence is a cognitive phenomena – Decouple knowledge, skills, from subjectivities – Blend Domain Knowledge: individual, group, system – Placidly: retain, carry forward, and reform habits – Distributive cognition: bootstrapping – Articulated Praxis Media convergence is a cultural phenomena – You can make a difference – Order and rules sets you free – Capacity + ownership of tools sets you free – Participation required for collective intelligence – Expanded object: gift work, developmental play – Learning as a way of relating – Intentionally create conditions for own cognition
  21. 21. Thank you for your interest and attention.