Sexism in the workplace

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  • 1. Sexism in the Workplace
  • 2. Working Women and Men
    60% of women in the work force; 75% work full-time
    Factors that have changed the U.S. labor force
    Decline of farming
    Growth of cities
    Shrinking family size
    Rising divorce rate
  • 3.
  • 4.
  • 5. Gender and Occupations
    U.S. Department of Labor
    High concentration of women in two types of jobs
    Administrative work (“pink-collar jobs”)
    Service work (food, child care, and health care)
    Men dominate most other job categories
  • 6. Image Bank
  • 7. Gender and Occupations
    Women are kept out of certain jobs by defining some kinds of work as “masculine”
    Fewer women higher in the corporate world
  • 8. Gender, Income, and Wealth
    Women earn 77 cents for every dollar earned by men
    Differences are greater among older workers
    Older working women have typically have less education and seniority
  • 9.
  • 10.
    • Reasons for the gender pay gap
    • 11. Tracking in education
    • 12. Women are more likely to work at types of jobs that pay less.
    • 13. Women professionals, such as physicians, work fewer hours than men in same profession.
    • 14. Above factors account for about half the pay gap
    • 15. Other half may be attributed to pure gender discrimination
    • 16. The Fuller-Schoenberger Study
    • 17. Women had to have higher qualifications than men in order to be offered lower salaries!
  • Gender, Income, and Wealth
    What are the reasons given as to why women earn less than men?
    Still think of less-important jobs as “women’s work”
    Supporters of gender equality
    Propose a policy of “comparable worth”
  • 18. Gender, Income, and Wealth
    Second cause of gender-based income inequality
    Society’s view of family
    U.S. culture gives more of the responsibility of parenting to women
    Pregnancy and raising small children keep many young women out of the labor force
  • 19. Continued
    Choices women make in workplace have an effect on how much they’re paid
    Women choose positions that offer flexibility rather than high salary
    Avoid extensive overtime or business travel because of home responsibilities
    Tend to take breaks in work careers due to maternity leave or child-rearing duties
  • 20. Continued
    2007 Cornell University study
    Mothers are penalized in the workplace
    Perceived by employers as less competent and offered lower starting salaries than equally qualified childless women
    Men aren’t similarly penalized for being parents
  • 21. Housework: Women’s “Second Shift”
    How does housework present a cultural contradiction in the U.S.?
    Essential for family life
    Little rewards for doing it
    In U.S. and around the world
    Care of home and children are “women’s work”
  • 22. Housework: Women’s “Second Shift”
    Labor force reduced the amount of housework, but the share done by women remains the same
  • 23. Image Bank
  • 24. Gender, Income, and Wealth
    Third factor is discrimination against women
    Because it is illegal, it is practiced in subtle ways
    Glass ceiling prevents many women from rising above middle management
  • 25. Gender, Income, and Wealth
    Why do many people think women own most of the country’s wealth?
    Perhaps because they typically outlive men
    Government statistics say differently
    57% of people with assets of $1.5 million or more are men
    Forbes: 10% of the richest people in the U.S. are women