Story Telling Electronic portfolios Durable Learning
Contents Introduction Rationale Research questions Limitations Portfolios Methodology Discussion of Findings Summary and Implications
Introduction School -Rural – serves several small communities and native reserves. -Small – declining population. -Students – predominately first nations – Gitxsan and Wet’suwet’en. View slide
Rationale Teachers – accountability vs. student engagement. Students – disengaged, few opportunities for sharing their successes. Post Secondary institutions View slide
Research Questions Can electronic portfolios support the teacher’s need for assessment and the student’s need for deep learning? - What are the benefits to using electronic portfolios? - What are the disadvantages to using electronic portfolios? - Do the benefits outweigh the disadvantages?
Limitations One class – Comparative Civilizations 11/12 Single Teacher – limited experience with technology and portfolios. - no community of support (Barrett, 2007) Microsoft PowerPoint – program to build portfolios
- support student learning. - storing work complete and incomplete - reflection on learning - sharing reflections - support assessment of student work - support showcasing student work
Portfolios One portfolio may not adequately fulfill all these requirements. Literature (Barrett, 2007; Carney, 2004; Tosh, Light, Flemming, & Heywood,2005) suggested a system of portfolios.
Modeled after one suggested by Barrett (2007)
A working portfolio
Contained student work
Completed work was assessed by me and the students using rubrics and reflected on by students
A showcase portfolio
Students selected examples of their best work to showcase.
Mixed-Methods Methodology Quantitative supported Qualitative Qualitative: Reflective journal and interviews - contribute to education setting at school. Quantitative: a five-point Likert Scale (1 strongly disagree – 5 strongly agree). - ordinal data - median scores were taken
Data Analysis Sample: 12 students (convenience sample; 10 females and 2 males) Interviews: six semi-randomly chosen students. Questionnaires: written responses from 12 students and reflections (contained within individual artifacts) Analysis: using Nvivo and identified six themes
Themes Technology Deep Learning Organization Motivation Assessment Buy-in
Discussion of Data Can electronic portfolios support the teacher’s need for assessment and the student’s need for deep learning? - what are the benefits of electronic portfolios? - what are the disadvantages to using electronic portfolios? -do the benefits outweigh the disadvantages?
Technology Advantages tend to be student centered and disadvantages tend to be teacher centered (Montgomery & Wiley, 2004) Quantitative Data Midterm: strong agreement (5). Final (4.5) that – electronic portfolios improved ability to use technology. Midterm and Final (4) - electronic portfolios allowed students to make changes to their work.
Technology Qualitative Data Significant advantages
making changes to work
“I like that I can talk with you (the teacher) about how to make my work better and then make the changes quickly and easily.” (student written response)
Technology Barrett (2007) stated that there are unique challenges facing the single teacher. Disadvantages: - Selecting a program to build the portfolios
Providing access to reliable computers
Providing a method for reliable storage of student work.
I wrote “I am frustrated… the lack of technological support is laughable… electronic portfolios are proving to be nothing more than technological headaches.” (Journal entry)
Deep Learning Literature (Barrett, 2007; Brown, 2002; Wetzel & Strudler, 2006) suggests electronic portfolios can support deep learning. - demonstrate strengths - identify areas needing improvement - setting personal learning goals - - reflection on learning
Deep Learning Quantitative data Midterm and Final questionnaires (4) - demonstrate strengths Midterm- 11 agreed 1 uncertain Final – 6 agreed, 5 uncertain, 1 disagreed - identify areas needing improvement - set personal learning goals -use feedback to support work
Deep Learning Qualitative Data Barrett (2007) defined deep learning as being metacognitive. Students begin to understand how they learn. Reflection plays an important role. - planning, monitoring, evaluating Avraamidou and Zembal-Saul (2002) noted reflections changed over time from descriptive to explanatory.
Deep learning Early reflections “ I liked the colour choice I made in this project and my use of pictures to support my written work” “My project is not cluttered with special effects. I used them sparingly”
Deep Learning Later reflections “ …I…realize now that a powerpoint presentations would have been a better way to present this rather than an essay” “I thought I had done a good, detailed job of discussing the similarities between the Christian Ten commandments and Buddha’s teachings…I realized rather than listing the similarities I could have discussed how these commandments could have influenced the cultures of North America and India.”
Deep Learning Barrett (2007) suggested there is a dual learning curve. - learn how to use technology to build portfolios - learn how to use portfolios to support deep learning. Hindsight - support reflection by treating learning as stories to be shared with others (Barrett & Carney, 2004). - wikis and blogs may better support reflection and feedback from classmates.
Organization Two levels 1. system to store assignments 2. system to keep assignments themselves organized. Quantitative Data Midterm and Final Surveys Median response was 4 students agreed electronic portfolios helped them to take care of and keep their work organized.
Qualitative Data - problems with organization in the beginning Initial significant problems - lost work - cluttered work I wrote “ some of the portfolios were taking the shape of my students binders. Work is lost…students are wasting time looking for assignments.” Student commented “ I hate this. My work did not save. I lost everything.”
Cluttered work - special effects available in Microsoft PowerPoint and Word cluttered assignments. I wrote “It is frustrating to try to read and navigate through student work.”
Motivation Quantitative Data – median response was 4: Electronic portfolios have helped me remain interested in my work. Electronic portfolios have helped me to share my work with others. Median response fell from 4 to 3.5 in the final survey to: I will continue to use electronic portfolios.
Motivation Qualitative Initial reflective journal and interviews - students arrived to class on time - asked to take thumbdrives home - students said they liked the portfolios Course end journal and interviews - too much time spent on portfolios - technology was limiting -would not continue to use portfolios
Motivation Novelty effect New technology – perceived as exciting, favourable alternative Perceptions shift over time influenced by perceived benefits to using the technology.
Assessment Can electronic portfolios support both assessment and deep learning? Summative Assessment - Necessary for reporting purposes - Provided incentive to complete portfolios - Squelch honest reflection (Barrett, 2005; Hicks et al, 2007)
Assessment Summative - used to support learning. - assessed assignments stored in portfolios and referred back to throughout the course. “I liked the fact that I could look back on past assignments as examples to follow” (interview). Barrett and Wilkerson (2004) and Chetcuti, Murphy, and Grima (2006) suggested assessment used in this way.
Assessment Formative - dialogue between teacher and students. - reflection - self – assessment - guidance Electronic Portfolios supported discussion that was not emotionally threatening.
Assessment Electronic portfolios supported summative assessment and made formative assessment a powerful tool for supporting student learning
Buy-in Promoting the electronic portfolios to students Barrett, 2005; Hicks et al. 2005 – all suggest examples of good electronic portfolios must be given. Qualitative data Students indicated in interviews that they would have liked to have seen examples of completed portfolios.
Summary Can electronic portfolios support the teacher’s need for assessment and the student’s need for deep learning? - what are the benefits of electronic portfolios - what are the disadvantages to using electronic portfolios -do the benefits outweigh the disadvantages? Assessment: minimal emotional threat Summative – A tool that supports learning Formative – very powerful tool Deep learning: reflection - stories to be shared. sharing work – wikis, blogs
Advantages: technological skills organization motivation learning to reflect using feedback setting learning goals Disadvantages: access to reliable computers single teacher develop strategies to support reflection
Future Working portfolio – on school server and discs. - personal example Showcase portfolio – Wikis - personal example Work with other departments – English/Social studies Reflection - what - why - how - why I chose this method - how my learning can be applied in other ways.